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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Oil&Gas processing and surface facilities

01DVHNW

A.A. 2022/23

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Georesources And Geoenergy Engineering - Torino

Borrow

01RWFMW

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 48
Esercitazioni in aula 12
Tutoraggio 12
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Hernandez Ribullen Simelys Pris   Professore Associato ING-IND/27 42 0 0 0 1
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/27 6 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
2022/23
The lectures give an up-to date and fundamental knowledge on the main composition, properties and applications of crude oils and gas; as well as the main products obtained through refining and surface facility processes. Chemical, technological and sustainability aspects of the industrial processes involved in the oil and gas processing for their purification and conversion to fuels and other chemicals are considered. Computational process simulation methods are also introduced as a tool to evaluate and optimize process variables of typical oil & gas industrial technologies like distillation.
The lectures give an up-to date and fundamental knowledge on the main composition, properties and applications of crude oils and gas; as well as the main products obtained through refining and surface facility processes. Chemical, technological and sustainability aspects of the industrial processes involved in the oil and gas processing for their purification and conversion to fuels and other chemicals are considered. Computational process simulation methods are also introduced as a tool to evaluate and optimize process variables of typical oil & gas industrial technologies like distillation.
Aim of the course is to provide a basic knowledge about the chemical and technological evaluation of crude oils and its fractions to be used as raw materials for industrial processes either for fuels or chemicals production. The student will learn about the analytical, scientific and technological methods useful for the oil and gas characterization and processing and will acquire a clear picture of the surface facilities, refinery and petrochemical processes, involved in the transformation of petroleum into commercial fuels and other commodity products. Moreover, a focus will be given surface facilities for natural gas purification for its further selling. At the end of the course, it is expected that the student: knows how to characterize and identify the quality of a crude oil, either for economical or technological purposes; knows the main processes for oil and gas processing (e.g. distillation, absorption, adsorption, among others); is able to use a process simulator to perform complex mass and energy balances (e.g. of distillation units) and to optimize process conditions; has the capacity to evaluate the suitability of a hydrocarbons mixture to be used as a raw material for fuels production or for chemical transformations through petrochemical processes; is able to make a preliminary estimation of the efficiency of a process based on energy and mass balances.
Aim of the course is to provide a basic knowledge about the chemical and technological evaluation of crude oils and its fractions to be used as raw materials for industrial processes either for fuels or chemicals production. The student will learn about the analytical, scientific and technological methods useful for the oil and gas characterization and processing and will acquire a clear picture of the surface facilities, refinery and petrochemical processes, involved in the transformation of petroleum into commercial fuels and other commodity products. Moreover, a focus will be given surface facilities for natural gas purification for its further selling. At the end of the course, it is expected that the student: knows how to characterize and identify the quality of a crude oil, either for economical or technological purposes; knows the main processes for oil and gas processing (e.g. distillation, absorption, adsorption, among others); is able to use a process simulator to perform complex mass and energy balances (e.g. of distillation units) and to optimize process conditions; has the capacity to evaluate the suitability of a hydrocarbons mixture to be used as a raw material for fuels production or for chemical transformations through petrochemical processes; is able to make a preliminary estimation of the efficiency of a process based on energy and mass balances.
Student should have an average background on basic concepts of mathematics and chemistry and be skilled in the use of widespread word and data processing software like Excell.
Student should have an average background on basic concepts of mathematics and chemistry and be skilled in the use of widespread word and data processing software like Excell.
