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Automotive fluid power systems

01NHZLO

A.A. 2019/20

2018/19

Automotive fluid power systems

The subject presents and examines automotive fluid power components and systems in terms of their graphical symbols, layout, specific features, construction and operation. Students learn how to identify and interpret fluid power circuits, comprehend and explain their purpose in relation with their constitutive components. Aim of the subject is to acquaint students with methods for the analysis and critical evaluation of fluid power components and systems specific to automotive applications.

Automotive fluid power systems

The subject presents and examines automotive fluid power components and systems in terms of their graphical symbols, layout, specific features, construction and operation. Students learn how to identify and interpret fluid power circuits, comprehend and explain their purpose in relation with their constitutive components. Aim of the subject is to acquaint students with methods for the analysis and critical evaluation of fluid power components and systems specific to automotive applications.

Automotive fluid power systems

Foreword: aim of a fluid power system is to transfer power through a working fluid. In the automotive field, typical applications are steering units, breaking systems, active suspensions, variable valve actuation and much more. The design, development, testing and production of fluid power components or systems require very specific competencies, but the prerequisite is a strong and solid knowledge of the basic principles governing the generation and the control of the hydraulic power and the mutual interaction among the components. In this context, the knowledge acquired by the students upon completion of this subject involves: • to interpret a simple fluid power scheme according to the ISO standard 1219, • to identify the main fluid power components, their specific function and operation, • to know the fundamental equations for the evaluation of the flow rate, pressure, speed, torque and power, • to identify and quantify the sources of power dissipation in a fluid power system and evaluate the efficiency, • to learn the working principle of the main automotive fluid power systems and components, • to learn the basics of some commercial tools for the simulation of fluid power circuits. With the skills acquired during the course, students should be able to: • design a simple layout of a fluid power system, • select and size the correct component (pump, actuator, valve) to achieve a specified function, • analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the different working modes of a fluid power circuit, • understand the working principle of the following fluid power systems: - hydraulic steering units for passenger cars and off-road vehicles, - electrohydraulic breaking systems, - closed circuit hydrostatic transmissions, - lubricating circuits for internal combustion engines.

Automotive fluid power systems

Foreword: aim of a fluid power system is to transfer power through a working fluid. In the automotive field, typical applications are steering units, breaking systems, active suspensions, variable valve actuation and much more. The design, development, testing and production of fluid power components or systems require very specific competencies, but the prerequisite is a strong and solid knowledge of the basic principles governing the generation and the control of the hydraulic power and the mutual interaction among the components. In this context, the knowledge acquired by the students upon completion of this subject involves: • to interpret a simple fluid power scheme according to the ISO standard 1219, • to identify the main fluid power components, their specific function and operation, • to know the fundamental equations for the evaluation of the flow rate, pressure, speed, torque and power, • to identify and quantify the sources of power dissipation in a fluid power system and evaluate the efficiency, • to learn the working principle of the main automotive fluid power systems and components, • to learn the basics of some commercial tools for the simulation of fluid power circuits. With the skills acquired during the course, students should be able to: • design a simple layout of a fluid power system, • select and size the correct component (pump, actuator, valve) to achieve a specified function, • analyse qualitatively and quantitatively the different working modes of a fluid power circuit, • understand the working principle of the following fluid power systems: - hydraulic steering units for passenger cars and off-road vehicles, - electrohydraulic breaking systems, - closed circuit hydrostatic transmissions, - lubricating circuits for internal combustion engines.

Automotive fluid power systems

Awareness of basic concepts covered in Physics and Fluid Mechanics.

Automotive fluid power systems

Awareness of basic concepts covered in Physics and Fluid Mechanics.

