01NLDJM

A.A. 2023/24

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Course structure

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Teachers

Teacher | Status | SSD | h.Les | h.Ex | h.Lab | h.Tut | Years teaching |
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Teaching assistant

Context

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2022/23

The course, divided into two parts, aims to provide:
- The main concepts about analysis of electrical and magnetic circuit with particular attention to aspects of DC and low frequency;
- Methodological bases for understanding the operating principles and key operational concepts of electromechanical equipment and in general a rational, proper and safe use of electrical equipment;
- The operating principles and tools to evaluate the performance of the main electrical machinery, in view of their application in industrial processes

The course is divided into two integrated and coordinated modules . It aims at providing:
- the main concepts about analysis of electrical and magnetic circuit with particular attention to aspects of DC and low frequency;
- the methodological bases for understanding the operating principles and key operational concepts of electromechanical equipment and in general a rational, proper and safe use of electrical equipment;
- the operating principles and tools to evaluate the performance of the main electrical machinery, in view of their application in industrial processes

Knowledge of methods to perform circuit analysis in electrical engineering.
Knowledge of the principles of main electro-mechanical equipment and electrical machinery used in industrial
Knowledge of criteria for use and application fields of the electrical machinery.
Ability to analyze electrical circuits operating under steady currents
Ability to analyze and evaluate the performance of electric machines
Ability to make the choice of the appropriate electrical equipment to be included in mechanical systems.

Module: Electrical Machines
Knowledge of the principles of main electro-mechanical equipment and electrical machinery used in industrial environment
Knowledge of criteria for use and application fields of the electrical machinery
Ability to analyze and evaluate the performance of electric machines
Ability to make the choice of the appropriate electrical equipment to be included in mechanical systems.

Knowledge of ordinary differential equations, complex numbers and basic concepts of electromagnetism

Module: Electrical Machines
Knowledge of the content of Introduction to Electrical Engineering module

