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Electronics for embedded systems

01NWMOQ, 01NWMOV

A.A. 2022/23

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Elettronica (Electronic Engineering) - Torino
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Informatica (Computer Engineering) - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 70
Esercitazioni in aula 15
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 15
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Passerone Claudio Professore Associato ING-INF/01 70 15 15 0 13
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-INF/01 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria elettronica
2022/23
Required course for the Embedded System curriculum, jointly held between Electronics Engineering and Computer Science master degree programs, in the first didactic period of the first academic year. The course aims to describe and test the major digital and analog blocks on a board and to identify key issues relating to their communication. In particular, it describes the main micro-architectural structures for the processing, control and storage of data and will make a practical description in the laboratory. Problems related to communication between blocks on the board (use of interfaces for complex communications systems, communication standards, etc…) are analysed and experimented in the laboratory. It outlines issues and will explore the use of different complex programmable and embedded systems on boards based on microprocessor or microcontrollers, FPGAs and current peripheral devices.
Required course for the Embedded System curriculum, jointly held between Electronics Engineering and Computer Science master degree programs, in the first didactic period of the first academic year. The course aims to describe and test the major digital and analog blocks on a board and to identify key issues relating to their communication. In particular, it describes the main micro-architectural structures for the processing, control and storage of data and will make a practical description in the laboratory. Problems related to communication between blocks on the board (use of interfaces for complex communications systems, communication standards, etc…) are analysed and experimented in the laboratory. It outlines issues and will explore the use of different complex programmable and embedded systems on boards based on microprocessor or microcontrollers, FPGAs and current peripheral devices.
• Knowledge of various types of amplifier stages and their applications; analysis and circuit design capabilities, with selection of components to evaluate the effects of various design choices. • Knowledge of existing memory types: type, access methods, physical model, interfaces, hierarchy; ability to choose based on cost / area / performance. • Knowledge of the architecture of high performance PLDs and FPGAs: internal architecture, design flow, optimizations for power consumption, size, speed. • Capacity to design digital operational units, to describe them in VHDL language, to simulate the behaviour and to implement them according to specifications (synthesis on programmable device, high-level programming on microprocessors, ...). • Knowledge of the structure of the main peripherals used: digital I/O, buffering strategies, timing systems, synchronous and asynchronous communication systems; ability to choose appropriate methodologies for implementation and interfacing. • Capacity to define the necessary blocks in an embedded system starting from a specification and to define the design constraints (microprocessor/microcontroller, memories, programmable devices, power systems, conversion systems, peripherals, bus) and their interfacing. • Knowledge of issues relating to interconnections: technologies, synchronous and asynchronous protocols, performance evaluation. • Knowledge of various types of A/D and D/A converters, their characteristics and associated circuits; ability to choose analog integrated components and design of the required circuits for their use and interfacing. • Knowledge of the characteristics of different types of voltage regulators, switching and dissipative, and criteria for selection of active and passive components; ability to design low power regulators.
• Knowledge of various types of amplifier stages and their applications; analysis and circuit design capabilities, with selection of components to evaluate the effects of various design choices. • Knowledge of existing memory types: type, access methods, physical model, interfaces, hierarchy; ability to choose based on cost / area / performance. • Knowledge of the architecture of high performance PLDs and FPGAs: internal architecture, design flow, optimizations, size, speed. • Capacity to design digital operational units, to describe them in VHDL language, to simulate the behaviour and to implement them according to specifications (synthesis on programmable device, high-level programming on microprocessors, ...). • Knowledge of the structure of the main peripherals used: digital I/O, buffering strategies, timing systems, synchronous and asynchronous communication systems; ability to choose appropriate methodologies for implementation and interfacing. • Capacity to define the necessary blocks in an embedded system starting from a specification and to define the design constraints (microprocessor/microcontroller, memories, programmable devices, power systems, conversion systems, peripherals, bus) and their interfacing. • Knowledge of issues relating to interconnections: technologies, synchronous and asynchronous protocols, performance evaluation. • Knowledge of various types of A/D and D/A converters, their characteristics and associated circuits; ability to choose analog integrated components and design of the required circuits for their use and interfacing. • Knowledge of the characteristics of different types of voltage regulators, switching and dissipative, and criteria for selection of active and passive components; ability to design low power regulators.