Automotive fluid power systems

Main topics are the following: • Fundamentals of Fluid Power (8 hours). ISO standard 1219, fluid properties, functional blocks. • Positive displacement pumps and motors (8 hours): different designs, real steady-state characteristics flow-pressure and flow-speed, instantaneous flow rate and torque, volumetric and mechanical-hydraulic efficiencies, flow and torque losses models, evaluation of the displacement. Controls for displacement variation. • Fluid Power valves (6 hours): on-off directional control valves; flow and pressure control valves (pressure relief, pressure reducing, sequence, two-port and three-port flow control), single and double stage; ideal and real performance characteristics; analysis of real components. • Accumulators (1 hour): types and their dimensioning criteria. • Flow generating units (5 hours): constant and variable flow rate, for open and closed circuits; constant pressure; ideal and real performance characteristics. • Hydrostatic steering systems for passenger cars and off-road vehicles (8 hours): working principles, mechanical position feedback, analysis of sections of the rotary valves, fixed and variable displacement pumps. • Hydrostatic braking systems (7 hours): brake booster, vacuum pump, tandem master cylinder, ABS modules (from 2S to 8). The ESP integration for lateral stability. • Hydrostatic transmissions (4 hours): transmission ratio and torque ratio, characteristics of primary variable-secondary fixed, primary fixed-secondary variable, primary variable-secondary variable versions, total efficiency, corner power and torque conversion range. • Hydraulic valve train (1 hour): hydraulic lash adjusters, variable valve actuation. • ICE lubrication systems (6 hours): layout (wet and dry sump solutions), oil path and pressure distribution inside the crankshaft; journal bearings: pressure distribution (Sommerfeld and Ockvirk bearings), load capacity, through flow; cooling jets; fluid conditioning group; lubricating pumps, fixed and variable displacement, with discrete pressure controls; evaluation of the pressure and flow rate through the circuit as function of oil temperature and engine speed. Basic properties of the lubricants. • Lumped parameter simulation of fluid power components (6 hours).

Automotive fluid power systems

Main topics are the following: • Fundamentals of Fluid Power (8 hours). ISO standard 1219, fluid properties, functional blocks. • Positive displacement pumps and motors (8 hours): different designs, real steady-state characteristics flow-pressure and flow-speed, instantaneous flow rate and torque, volumetric and mechanical-hydraulic efficiencies, flow and torque losses models, evaluation of the displacement. Controls for displacement variation. • Fluid Power valves (6 hours): on-off directional control valves; flow and pressure control valves (pressure relief, pressure reducing, sequence, two-port and three-port flow control), single and double stage; ideal and real performance characteristics; analysis of real components. • Accumulators (1 hour): types and their dimensioning criteria. • Flow generating units (5 hours): constant and variable flow rate, for open and closed circuits; constant pressure; ideal and real performance characteristics. • Hydrostatic steering systems for passenger cars and off-road vehicles (8 hours): working principles, mechanical position feedback, analysis of sections of the rotary valves, fixed and variable displacement pumps. • Hydrostatic braking systems (7 hours): brake booster, vacuum pump, tandem master cylinder, ABS modules (from 2S to 8). The ESP integration for lateral stability. • Hydrostatic transmissions (4 hours): transmission ratio and torque ratio, characteristics of primary variable-secondary fixed, primary fixed-secondary variable, primary variable-secondary variable versions, total efficiency, corner power and torque conversion range. • Hydraulic valve train (1 hour): hydraulic lash adjusters, variable valve actuation. • ICE lubrication systems (6 hours): layout (wet and dry sump solutions), oil path and pressure distribution inside the crankshaft; journal bearings: pressure distribution (Sommerfeld and Ockvirk bearings), load capacity, through flow; cooling jets; fluid conditioning group; lubricating pumps, fixed and variable displacement, with discrete pressure controls; evaluation of the pressure and flow rate through the circuit as function of oil temperature and engine speed. Basic properties of the lubricants. • Lumped parameter simulation of fluid power components (6 hours).