Introduction to Electrical Engineering
Lectures
PART I: PRELIMINARIES (6h)
Basic definitions (2h)
• models
• electrical engineering and lumped circuit models: hypotheses
• electrical components and terminals, two-terminal components
• current e ammeter
• voltage and voltmeter
• passive and active sign convention
• electrical power (wattmeter) and energy, passivity
Topology (1h)
• operative definitions: node, branch, loop, mesh, graph
• Kirchhoff’s current law (surface, node)
• Kirchhoff’s voltage law (closed path, mesh)
Two-terminal components and constitutive equations (2h)
• constitutive equations
• classifications: control type, linearity, time invariance
• passive elements
1. resistor (resistance, conductance), short circuit, open circuit, ideal switch
2. electric energy and capacitor
3. magnetic energy and inductor
• active elements
1. voltage generator
2. current generator
Solution of the fundamental problem of circuit theory (1h)
• definition
• linearly independent equations: KCL, KVL constitutive equations
• method of sparse tableau
• adynamic networks (algebraic equations), dynamic (differential equations), order of a network
PART II: ADYNAMIC CIRCUITS (8h)
Special methods for the solution of electrical circuits (8h)
• equivalence principle
• series and parallel connection
1. definitions
2. series of resistors and voltage division
3. parallel of resistors and current division
4. examples
5. series of generators
6. parallel of generators
• star and delta connection
• superposition principle (proof)
• Millman’s theorem (proof)
• Thevenin’s equivalent circuit (proof)
• Norton’s equivalent circuit (proof)
• Tellegen’s theorem
• Maximum power transfer
PARTE III: DYNAMIC CIRCUITS (16h)
Transient analysis (4h)
• constitutive equations of capacitor and inductor
• series and parallel connection of capacitors and inductors
• solutions of differential equations with constant coefficients: outline
1. associated homogeneous equations
2. particular solution
3. initial conditions
• first order differential equations
1. free and forced evolution
2. transient and permanent evolution
• RC circuit
• RL circuit
• Solution of first order circuits with constant inputs (Thevenin, Norton)
• switches
Sinusoidal steady state (8h)
• (summary of complex number algebra)
• sinusoidal waveforms
• phasor of a sinusoidal waveform
• properties of phasors
• topological and constitutive equations in phasor domain
• impedance, admittance and generalized Ohm’s law
• generalization of principles and theorems in phasor domain
• maximum power transfer in AC
• phasor diagram
• frequency response
• power in sinusoidal steady state
1. instantaneous power
2. real and reactive power
3. complex and apparent power
• Boucherot’s law
• power factor correction of inductive single-phase loads
• non sinusoidal periodic regime
Three-phase circuits (4h)
• origin
• definition: balanced and unbalanced three phase circuits, line (line-to-line) phase (line-to-neutral) voltages
• star and delta connected loads
• series and parallel connection of loads
• single phase equivalent circuit
• power
• power factor correction: star and delta connection of capacitors
• connection of single-phase loads to three-phase circuits
• suitability of three-phase systems
1. cost effectiveness
2. constant instantaneous power
Practice lessons
Practice # 1
KVL and KCL
Constitutive equations
General solution of electric circuits
Practice # 2
Evaluation of equivalent resistances
Solution of circuits by using voltage and current division
Practice # 3
Use of superposition principle
Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits
Millman’s theorem
Practice # 4
Transient analysis
Practice # 5
Sinusoidal steady state analysis of circuits in phasor domain
Practice # 6
Sinusoidal steady state: method of power balance
Practice # 7
Analysis of three-phase circuits
Electrical Machines
Lectures
Introduction (1 h)
• Ampere law. Magnetic flux. Lenz and Lorentz laws. Fundamental laws.
Materials (3 h)
• Soft and hard magnetic materials. Iron losses.
• Conductors and insulators.
Magnetic circuits (3 h)
• Electromagnet. Magnetic reluctance.
• Permanent magnets.
• Circuits with permanent magnets.
Thermal aspects (2 h)
• Simplified thermal model. Thermal transients.
• Types of services.
Transformer (9 h)
• Realization aspects. Ideal transformer: working principle.
• Real transformer.
• Equivalent circuit
• Equivalent circuit under sinusoidal supply. Vector diagram.
• Equivalent circuit parameters: no load and short circuit tests
• Voltage drop. Efficiency
• Parallel.
• Three phase transformer
Asynchronous machine (8 h)
• Rotating magnetic field
• Realization aspects. Wounded rotor and cage rotor
• Working principle. Comparison with transformer
• Energetic balance.
• Mechanical characteristic.
• Determination of parameters.
• Losses and efficiency
• Speed regulation
DC machine (8 h)
• Realization aspects. Rotor
• Working principle. Torque and emf generation
• Machine equations
• Equivalent circuit
• Separately excited machine. Mechanical characteristic
• Speed regulation
• Series excited machine. Mechanical characteristic. Commutation.
Practice lessons
Magnetic circuits (2 h)
Numeric examples
Thermal aspects (2 h)
Numerical evaluation of the temperature in the machines.
Transformer (5 h)
Determination of parameters of the equivalent circuit
Operation with load connected
Three phase transformer
Asyncronous machine (6 h)
Determination of parameters.
Determination of parameters and working conditions
DC machine (4 h)
Evaluation of torque and power in separately excited machines
Evaluation of torque and power in series excited machines

Module: Electrical Machines
Lectures
Introduction (1 h)
• Ampere law. Magnetic flux. Lenz and Lorentz laws. Fundamental laws.
Materials (3 h)
• Soft and hard magnetic materials. Iron losses.
• Conductors and insulators.
Magnetic circuits (3 h)
• Electromagnet. Magnetic reluctance.
• Permanent magnets.
• Circuits with permanent magnets.
Thermal aspects (2 h)
• Simplified thermal model. Thermal transients.
• Types of services.
Transformer (9 h)
• Realization aspects. Ideal transformer: working principle.
• Real transformer.
• Equivalent circuit
• Equivalent circuit under sinusoidal supply. Vector diagram.
• Equivalent circuit parameters: no load and short circuit tests
• Voltage drop. Efficiency
• Parallel.
• Three phase transformer
Asynchronous machine (8 h)
• Rotating magnetic field
• Realization aspects. Wounded rotor and cage rotor
• Working principle. Comparison with transformer
• Energetic balance.
• Mechanical characteristic.
• Determination of parameters.
• Losses and efficiency
• Speed regulation
DC machine (8 h)
• Realization aspects. Rotor
• Working principle. Torque and emf generation
• Machine equations
• Equivalent circuit
• Separately excited machine. Mechanical characteristic
• Speed regulation
• Series excited machine. Mechanical characteristic. Commutation.
Practice lessons
Magnetic circuits (2 h)
Numeric examples
Thermal aspects (2 h)
Numerical evaluation of the temperature in the machines.
Transformer (5 h)
Determination of parameters of the equivalent circuit
Operation with load connected
Three phase transformer
Asyncronous machine (6 h)
Determination of parameters.
Determination of parameters and working conditions
DC machine (4 h)
Evaluation of torque and power in separately excited machines
Evaluation of torque and power in series excited machines

Introduction to Electrical Engineering
The lectures are given in the traditional mode by using the blackboard. Practice lessons consist in the numerical solution of exercises proposed by the lecturer.
Electrical machines
The lectures will be held with the use of powerpoint slides previously transferred to the students.
Practice lessons will consist in the solution of numerical exercises.

