Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Engine emissions control/Electric and hybrid propulsion systems

01OFJLO

A.A. 2020/21

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 41
Esercitazioni in aula 2
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 7
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
Valutazione CPD 2020/21
2020/21
The purpose of the module is to provide to the students fundamental knowledge about state of the art and future powertrain technologies aiming to the mitigation of the environmental impact of road vehicles, both through the control of pollutant emissions of conventional powertrains equipped with internal combustion engines and through innovative electric and hybrid propulsion systems.
The purpose of the module is to provide to the students fundamental knowledge about state of the art and future powertrain technologies aiming to the mitigation of the environmental impact of road vehicles, both through the control of pollutant emissions of conventional powertrains equipped with internal combustion engines and through innovative electric and hybrid propulsion systems.
A comprehensive knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components. Capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements. Capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions.
A comprehensive knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains including their main e-components in terms of technologies, functional behaviours, strong and weak points, impact on the vehicle performance and consumption Capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions. Capability of evaluating which technology packages/solutions have to be applied to meet different vehicle level targets and/or legislation requirements Ability to perform the preliminary sizing of the propulsion system devices considering the different possible technologies and the desired performance targets
A good knowledge of internal combustion engines, electrotechnics and low frequency electromagnetism fundamentals.
For Engine emissions control a good knowledge of internal combustion engines. For Electric and hybrid propulsion systems the ones of the following modules: - Physics (low frequency electromagnetism) - Chemistry (basics) - Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (with particular focus on DC and AC (single and three phase) electrical circuits)
ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL Introduction • Pollutant emissions environmental impact: primary and secondary pollutants, geographical impact scales, impact of the transportation sector, health effects. • The legislation framework Pollutant formation and in cylinder control • Pollutant formation in s.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • Pollutant formation in c.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx, PM formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • In cylinder emission control: EGR, “advanced” combustion regimes (e.g. PCCI) Aftertreatment technologies • Three Ways Catalyst, TWC • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, DOC • Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF • Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR • Lean NOX Trap, LNT Pollutant emissions measurements • Gaseous emissions concentrations measurements: NDIR (for CO, CO2), FID (for HC), CLD (for NOx), • Smoke and opacity measurements • Particle number and size measurements ICE advanced technologies for emissions control • Variable Valve Actuation, Miller Cycle, cylinder deactivation • Gasoline Direct Injection: homogeneous and stratified charge operation • Common Rail injection systems: multiple injections, injection rate shaping • Advanced Combustion regimes (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI). Alternative fuels • CNG, H2/CNG mixtures, LPG • Bioethanol • Biodiesel, HVO, GTL ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS Introduction to alternative propulsion systems, components and applications • Main typologies and possible classifications of the alternative propulsion systems: definitions, functioning modes and comparison in term of performance and efficiency • Classification, functioning principles and analysis of the main non-conventional components: • Energy storage systems and power buffers: batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels • Electric traction and generation machines: DC and AC machines • Power Electronics and control: DC/DC and DC/AC converters • Fuel-Cell Stack and Fuel-Cell System Electric Hybrid Propulsion Systems • Electric Hybrid vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles for: • Parallel hybrid (Electrically assisted Internal Combustion Engine propulsion system) • Series hybrid (Thermally assisted electric propulsion system) • Series-parallel hybrid (combined, split…) Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: internal combustion engine, energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Electric Propulsion Systems • Electric vehicle architectures. Typologies and functioning principles with: batteries and/or Fuel Cell Analysis of the propulsion system on vehicle • Components selection for: energy storage system and power buffer (if any), electric machines and power electronics, mechanical transmission • Models for performance, efficiency and on the vehicle control simulation. Experimental results and realised vehicles examples Perspectives and future developments • Application requirements for niche and future mass production markets • Evolution trends • Strategies for the effective introduction of the electrified propulsion systems on vehicle
ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL Introduction • Pollutant emissions environmental impact: primary and secondary pollutants, geographical impact scales, impact of the transportation sector, health effects. • The legislation framework Pollutant formation and in cylinder control • Pollutant formation in s.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • Pollutant formation in c.i. engines: CO, HC, NOx, PM formation mechanisms, impact of the main design and operating parameters • In cylinder emission control: EGR, “advanced” combustion regimes (e.g. PCCI) Aftertreatment technologies • Three Ways Catalyst, TWC • Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, DOC • Diesel Particulate Filter, DPF • Selective Catalytic Reduction, SCR • Lean NOX Trap, LNT • Complex systems: SCRonFilter, Pollutant emissions measurements • Gaseous emissions concentrations measurements: NDIR (for CO, CO2), FID (for HC), CLD (for NOx), • Smoke and opacity measurements • Particle number and size measurements ICE advanced technologies for emissions control • Variable Valve Actuation, Miller Cycle, cylinder deactivation • Gasoline Direct Injection: homogeneous and stratified charge operation • Common Rail injection systems: multiple injections, injection rate shaping • Advanced Combustion regimes (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI). Alternative fuels • CNG, H2/CNG mixtures, LPG • Bioethanol • Biodiesel, HVO, GTL ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS 1. Previous experiences and motivations for the electrified propulsion systems development: - Previous experiences and learned lessons - Motivations for the electrified propulsion systems for traction purposes development, opportunities and constraints 2. Introduction to alternative propulsion systems, components and applications: - Main typologies and possible classifications of the alternative propulsion systems: definitions, functioning modes and comparison in term of performance and efficiency - Working principles and analysis of the main electrification devices: - Energy storage systems and power buffers: batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels - Electric traction and generation machines: DC and AC machines - Power Electronics and control: DC/DC and DC/AC converters - Fuel-Cell Stack and Fuel-Cell System 3. Pure electric propulsion systems (with batteries and/or FC): - Vehicle architecture - Typologies and working principles with: - Electrochemical batteries supply - Fuel-Cell supply - Electrochemical batteries and Fuel-Cell supply - On-board propulsion system analysis - Different subsystems devices selection - Powertrains and vehicles examples 4. Hybrid propulsion systems with ICE and electric machine/s: - Vehicle architecture - Typologies and working principles with: - Parallel Hybrid (electrically assisted thermal propulsion system) - Series Hybrid (thermally assisted electric propulsion system) - Series-parallel hybrids (compound and spilt) - Plug-in hybrid - On-board propulsion system analysis - Different subsystems devices selection - Powertrains and vehicles examples 5. Perspectives and future developments: - Application requirements for niche and future mass production markets - Evolution trends - Strategies for the effective introduction of the electrified propulsion systems on vehicle
Depending on possible future Polito decisions related to the Covid-19 situation evolutions, their impacts on this course and its organisational issues will be reported on the “Portale della Didattica” in the page of this course
Depending on possible future Polito decisions related to the Covid-19 situation evolutions, their impacts on this course and its organisational issues will be reported on the “Portale della Didattica” in the page of this course
LABs & EXERCISES ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL • Fuel consumption and emissions calculation for a passenger car over the NEDC and the WLTP • “Raw” and “diluted” specific emissions calculations for steady state operating conditions • Emissions measurements at Polito DENERG labs ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS • Pre-design, performance and efficiency analysis of alternative propulsion systems for different architectures Visit of the CRF laboratories at Orbassano and in particular of some testing and development devices in the facilities for the alternative propulsion systems
ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL THe Engine Emissions Control is organized in: - Lectures (about 45 hours) - Exercises and Labs (about 5 hours) LABs & EXERCISES • Fuel consumption and emissions calculation for a passenger car over the NEDC and the WLTP • “Raw” and “diluted” specific emissions calculations for steady state operating conditions • Emissions measurements at Polito DENERG labs (recorded video for 2020-21 a.y.) ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS The Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems module is organised in: - lectures (30 hours) - practice lectures (21 hours) aimed to apply the sizing concepts also to support the students in acquiring the expected evaluation abilities
Since most of the topics of the course concern the recent and upcoming development of the technologies for emission controls and alternative propulsion systems, there are no textbooks encompassing all the course topics. Lesson slides will be distributed through the Polito Website or through paper copies available at the Campus printing office.
