Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Geophysical Exploration and Monitoring

01DVLNW

A.A. 2022/23

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Georesources And Geoenergy Engineering - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 50
Esercitazioni in aula 12
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 18
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Socco Laura Professore Ordinario GEO/11 50 12 0 0 1
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
GEO/11
GEO/11
2
6
B - Caratterizzanti
C - Affini o integrative
Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
A12
Valutazione CPD 2022/23
2022/23
The course provides knowledge, competences and skills about the use of geophysical methods, with special focus on seismic reflection technique, in hydrocarbon exploration. The course is devoted to students with different backgrounds and it is aimed at supplying fundamental knowledge about seismic method principles and technologies, data processing and interpretation in the context of reservoir discovery, characterization and exploitation. The subject is inherently linked to reservoir modelling, drilling, petroleum geology end geomechanics.
The course provides knowledge, competences and skills about the use of geophysical methods, with special focus on seismic reflection technique, in hydrocarbon exploration and reservoir monitoring also aimed at gas storage. The course is devoted to students with different backgrounds and it is aimed at supplying fundamental knowledge about seismic method principles and technologies, data processing and interpretation in the context of reservoir discovery, characterization, exploitation and monitoring both related to hydrocarbon resources and to gas storage. The subject is inherently linked to reservoir modelling, drilling, resources geology, gas storage and geomechanics.
The fundamental knowledge provided by the course during classroom lectures concerns signal processing methods used for geophysical data processing, petrophysical properties of rocks, and the physical phenomena which are used in seismic exploration (seismic wave propagation in natural heterogeneous materials). The course will deepen the geophysical exploration techniques focusing on seismic reflection method (with regards to technical and technological aspects of land and marine data acquisition, seismic signal processing methods and seismic data interpretation). The course aims at reaching competence in simplified seismic data modelling, processing and interpretation through individual computer lab work, during which, the students will apply the fundamental knowledge concepts provided during classroom lectures and implement simple modelling and processing tools that will enable them to consolidate their basic knowledge and improve their practical skills. Seismic data interpretation skill will be developed and trained during team work using industry data.
The students will become confident about the state of the art of seismic exploration workflow and the meaning of seismic and attribute data volumes. They will acquire the technical language related to seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation. The students will be able to implement simple seismic data modelling, processing and interpretation tool through individual computer lab work, during which, they will apply the fundamental knowledge concepts provided during classroom lectures and implement modelling and processing tools that will enable them to consolidate their knowledge and improve their coding skills. The students will be able to carry out simple quantitative seismic data interpretation also thanks to team work using industry data. The students will develop critical thinking, team working attitude and technical communication sklls
Fundamental knowledge of math, physics and geology are required.
Fundamental knowledge of math, physics and geology are required. Math: fundamentals of geometry, signal processing and sampling Physics: fundamentals of continuous mechanics and wave propagation in homogeneous and heterogeneous media Geology: hydrocarbon system, main physical properties of geological formations and porous media Basic coding skills (Matlab) are desirable prerequisite. recorded material concerning fundamentals of signal processing and wave propagation are available on the course webpage
Introduction: basic concepts of geophysical methods and applications (0.5 credits); Signal processing: analog-digital signal; frequency, amplitude, phase; Fourier analysis and synthesis; main features of amplitude and phase spectr; sampling and data loggers; impulse response and convolution integral; digital filters (1 credits) Seismic waves in layered media: seismic wave equations in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic media; seismic wave propagation in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space: body and surface waves; wave fronts and Huygens principle; seismic wave propagation in layered media: seismic ray, Fermat principle and Snell law. Direct, reflected and refracted waves in layered media; the seismogram; seismic wave propagation in real media: attenuation. (1.3 credits). Seismic exploration: seismic acquisition technologies: sources, sensors, cables, data-loggers for land and marine surveys; seismic reflection: acquisition, logistic, multifold data and coverage, 2D and 3D; seismic reflection data processing: editing, filtering, static corrections, CMP sorting, deconvolution, velocity analysis, NMO correction, stacking, migration. (1.3 credits) Seismic interpretation: geological and structural interpretation, convolutional model and seismic resolution; amplitude interpretation: AVO and AVA basic principles, cross-plots and applications; seismic attributes: evolution, classification and applications; 4D seismic and reservoir monitoring. (2.5 credit) Petrophysics: physical properties of rocks: porosity, density, elastic moduli, permeability, effects of temperature and pressure gradients, effects of fluids; analytical and empirical relationships between physical properties and measured geophysical parameters. (1 credit) Inversion: forward and inverse problems in geophysics; linear inverse problems, weakly non-linear problems and strongly non-linear problems; information content of data; deterministic solution techniques: least squares, damping and regularization, data and model resolution matrices; stochastic solution techniques: Monte Carlo method, simulated annealing, neural networks and genetic algorithms; application to seismic tomography and acoustic impedance estimate. (0.4 credits)