Economic, societal and environmental background of the petrol industry (3h). Crude oil and natural gas composition (6h). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons classification and properties. Functional groups and organic molecules: carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, thiols, aldehydes, ketons, amines, amides, alkyloyl chlorides, alkyl chlorides. Chemical structures. IUPAC nomenclature and trivial names. Petroleum composition and chemical classification. C/H ratio. Sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum. Naphtenic acids recovery. Inorganic components. Theoretical evaluation of the combustion heat (9h). Safety criteria in hydrocarbon handling. Flash point and flammability limits. Exercises on this matter. Crude Oils characterization methods (3h). ASTM, TBP and EFV distillation curves. Distillate yields. Mean boiling points. Key fractions. Sulphur content. Density and boiling point correlation with chemical composition. Correlation index. Property diagrams. Definition of the pseudocomponent composition from the oil distillation curve. Properties and composition of commercial gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel, lubricants, waxes and lubricants. Standard methods of characterisation. Petroleum refining (9h). Oil desalting. Principles of distillation processes. Vapour-liquid equilibrium diagrams. Ideal and real behaviour of liquid mixtures. Separation of azeotropic mixtures. Oil distillation processes at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum. Overlapping of distillation curves. Sulfur removal from gaseous and liquid fractions. Hydrocarbon conversion processes (e.g. catalytic cracking, alkylation, oligomerisation, isomerisation, catalytic reforming). Mass and Energy Balance of processes for oil purification and/or conversion. Blending and additives for commercial fractions. Olefins from thermal cracking. Aromatics by liquid-liquid extraction. Mass and Energy balances of those processes. Natural gas (NG) composition, classification and purification in surface facilities (9h). Acid gases (CO2 and Sulphur-based molecules in NG). Natural gasoline, LPG. Mass and Energy Balance of processes for natural gas purification and/or conversion. Chemical and physical processes for natural gas sweetening (removal of acid gases such as absorption, adsorption and membranes). Gas dehydration processes. Industrial chemical processes (6h). Schemes of industrial chemical processes. Separation units. Reactors. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Catalysts. Influence of temperature and pressure on conversion and yield. Examples of industrial processes for commodities production. Mass and Energy Balance of processes for chemicals production. Petrochemical industry: raw, base, intermediate and end user products. Sustainability in the oil and gas industry (3h). Industrial principles of sustainability and strategies for performing sustainable industrial processes to deal with climate change issues, based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. Simulation of industrial processes (12h) Introduction to a professional process simulation software (Aspen Plus). Set up of practical exercises (e.g. distillation). Sensitivity analysis for process optimization. Timelines are indicative and can vary based on the students needs.
Economic, societal and environmental background of the petrol industry (3h). Crude oil and natural gas composition (6h). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons classification and properties. Functional groups and organic molecules: carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, thiols, aldehydes, ketons, amines, amides, alkyloyl chlorides, alkyl chlorides. Chemical structures. IUPAC nomenclature and trivial names. Petroleum composition and chemical classification. C/H ratio. Sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds in petroleum. Naphtenic acids recovery. Inorganic components. Theoretical evaluation of the combustion heat (9h). Safety criteria in hydrocarbon handling. Flash point and flammability limits. Exercises on this matter. Crude Oils characterization methods (3h). ASTM, TBP and EFV distillation curves. Distillate yields. Mean boiling points. Key fractions. Sulphur content. Density and boiling point correlation with chemical composition. Correlation index. Property diagrams. Definition of the pseudocomponent composition from the oil distillation curve. Properties and composition of commercial gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel, lubricants, waxes and lubricants. Standard methods of characterisation. Petroleum refining (9h). Oil desalting. Principles of distillation processes. Vapour-liquid equilibrium diagrams. Ideal and real behaviour of liquid mixtures. Separation of azeotropic mixtures. Oil distillation processes at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum. Overlapping of distillation curves. Sulfur removal from gaseous and liquid fractions. Hydrocarbon conversion processes (e.g. catalytic cracking, alkylation, oligomerisation, isomerisation, catalytic reforming). Mass and Energy Balance of processes for oil purification and/or conversion. Blending and additives for commercial fractions. Olefins from thermal cracking. Aromatics by liquid-liquid extraction. Mass and Energy balances of those processes. Natural gas (NG) composition, classification and purification in surface facilities (9h). Acid gases (CO2 and Sulphur-based molecules in NG). Natural gasoline, LPG. Mass and Energy Balance of processes for natural gas purification and/or conversion. Chemical and physical processes for natural gas sweetening (removal of acid gases such as absorption, adsorption and membranes). Gas dehydration processes. Industrial chemical processes (6h). Schemes of industrial chemical processes. Separation units. Reactors. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Catalysts. Influence of temperature and pressure on conversion and yield. Examples of industrial processes for commodities production. Mass and Energy Balance of processes for chemicals production. Petrochemical industry: raw, base, intermediate and end user products. Sustainability in the oil and gas industry (3h). Industrial principles of sustainability and strategies for performing sustainable industrial processes to deal with climate change issues, based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. Simulation of industrial processes (12h) Introduction to a professional process simulation software (Aspen Plus). Set up of practical exercises (e.g. distillation). Sensitivity analysis for process optimization. Timelines are indicative and can vary based on the students needs.