Automotive fluid power systems

Automotive fluid power systems

Automotive fluid power systems

The subject is made up of theoretical lectures (the attendance is highly recommended), applied lectures and laboratory sessions. In the applied lectures, some numerical exercises are solved with the assistance of the teacher and the components/circuits used for the laboratory experiences are explained. During the semester, five additional numerical exercises will be progressively proposed on the Didactic Web Portal of the Politecnico. This homework must be downloaded and solved individually, according to explicit rules, by all students. The purpose of the homework is twofold: a self-assessment of acquired knowledge and competence; a training route toward the final written test. When successfully registering the exam, students have to hand in the complete set of their own homework. Two mandatory sessions of laboratory work (1.5 hours each) are carried out at the Fluid Power Research Laboratory (Main Campus): • Pumps/motors and didactic test rig: various positive displacement pumps and motors (external and internal gear, axial and radial piston and vane machines) of different manufacturers are disassembled, analysed and contrasted to understand and appraise their peculiarities and mode of operation. Finally a simple hydraulic circuit is used on a didactic test rig. • Steering servo systems and electro-hydraulic braking systems: the main components are disassembled and analysed. Four mandatory sessions of simulation work (1.5 hours each) are carried out. Briefly introducing simulation environments (Simcentre Amesim and GT-SUITE), problems in modelling and simulation of simple components and systems are presented. Students have the opportunity to perform simulations to gain direct experience of the approach and gain perception of the involved potentials. A written report about the simulation experiences must be prepared and presented at the examination. Finally, students are invited (optional activity) to reproduce on their own some simple hydraulic circuits using the free Student Edition of Amesim; some examples of simulation are shown during the lectures.

Automotive fluid power systems

The subject is made up of theoretical lectures (the attendance is highly recommended), applied lectures and laboratory sessions. In the applied lectures, some numerical exercises are solved with the assistance of the teacher and the components/circuits used for the laboratory experiences are explained. During the semester, five additional numerical exercises will be progressively proposed on the Didactic Web Portal of the Politecnico. This homework must be downloaded and solved individually, according to explicit rules, by all students. The purpose of the homework is twofold: a self-assessment of acquired knowledge and competence; a training route toward the final written test. When successfully registering the exam, students have to hand in the complete set of their own homework. Two mandatory sessions of laboratory work (1.5 hours each) are carried out at the Fluid Power Research Laboratory (Main Campus): • Pumps/motors and didactic test rig: various positive displacement pumps and motors (external and internal gear, axial and radial piston and vane machines) of different manufacturers are disassembled, analysed and contrasted to understand and appraise their peculiarities and mode of operation. Finally a simple hydraulic circuit is used on a didactic test rig. • Steering servo systems and electro-hydraulic braking systems: the main components are disassembled and analysed. Four mandatory sessions of simulation work (1.5 hours each) are carried out. Briefly introducing simulation environments (Simcentre Amesim and GT-SUITE), problems in modelling and simulation of simple components and systems are presented. Students have the opportunity to perform simulations to gain direct experience of the approach and gain perception of the involved potentials. A written report about the simulation experiences must be prepared and presented at the examination. Finally, students are invited (optional activity) to reproduce on their own some simple hydraulic circuits using the free Student Edition of Amesim; some examples of simulation are shown during the lectures.

Automotive fluid power systems

In order to avoid students to print on their own the didactic material, the entire set of slides used during the semester in high quality B/W printed form will be available at the beginning of the didactic term: • Nervegna, Rundo: Automotive Fluid Power Systems, Epics Edizioni, Collana Politeko, Torino. ISBN 978-88-94802-06-1. New improved and corrected reprints are available yearly at the end of February. Moreover, blocks of slides (with possible minor updates) will be progressively made available only to enrolled students on the Didactic Web Portal in electronic and colour version at the end of the lectures. However students are strongly invited to integrate the material with their own notes. A glossary with the main Fluid Power terms will be also uploaded on the Web Portal. For additional insight into specific topics, reference is made to the following material (in Italian): • Nervegna: Oleodinamica e pneumatica: Sistemi. Vol. 1, Politeko, Torino • Nervegna: Oleodinamica e pneumatica: Componenti. Vol. 2, Politeko, Torino • Gilardino: Esercizi di Oleodinamica, Clut, Torino Some additional information (bibliography, links, animations) can be found on the official web site of the Fluid Power Laboratory (http://www.fprl.polito.it).