Module: Electrical machines
The lectures will be held with the use of powerpoint slides previously transferred to the students.
Practice lessons will consist in the solution of numerical exercises.

Introduction to Electrical Engineering
• Canova, Gruosso, "Introduction to Electrical Circuits", Progetto Leonardo, 2008
• Giorgio Rizzoni, "Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering", 5/e, McGraw-Hill, 2007
Additional resources: slides of prof. Repetto course, available on the official website.
Note: I recommend to take your own notes during class hours and metabolize the subject using the textbooks and slides as learning aids.
Electrical machines
• Ned Mohan, "Electric machines and drives: a first course", Wiley, 2012
• Slides of the course, available on the Portale della Didattica website.
• Exercises to be solved in the classroom.

Module: Electrical machines
• Ned Mohan, "Electric machines and drives: a first course", Wiley, 2012
• Slides of the course, available on the Portale della Didattica website.
• Exercises to be solved in the classroom.

...
The two modules have a common exam made of two parts. The written exam consists in the solution of four exercises, two each module, in approximately two hours.
Topics of the exercises are: analysis of circuits in steady state (DC and AC), transients, single and three phase circuits, magnetic circuits, evaluation of the working conditions of transformers, asynchronous and DC machines.
It is possible to use a scientific calculator and the official formula sheet uploaded on the course website. Candidates with positive scores (≥ 18/30, with a minimum of 8 in each of the 2 subjects) have access to the mandatory oral examination, consisting in the discussion of the exercises, and in theoretical questions on the main subjects of the course. A collection of past exams with solutions is available on the course website.

Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.

The modules are integrated and coordinated, thus there is a common exam with the following assessment methods and criteria.
Description
The exam includes a written test and an optional oral test. The oral test can be requested according to the rules described below.
The written exam will be given at the scheduled date and time, as communicated to students and will consist of two parts: Introduction to Electrical Engineering and Electrical Machines. Each part has a maximum score of 16 points.
Each part has
1. a first part with 4 quizzes related to the theory lessons. These questions can be multiple-choice quizzes with four options and only one correct answer and/or short numerical quizzes where the answer is a single number to be provided with a given tolerance. The students will earn 1 point for every correct answer for a total of 4 points.
2. Solution of two written exercises (similar to those solved during the weekly in the practices) where both the procedure and the results will be corrected. The students will earn 12 points for every completely correct exercise.
The total score for every module is 16. The final score is the arithmetic sum of the partial scores of the two modules.
Permissible and non-permissible aids
During the exam it is possible to use
* a scientific calculator
* pen, pencil, drafting instruments
* blank A4 sheets (max of 3 pages) for the written exercise to be scanned and uploaded as previously described)
* The exam is a “closed book” examination: no book or formula sheet is admitted.
* Everything that is not officially allowed, must be considered as a non-permissible aid.
Cheating is a serious academic offense. Students discovered engaging in such behavior during the exam shall earn a failing grade and their case shall be reported to the Academic authorities for further disciplinary actions.
Duration
The duration of each module is 120 minutes (160 for students with special needs)
Grading
The exam is failed if any of the following is verified
* partial score lower than 2 points for the quiz part of each module
* partial score lower than 5 points for the exercise part of each module
* total score lower than 16 of the two modules combined
Oral Exam
Candidates with a positive total score have access to the optional oral examination that consists of a 1 or 2 questions related to the course program of both modules. In this case, the final score is the mean value of the written and oral exam. To access the written and oral exam, it is necessary to independently apply through the official registration website.
The oral exam is
* mandatory for students with a non sufficient total score (16 or 17 points)
* mandatory in case of doubts regarding the written exam. In these cases the Students will be informed a few days after the written test
* upon request of the Students
A few days after the written exam the grades will be notified and students will be requested to fill out a form with the following choices
* I accept the grade of the written exam
* I ask to give an oral exam
* I withdraw my exam (in this case a fail grade will be registered)
Lode (honors)
If the final score is larger than 31 and (logic and) the student took the oral exam, the final score is 30L

In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.

© Politecnico di Torino

Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino, ITALY

Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino, ITALY