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Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems

01OFJLO

A.A. 2019/20

2018/19

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

The purpose of the module is to provide to the students fundamental knowledge about state of the art and future powertrain technologies aiming to the mitigation of the environmental impact of road vehicles, both through the control of pollutant emissions of conventional powertrains equipped with internal combustion engines and through innovative electric and hybrid propulsion systems.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

The purpose of the module is to provide to the students fundamental knowledge about state of the art and future powertrain technologies aiming to the mitigation of the environmental impact of road vehicles, both through the control of pollutant emissions of conventional powertrains equipped with internal combustion engines and through innovative electric and hybrid propulsion systems.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

A comprehensive knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components. Capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements. Capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

A comprehensive knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components. Capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements. Capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

A good knowledge of internal combustion engines, electrotechnics and low frequency electromagnetism fundamentals.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

A good knowledge of internal combustion engines, electrotechnics and low frequency electromagnetism fundamentals.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL Introduction • Pollutant emissions environmental impact: primary and secondary pollutants, geographical impact scales, impact of the transportation sector, health effects. • The legislation framework Pollutant formation and in cylinder control • Pollutant formation in s.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • Pollutant formation in c.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx, PM formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • In cylinder emission control: EGR, “advanced” combustion regimes (e.g. PCCI) Aftertreatment technologies • Three Ways Catalyst, TWC • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, DOC • Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF • Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR • Lean NOX Trap, LNT Pollutant emissions measurements • Gaseous emissions concentrations measurements: NDIR (for CO, CO2), FID (for HC), CLD (for NOx), • Smoke and opacity measurements • Particle number and size measurements ICE advanced technologies for emissions control • Variable Valve Actuation, Miller Cycle, cylinder deactivation • Gasoline Direct Injection: homogeneous and stratified charge operation • Common Rail injection systems: multiple injections, injection rate shaping • Advanced Combustion regimes (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI). Alternative fuels • CNG, H2/CNG mixtures, LPG • Bioethanol • Biodiesel, HVO, GTL ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS Introduction to alternative propulsion systems, components and applications • Main typologies and possible classifications of the alternative propulsion systems: definitions, functioning modes and comparison in term of performance and efficiency • Classification, functioning principles and analysis of the main non-conventional components: • Energy storage systems and power buffers: batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels • Electric traction and generation machines: DC and AC machines • Power Electronics and control: DC/DC and DC/AC converters • Fuel-Cell Stack and Fuel-Cell System Electric Hybrid Propulsion Systems • Electric Hybrid vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles for: • Parallel hybrid (Electrically assisted Internal Combustion Engine propulsion system) • Series hybrid (Thermally assisted electric propulsion system) • Series-parallel hybrid (combined, split…) Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: internal combustion engine, energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Electric Propulsion Systems • Electric vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles with: batteries and/or Fuel Cell Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Perspectives and future developments • Application requirements for niche and future mass production markets • Evolution trends • Strategies for the effective introduction of the electrified propulsion systems on vehicle

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL Introduction • Pollutant emissions environmental impact: primary and secondary pollutants, geographical impact scales, impact of the transportation sector, health effects. • The legislation framework Pollutant formation and in cylinder control • Pollutant formation in s.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • Pollutant formation in c.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx, PM formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • In cylinder emission control: EGR, “advanced” combustion regimes (e.g. PCCI) Aftertreatment technologies • Three Ways Catalyst, TWC • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, DOC • Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF • Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR • Lean NOX Trap, LNT Pollutant emissions measurements • Gaseous emissions concentrations measurements: NDIR (for CO, CO2), FID (for HC), CLD (for NOx), • Smoke and opacity measurements • Particle number and size measurements ICE advanced technologies for emissions control • Variable Valve Actuation, Miller Cycle, cylinder deactivation • Gasoline Direct Injection: homogeneous and stratified charge operation • Common Rail injection systems: multiple injections, injection rate shaping • Advanced Combustion regimes (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI). Alternative fuels • CNG, H2/CNG mixtures, LPG • Bioethanol • Biodiesel, HVO, GTL ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS Introduction to alternative propulsion systems, components and applications • Main typologies and possible classifications of the alternative propulsion systems: definitions, functioning modes and comparison in term of performance and efficiency • Classification, functioning principles and analysis of the main non-conventional components: • Energy storage systems and power buffers: batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels • Electric traction and generation machines: DC and AC machines • Power Electronics and control: DC/DC and DC/AC converters • Fuel-Cell Stack and Fuel-Cell System Electric Hybrid Propulsion Systems • Electric Hybrid vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles for: • Parallel hybrid (Electrically assisted Internal Combustion Engine propulsion system) • Series hybrid (Thermally assisted electric propulsion system) • Series-parallel hybrid (combined, split…) Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: internal combustion engine, energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Electric Propulsion Systems • Electric vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles with: batteries and/or Fuel Cell Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Perspectives and future developments • Application requirements for niche and future mass production markets • Evolution trends • Strategies for the effective introduction of the electrified propulsion systems on vehicle