Introduction: basic concepts of geophysical methods and applications (0.4 credits); Signal processing: analog-digital signal; frequency, amplitude, phase; Fourier analysis and synthesis; main features of amplitude and phase spectr; sampling and data loggers; impulse response and convolution integral; digital filters (0.8 credits) Seismic wave propagation in layered media: seismic wave equations in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic media; seismic wave propagation in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space: body and surface waves; wave fronts and Huygens principle; seismic wave propagation in layered media: seismic ray, Fermat principle and Snell law. Direct, reflected and refracted waves in layered media; the seismogram; seismic wave propagation in real media: attenuation. (1 credit). Seismic exploration workflow: - seismic acquisition technologies: sources, sensors, cables, data-loggers for land and marine surveys; seismic reflection: acquisition, logistic, multifold data and coverage, 2D and 3D; (0.5 credits) - seismic reflection data processing: editing, filtering, static corrections, CMP sorting, deconvolution, velocity analysis, NMO correction, stacking, migration. (0.8 credits) - seismic interpretation: geological and structural interpretation, convolutional model and seismic resolution; amplitude interpretation: AVO and AVA basic principles, cross-plots and applications; seismic attributes: evolution, classification and applications; (2.5 credits) Petrophysics: physical properties of rocks: porosity, density, elastic moduli, permeability, effects of temperature and pressure gradients, effects of fluids; analytical and empirical relationships between physical properties and measured geophysical parameters. (1 credit) 4D seismic and reservoir monitoring. (0.5) credits) Inversion: forward and inverse problems in geophysics; linear inverse problems, weakly non-linear problems and strongly non-linear problems; information content of data; deterministic solution techniques: least squares, damping and regularization, data and model resolution matrices; stochastic solution techniques: Monte Carlo method, simulated annealing, neural networks and genetic algorithms; application to seismic tomography and acoustic impedance estimate. Machine learning for data science applications (0.5 credits)
The course is 80 hours long and it is organised as follows: about 46 hours are dedicated to lectures about fundamental and technical knowledge. During lectures students are often involved with questions and exercises carried out individually but discussed with the whole group of students to assess the comprehension of principles and theory. 18 hours are dedicated to computer lab individual assignments which are carried out by the students with the supervision of the professor and/or an expert assistant. This activity has the task of developing competence and deepening the understanding of fundamental principles and methods. about 16 hours are dedicated to seminars and practical lab with the additional presence of expert instructors from industry. The practical labs are carried out in teams using real industry data and are aimed at developping ability and interpretation skills.
The course is 80 hours long and it is organised as follows: about 50 hours are dedicated to lectures about fundamental and technical knowledge. During lectures students are often involved with questions and exercises carried out individually but discussed with the whole group of students to assess the comprehension of principles and theory. 18 hours are dedicated to computer lab individual assignments which are carried out by the students with the supervision of the professor and/or an expert assistant. This activity has the task of developing competence and deepening the understanding of fundamental principles and methods. about 12 hours are dedicated to seminars and practical lab with the additional presence of expert instructors from industry. The practical labs are carried out in teams using real industry data and are aimed at developping ability and interpretation skills.
Books of reference (available at Department library): W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldart e R.E.Sheriff: Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press M.B. Dobrin, C.H. Savit: Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw-Hill O. Ylmaz: Seismic data processing, SEG. M. Bacon, R. Simm, and T. Redshaw: 3D seismic interpretation. Cambridge University Press. Material available on the web (portale della didattica): lecture slides, limited portions of reference books; scientific papers (tutorial and basic papers) as further readings, collection of exercises; homework assignments.
Books of reference (available at Department library): W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldart e R.E.Sheriff: Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press M.B. Dobrin, C.H. Savit: Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw-Hill O. Ylmaz: Seismic data processing, SEG. M. Bacon, R. Simm, and T. Redshaw: 3D seismic interpretation. Cambridge University Press. Material available on the web (portale della didattica): lecture slides and recorded lectures of previous academic years, limited portions of reference books; scientific papers (tutorial and basic papers) as further readings, collection of exercises; homework assignments.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato progettuale individuale;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Individual project;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Individual project;
The exam is aimed at evaluating knowledge, competences and skills acquired during the course. It consists on the evaluation of the computer lab assignments carried on during the course and an oral exam. The assignments 1, 2, and 3, if correctly made and delivered before deadline, will provide 1.5, 1, and 1.5 points respectively (maximum total points for the assignment 4). Assignments are not mandatory but, to be considered, at least one out of two lab class should be attended. (till 2016/17 only 2 assignment were carried out with max total point equal to 3).The points attributed to the individual assignments are added to the oral exam mark. The exam will be oral. A calendar will be defined at the exam date. The exam consists in questions and exercises of the same kind of those normally solved in class. The oral exam will be divided in 3 parts: 1) Open and closed questions or simple exercises 2) Exercise 3) Paper discussion the exam duration is about 30-40 minutes. To access exercise it is needed to pass question part and to access to paper discussion it is needed to pass questions and exercise. The final mark is composed as follows: max 25 points for part 1) and 2), from -3 to + 4 for paper discussion, only after passing part 1) 2) and 3) the assignment marks will be added. Rules during oral exams: the exam is closed book and the equation sheet provided in course material is allowed the student will need a pocket calculator and a pen the student must show his/her identification document
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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