Automotive fluid power systems

In order to avoid students to print on their own the didactic material, the entire set of slides used during the semester in high quality B/W printed form will be available at the beginning of the didactic term: • Nervegna, Rundo: Automotive Fluid Power Systems, Epics Edizioni, Collana Politeko, Torino. ISBN 978-88-94802-06-1. New improved and corrected reprints are available yearly at the end of February. Moreover, blocks of slides (with possible minor updates) will be progressively made available only to enrolled students on the Didactic Web Portal in electronic and colour version at the end of the lectures. However students are strongly invited to integrate the material with their own notes. A glossary with the main Fluid Power terms will be also uploaded on the Web Portal. For additional insight into specific topics, reference is made to the following material (in Italian): • Nervegna: Oleodinamica e pneumatica: Sistemi. Vol. 1, Politeko, Torino • Nervegna: Oleodinamica e pneumatica: Componenti. Vol. 2, Politeko, Torino • Gilardino: Esercizi di Oleodinamica, Clut, Torino Some additional information (bibliography, links, animations) can be found on the official web site of the Fluid Power Laboratory (http://www.fprl.polito.it).

Automotive fluid power systems

Modalitΰ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova orale facoltativa;

Automotive fluid power systems

Automotive fluid power systems

Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Optional oral exam;

Automotive fluid power systems

The aim of the exam is to assess the acquired knowledge and the skills listed in the section “Expected Learning Outcomes”. It is mandatory to book the exam on the didactic Web Portal; the booking must be cancelled if, for any reason, the student cannot (or no longer wish to) attend the exam. The final exam is made up of a written test and an oral test (optional or mandatory). The written exam (2 hours) involves numerical evaluations on a proposed problem (max 15 points) as well as theoretical open-ended questions on all concepts and principles exposed during the lectures and laboratory sessions (max 15 points). In the numerical exercise, typically with 5 questions, the progressive stages of all calculations must be shown: any formula used, how the numbers are substituted into the formula and the final result in the requested unit. The answer is considered fully correct only if the formula used and the final result are both correct. In theoretical questions (2 or 3), candidates must be able to explain the working principle of a component or of a system, to discuss about advantages and drawbacks of different solutions, to derive analytic governing equations, to obtain the theoretical and real steady-state characteristics and to draw the basic hydraulic circuits using the correct standard symbols. The test is a “NO BOOK EXAM”: the use of personal notes, books and manuals in any form (hard copies and electronic versions) is strictly forbidden. Candidates can have on the desk only blank sheets, writing instruments, a scientific calculator and optionally an English dictionary. Mobile phones and other electronic devices must remain switched off throughout the test. Some examples of written tests with solutions will be available on the Didactic Web Portal before the end of the semester. For those who reach in the written test a mark in the range: • above 20/30, the oral examination is optional, • from 15/30 to 20/30, an additional oral examination is required to pass the exam, • below 15/30, the exam is failed. In case of withdrawal from the written test (it is possible at any time), the exam paper has to be returned and the exam will be recorded as failed. Students who have potentially passed the exam (mark in the written test > 20/30) can retake the exam if not satisfied with the mark (the exam will be recorded as failed). Appropriate actions will be taken against students who use any unauthorised source of information, communicate or share written material with other candidates, attempt to read other candidates’ work. In case of misconduct, at discretion of the Exam Board: • the answer to some questions can be nullified (0 points will be assigned) • the student could be expelled from the exam room (the exam will be recorded as failed). In case of oral exam, the final mark will be the average between oral (max 30 points) and written (max 30 points) part. If the combined mark is < 18/30 the exam is failed and it will be necessary to retake the written test, otherwise the exam is passed. The oral exam (typically 2 or 3 questions) will focus on lectures and laboratory topics in a similar manner as the theoretical questions in the written test. The duration of the oral exam is strictly related to the preparation of the student. The mark will take into account the completeness/correctness of the answers, as well as the ability of discussing critically the topics. The students must also hand in the homework/report on the day of the oral exams. No additional point will be awarded for the homework. On the contrary, a penalty up to 2 points can be applied on the final mark in case of incomplete homework. The mark “30 cum laude” can be obtained in case of an outstanding exam (written only or written+oral) demonstrating a very deep knowledge of the subject. The oral exam can be required at the discretion the Exam Board, regardless of the mark of the written test, in case of: • unjustified absences in the mandatory laboratory experiences, • suspicion of student misconduct during the written test.

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