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

LABs & EXERCISES ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL • Fuel consumption and emissions calculation for a passenger car over the NEDC and the WLTP • “Raw” and “diluted” specific emissions calculations for steady state operating conditions • Emissions measurements at Polito DENERG labs ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS • Pre-design, performance and efficiency analysis of alternative propulsion systems for different architectures Visit of the CRF laboratories at Orbassano and in particular of some testing and development devices in the facilities for the alternative propulsion systems

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

LABs & EXERCISES ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL • Fuel consumption and emissions calculation for a passenger car over the NEDC and the WLTP • “Raw” and “diluted” specific emissions calculations for steady state operating conditions • Emissions measurements at Polito DENERG labs ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS • Pre-design, performance and efficiency analysis of alternative propulsion systems for different architectures Visit of the CRF laboratories at Orbassano and in particular of some testing and development devices in the facilities for the alternative propulsion systems

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Since most of the topics of the course concern the recent and upcoming development of the technologies for emission controls and alternative propulsion systems, there are no textbooks encompassing all the course topics. Lesson slides will be distributed through the Polito Website or through paper copies available at the Campus printing office.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Since most of the topics of the course concern the recent and upcoming development of the technologies for emission controls and alternative propulsion systems, there are no textbooks encompassing all the course topics. Lesson slides will be distributed through the Polito Website or through paper copies available at the Campus printing office.

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Modalitΰ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control • based on a written and an oral examination, which take place on the same day • written examination: 5 open questions Duration: 2 hours - No open books • Oral examination is always mandatory, and takes place immediately after the written examination. Discussion of the answers given during the written examination. Discussion of the course reports Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems The second part assessment is based on a written and an oral examination: Written examination: • 48 true-false sentences split in 12 thematic groups. Each group fully correct 1 point (10 points max) • one hybrid-electric powertrain sizing exercise (10 points max) • one open question to be selected between two possible options on transversal issues (max 10 points) Duration: between 3 hours and 3 hours and half depending on the case No open books Oral examination: • if the written part mark is at least 18: voluntary oral • if it is between 15 and 17: mandatory oral • if it is lower than 15: the exam is not passed Oral examination based on up to 3-4 questions focused on the weakest parts of the written examination to confirm or modify the written part mark Duration: up to 30-40 minutes No open books

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems (Engine emissions control)

The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control • based on a written and an oral examination, which take place on the same day • written examination: 5 open questions Duration: 2 hours - No open books • Oral examination is always mandatory, and takes place immediately after the written examination. Discussion of the answers given during the written examination. Discussion of the course reports Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems The second part assessment is based on a written and an oral examination: Written examination: • 48 true-false sentences split in 12 thematic groups. Each group fully correct 1 point (10 points max) • one hybrid-electric powertrain sizing exercise (10 points max) • one open question to be selected between two possible options on transversal issues (max 10 points) Duration: between 3 hours and 3 hours and half depending on the case No open books Oral examination: • if the written part mark is at least 18: voluntary oral • if it is between 15 and 17: mandatory oral • if it is lower than 15: the exam is not passed Oral examination based on up to 3-4 questions focused on the weakest parts of the written examination to confirm or modify the written part mark Duration: up to 30-40 minutes No open books



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