Principles of digital electronics, corresponding to basics digital and analog courses in the bachelor degree program. In particular, combinational and sequential circuits and basics analog stages, complex processing architectures at the system level, the VHDL hardware description language, the programming model for microprocessors, DSPs and microcontrollers.
Principles of digital electronics, corresponding to basics digital and analog courses in the bachelor degree program. In particular, combinational and sequential circuits and basics analog stages, complex processing architectures at the system level, the VHDL hardware description language, the programming model for microprocessors, DSPs and microcontrollers.
1) Embedded systems (0,5 CFU) a) Definition, classification and examples b) Design metrics (costs, performance, time to market) c) Anatomy of an embedded system and summary of course topics 2) Operational amplifier with feedback reminders (0,5 CFU) a) Amplifiers and filters b) Comparators 3) Memories (1 CFU) a) ROM, OTPROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash b) Static and dynamic RAMs c) Timing diagrams d) Memory composition and microprocessor interfacing e) Memory hierarchies and caches 4) Programmable logic (1,5 CFU) a) Programmable devices: PAL, PLA, CPLD b) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) c) Technologies for FPGA d) Design flow e) FPGA resources (memories, multipliers, PLL, clock) f) IP selection, use and applications 5) Input/Output (1,5 CFU) a) Reminders on serial and parallel protocols, delays, skew b) Synchronous transmission and clock data recovery c) Examples: UART, SPI, I2C, CAN, USB d) Interconnection and signal integrity problems 6) Processor peripherals (2 CFU) a) General introduction to embedded processors and their peripherals b) Internal structure, address decoders, configuration registers c) Microprocessor interfacing: polling, interrupt, DMA d) Communication bus: AMBA 7) A/D and D/A conversion (1,5 CFU) a) Reminders on A/D and D/A conversion systems, sampling, aliasing, quantization, errors, ENOB b) D/A converters (classification, parameters, linear and non-linear errors) c) D/A converter circuits d) A/D converters (classification, static and dynamic parameters, linear and non-linear errors) e) A/D converter circuits (Flash, SAR, pipeline, staircase, tracking) f) Signal conditioning, anti-aliasing filter design g) Advanced converters (delta, sigma/delta) 8) Power electronics (1,5 CFU) a) Linear and PWM driving of loads b) Basic design principles of a voltage regulator c) Linear regulators (drop-out, ripple, currents) d) Switching regulators (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost) e) Voltage references
1) Embedded systems (0,5 CFU) a) Definition, classification and examples b) Design metrics (costs, performance, time to market) c) Anatomy of an embedded system and summary of course topics 2) Reminders (0,5 CFU) a) Amplifiers with Operational Amplifiers b) Comparators c) Combinational and sequential digital circuits 3) Memories (1,5 CFU) a) ROM, OTPROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash b) Static and dynamic RAMs c) Timing diagrams d) Memory composition and microprocessor interfacing e) Memory hierarchies and caches 4) Programmable logic (1,5 CFU) a) Programmable devices: PAL, PLA, CPLD b) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) c) Technologies for FPGA d) Design flow e) FPGA resources (memories, multipliers, PLL, clock) 5) Input/Output (1,5 CFU) a) Reminders on serial and parallel protocols, delays, skew b) Synchronous transmission and clock data recovery c) Examples: UART, SPI, I2C, CAN, USB d) Interconnection and signal integrity problems 6) Processor peripherals (1,5 CFU) a) General introduction to embedded processors and their peripherals b) Internal structure, address decoders, configuration registers c) Microprocessor interfacing: polling, interrupt, DMA d) Communication bus: AMBA 7) A/D and D/A conversion (1,5 CFU) a) Reminders on A/D and D/A conversion systems, sampling, aliasing, quantization, errors, ENOB b) D/A converters (classification, parameters, linear and non-linear errors) c) D/A converter circuits d) A/D converters (classification, static and dynamic parameters, linear and non-linear errors) e) A/D converter circuits (Flash, Staircase, Tracking, SAR) f) Signal conditioning, anti-aliasing filter design g) Advanced converters (Residue, Pipeline, Delta, Sigma/Delta) h) Acquisition systems, Sample&Hold circuits 8) Power electronics (1,5 CFU) a) Power devices, thermal behavior b) Low side, high side, H-bridge driving of loads c) Basic design principles of a voltage regulator d) Linear regulators (drop-out, ripple, currents) e) Switching regulators (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost)
Given the strong emphasis on applications, there will be at least 5 laboratory sessions on analog and digital electronics. Students will design and implement parts of an embedded system, up to a small microprocessor based system on programmable logic, having interdisciplinary characteristics, from electronics to computer science.