In relation to the Sustainable Development Goals 9 and 13, the course will introduce the main issues related to Climate Change and the use of fossil fuels as main primary energy source. Some of the 12 principles of green chemistry will be introduced to develop sustainable industrial processes and strategies for dealing with climate change issues from the source of the main Green House Gases (GHGs, i.e. CO2 and CH4) emissions in the gas and oil industry.
In relation to the Sustainable Development Goals 9 and 13, the course will introduce the main issues related to Climate Change and the use of fossil fuels as main primary energy source. Some of the 12 principles of green chemistry will be introduced to develop sustainable industrial processes and strategies for dealing with climate change issues from the source of the main Green House Gases (GHGs, i.e. CO2 and CH4) emissions in the gas and oil industry.
Lectures are integrated with numerical exercises: students are asked to solve simple problems connected with the topics of the lesson. A cycle of computing practice is developed in a computing laboratory (LAIB) to design process units (e.g. distillation equipment) through a process simulator (Aspen Plus). Aim of the practice is to become friendly with computing software suitable to design equipment and optimize process parameters to reach designed quality of a product in the chemical industry, and in particular in the field of oil and gas processing. Evaluation of the simulation ability will be performed by analysis of a written report on the obtained results.
Lectures are integrated with numerical exercises: students are asked to solve simple problems connected with the topics of the lesson. A cycle of computing practice is developed in a computing laboratory (LAIB) to design process units (e.g. distillation equipment) through a process simulator (Aspen Plus). Aim of the practice is to become friendly with computing software suitable to design equipment and optimize process parameters to reach designed quality of a product in the chemical industry, and in particular in the field of oil and gas processing. Evaluation of the simulation ability will be performed by analysis of a written report on the obtained results.
After each lecture, related texts and eventual exercises will be available on the course site of the web. Besides the subject explained in the lesson, also chapters of technical books useful for a best comprehension and deepening of the lesson topics will be stored on the site. Materials requiring periodic updating will be available before the end of the course.
After each lecture, related texts and eventual exercises will be available on the course site of the web. Besides the subject explained in the lesson, also chapters of technical books useful for a best comprehension and deepening of the lesson topics will be stored on the site. Materials requiring periodic updating will be available before the end of the course.
ModalitÓ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
... Written test (compulsory): 50% of final mark; Oral exam (compulsory): 50% of final mark; Essay in group (Facultative) allow to enhance the final mark up of to 2 points; It is based on a written exam (2 hours) about theoretical issues, description of industrial processes and exercises of the processes explained during the course. The exam is carried out without the possibility of consultation of books or notes. Those that approve the written exam must do an oral discussion on the theoretical principles and/or description of industrial processes learned during the course. The students have the possibility to enhance the final mark by doing a report and presentation in groups about a computing assignment in ASPEN software.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilitÓ o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'UnitÓ Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione pi¨ idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
Written test (compulsory): 50% of final mark; Oral exam (compulsory): 50% of final mark; Essay in group (Facultative) allow to enhance the final mark up of to 2 points; It is based on a written exam (2 hours) about theoretical issues, description of industrial processes and exercises of the processes explained during the course. The exam is carried out without the possibility of consultation of books or notes. Those that approve the written exam must do an oral discussion on the theoretical principles and/or description of industrial processes learned during the course. The students have the possibility to enhance the final mark by doing a report and presentation in groups about a computing assignment in ASPEN software.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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