ENGINE EMISSIONS CONTROL Since most of the topics of the course concern the recent and upcoming development of the technologies for emission controls and alternative propulsion systems, there are no textbooks encompassing all the course topics. Lesson slides will be distributed through the Polito Website , as well as recent selected publications which could be recommended as complementary reading material. ELECTRIC AND HYBRID PROPULSION SYSTEMS Lesson slides will be distributed through the Polito Website or, if possible, through paper copies available at the Automotive Engineering secretary. Some valuable complementary reading materials are: - F. Badin, “Hybrid Vehicles: From Components to System”, Editionstechnip - L. Guzzella, A. Sciarretta, “Vehicle Propulsion Systems - Introduction to Modeling and Optimization”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg - Szumanowski, “Fundamentals of hybrid vehicle drives”, ITE Warsaw-Radom - J. Larminie, A. Dicks, “Fuel Cell System Explained “, J. Wiley & Sons - M. Ehsani, Y. Gao, S. E. Gay and A. Emadi, “Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design” (Power Electronics and Applications Series) CRC-PRESS: - G. Pede, G. Brusaglino, E. Vitale, "Sistemi di Propulsione Elettrica ed Ibrida: dalla Sorgente a Bordo all'Attuazione Meccanica", ENEA
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
The exam aims to assess the knowledge and capabilities gathered by the students, and in particular: - knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components; - capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements; - capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions. The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form and consists of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises Duration: up to a maximum of 2 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. After the written part, an oral part (duration up to 1 hour) is mandatory. Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form only and consists at least of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises on electrified traction systems sizing Duration: 3 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks or equivalent materials is not allowed.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
The exam aims to assess the knowledge and capabilities gathered by the students, and in particular: - knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components; - capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements; - capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions. The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form and consists of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises Duration: up to a maximum of 2 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the course. During the exam it is possible to use only a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. After the written part, an oral part (duration up to 1 hour) is mandatory. Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form only and consists at least of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises on electrified traction systems sizing Duration: 3 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks or equivalent materials is not allowed.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
The exam aims to assess the knowledge and capabilities gathered by the students, and in particular: - knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components; - capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements; - capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions. The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form and consists of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises Duration: up to a maximum of 2 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. After the written part, an oral part (duration up to 1 hour) is mandatory. Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus); The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form only and consists at least of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises on electrified traction systems sizing Duration: 3 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks or equivalent materials is not allowed.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
The exam aims to assess the knowledge and capabilities gathered by the students, and in particular: - knowledge of the main technologies for engine emissions control and hybrids and electric powertrains with related main e-components; - capability of evaluating which technology packages are required to meet different legislation requirements; - capability of analyzing the power demand of vehicles for different mission profiles, to identify the corresponding requirements for both conventional and hybrid electric powertrains and to estimate the corresponding CO2 and pollutant emissions. The final exam is made of two parts: the first concerning emissions control, the second the electric and hybrid propulsion systems. The final mark is the average (on a 50%-50% basis) of the two part results. First part: Engine Emissions Control The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form and consists of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises Duration: up to a maximum of 2 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. After the written part, an oral part (duration up to 1 hour) is mandatory. Second part: Electric and hybrid propulsion systems Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus); The exam (based on Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus)) is in written form only and consists at least of: - multiple choice sentences/questions - fast numerical exercises on electrified traction systems sizing Duration: 3 hours (or less depending on the Polito limitations). Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the practice lectures. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator (or the calculator available in Respondus interface), a pen and white papers. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks or equivalent materials is not allowed.
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