The course is organized as theoretical lectures and laboratory sessions. During the theoretical lectures there will also be examples of numerical exercises, with around 70 hours dedicated to lessons and 15 hours to examples and exercises. Lectures follow a set of slides that are made available in advance on the student portal. Online or in presence lessons are identical. Given the strong emphasis on applications, there will be at least 5 laboratory sessions on analog and digital electronics, where each session lasts 3 hours (for a total of 15 hours). Students will design and implement parts of an embedded system, up to a small microprocessor based system on programmable logic, having interdisciplinary characteristics, from electronics to computer science. Students are divided in groups. Groups may optionally submit laboratory reports, which are evaluated and can give up to 2 additional points at the exam. There is no penalty if reports are not submitted (but also no bonus point at the exam). Deadlines for submitting the reports are given during the course. Groups should have at least one or two members attending the laboratory sessions in presence, while the other participate remotely. If the entire group is remote, I will send an evaluation board to one of the members of the group to carry on the work; the board should be surrendered at the end of the course.
C. Passerone, "Analog and Digital Electronics for Embedded Systems", CLUT, 2015 (reference text) F.Vahid, T. Givargis, "Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction", John Wiley and Sons Jan Rabaey, "Digital Integrated Circuits. A Design Perspective", Pearson Education, 2003 W. Dally, J. Poulton, " Digital Systems Engineering", Cambridge University Press. Course slides and solutions of past exams will be uploaded on the course web site.
C. Passerone, "Analog and Digital Electronics for Embedded Systems", CLUT, 2015 (reference text; there might be a new edition in September 2022, I will notify students on the course web site) F.Vahid, T. Givargis, "Embedded System Design: A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction", John Wiley and Sons Jan Rabaey, "Digital Integrated Circuits. A Design Perspective", Pearson Education, 2003 W. Dally, J. Poulton, " Digital Systems Engineering", Cambridge University Press. Course slides and solutions of past exams will be uploaded on the course web site.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Elaborato progettuale individuale;
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Individual project;
Written exam (3 hours time) with theoretical questions and numerical exercises and/or design, with a total of 5 questions/exercises, possibly with an optional oral discussion. With the written exam only it is possible to get 30/30 with honors. The optional oral exam can increase or decrease the final grade. During the written exam it is not possible to use books, notes or other material. Questions and exercises evaluate the theoretical knowledge and the capacity to apply it to practical cases. Reports for the laboratory sessions contribute to the final evaluation (up to 2 points). Individual projects can be considered in place of the written exam.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Individual project;
Written exam (3 hours time) with theoretical questions and numerical exercises and/or design, with a total of 5 questions/exercises, with the aim of evaluating the theoretical knowledge and the capacity to apply it to practical cases (understanding of the topics covered in the course and ability to describe the features, advantages and disadvantages of the various blocks that constitute an embedded system; ability to compare different blocks and techniques from the point of view of costs and performance; capacity of applying analysis and design procedures in numerical examples). The written exam may be followed by an optional oral discussion. With the written exam only it is possible to get 30/30 with honors, and it is considered passed if it reaches 18/30. During the written exam it is not possible to use books, notes or other material. If the written exam reaches a minimum of 15/30, the student can ask for a brief optional oral exam (one or two questions), to be held in the days following the written exam, which can increase or decrease the final grade. Reports for the laboratory sessions contribute to the final evaluation (up to 2 points). Individual projects proposed by the students can be considered in place of the written exam. The content of the project should cover all topics of the course and is proposed by the student and discussed with the professor, until a satisfactory proposal is reached. A project must cover all the subjects of the course, it should be implemented on physical boards (not provided by the instructor), and for the final evaluation the student should write a report describing the project and should show a demo of the project working on the boards. During the demo the professor asks questions about the implementation and the design choices, and may ask to apply small changes to the code (hardware or software) to verify the abilities of the student. With the project it is possible to get 30/30 with honors, and it is considered passed if it reaches 18/30.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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