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Fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines and fluid power

01OJVJM

A.A. 2024/25

Course Language

Inglese

Degree programme(s)

1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Meccanica (Mechanical Engineering) - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lecturers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Co-lectuers
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/08
ING-IND/08
7
3
B - Caratterizzanti
B - Caratterizzanti
Ingegneria meccanica
Ingegneria energetica
2022/23
The course is composed of two modules, the first of which concerns with the fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines, whereas the second one deals with fluid-power fundamentals. The first module aims at supplying the basic aspects of thermal and hydraulic machines, with specific reference to: constructive aspects, operation principles, thermodynamic and fluidynamic laws, needed for a correct evaluation of performance and off-design operations of the single machine and of the energy system in which it is integrated. The second module presents and analyzes fluid power components and basic systems, in terms of their symbolic representation, layout, constructive and operational features. For those who will attend the second level degree courses, the acquired notions and skills will constitute also the base for subsequent mastery through the specializing courses.
The course is composed of two modules, the first of which concerns with the fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines, whereas the second one deals with fluid-power fundamentals. The first module aims at supplying the basic aspects of thermal and hydraulic machines, with specific reference to: constructive aspects, operation principles, thermodynamic and fluidynamic laws, needed for a correct evaluation of performance and off-design operations of the single machine and of the energy system in which it is integrated. The second module presents and analyzes fluid power components and basic systems, in terms of their symbolic representation, layout, constructive and operational features. For those who will attend the second level degree courses, the acquired notions and skills will constitute also the base for subsequent mastery through the specializing courses. The competences acquired within this course are fundamental for the mechanical engineer, and can be expended in several fields such as mechanical and automotive companies, companies and public utilities for energy conversion, transport companies.
1. Knowledge and understanding of the basic thermo-fluid-dynamics principles and of the basic aspects of energy systems, engineering-plant solutions, thermal&hydraulic machines and fluid power systems and components. 2. Application of the thermo-fluid-dynamics principles to the energy systems and their components, in order to design and analyze the performance of engineering-plant solutions, thermal machines, hydraulic machines and fluid power systems and components. 3. Ability to choose thermal machines, hydraulic machines, engineering-plant solutions and fluid-power systems in relation to their applications. 4. Ability to graphically represent the main fluid power systems and components according to the ISO 1219-1 International Standard, and to interpret fluid power schemes.
1. Knowledge and understanding of the basic thermo-fluid-dynamics principles and of the basic aspects of energy systems, engineering-plant solutions, thermal&hydraulic machines and fluid power systems and components. 2. Application of the thermo-fluid-dynamics principles to the energy systems and their components, in order to design and analyze the performance of engineering-plant solutions, thermal machines, hydraulic machines and fluid power systems and components. 3. Ability to choose thermal machines, hydraulic machines, engineering-plant solutions and fluid-power systems in relation to their applications. 4. Ability to graphically represent the main fluid power systems and components according to the ISO 1219-1 International Standard, and to interpret fluid power schemes.
The basic knowledge achieved in Thermodynamics, Thermo-kinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics is required, with the awareness of concepts covered in Physics and 3D modeling.
The basic knowledge achieved in Thermodynamics, Thermo-kinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics is required, with the awareness of concepts covered in Physics and 3D modeling.
Fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines ¿ Introduction to fluid machines. ¿ Thermodynamics and fluid-dynamics applied to fluid machines. ¿ Velocity diagrams, Euler work equation. ¿ 1D theory of compressible flows: nozzles and diffusers. Design of a nozzle, off-design performance. ¿ Steam power plants. Co-generative steam plants. ¿ 1D analysis of turbine stages. ¿ Axial and radial turbo-compressors. ¿ Gas turbine plants. Combined vapor-gas turbine plants. ¿ Hydraulic pumps. Fundamentals of fluid power ¿ Introduction to fluid power: advantages and drawbacks. ¿ ISO 1219-1 regulation: nomenclature and symbols. ¿ Operating principles for directional control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. ¿ Function blocks. ¿ Flow generating groups. ¿ Hydraulic pumps and motors. ¿ Valves architecture.
Fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines (70h) - Introduction to fluid machines. - Thermodynamics and fluid-dynamics applied to fluid machines. - Velocity diagrams, Euler work equation. - 1D theory of compressible flows: nozzles and diffusers. Design of a nozzle, off-design performance. - Steam power plants. Co-generative steam plants. - 1D analysis of turbine stages. - Axial and radial turbo-compressors. - Gas turbine plants. Combined vapor-gas turbine plants. - Hydraulic pumps. Fundamentals of fluid power (30h) - Introduction to fluid power: advantages and drawbacks. - ISO 1219-1 regulation: nomenclature and symbols. - Operating principles for directional control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. - Function blocks. - Flow generating groups. - Hydraulic pumps and motors. - Valves architecture.
The course is made up of lectures, applied lectures and activities in the class. The applied lectures consist of exercises of medium/high difficulty meant to further deepen the understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures. These exercises will be mainly solved by the teacher. Activities in the class are intended to promote active learning, and consist in simple exercises solved by the students in the class. By means of activities, the students can verify the degree of understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures, and can improve their ability to apply those concepts in order to solve simple problems.
The course is made up of lectures (67 hours) and applied lectures/activities in the class (30 hours). The applied lectures consist of exercises of medium/high difficulty meant to further deepen the understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures. These exercises will be mainly solved by the teacher. The "Activities in the class" are intended to promote active learning, and consist in simple exercises solved by the students in the class. By means of activities, the students can verify the degree of understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures, and can improve their ability to apply those concepts in order to solve simple problems. At the end of the course, two laboratory experiences will be carried out. The first one is related to the "Thermal and Hydraulic machine" topics (1.5 hours), the second one is related to the "Fluid power" topics (1.5 hours). In the case in which the participation in presence is not possible, the lab experiences will be replaced by remote activities, in which the students will also learn simulation software related to the topics of the course.
References ¿ M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, ¿Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics¿, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons. ¿ S.L. Dixon, C.A. Hall, ¿Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery¿, 6th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier. ¿ Lecture Slides ¿ Exercise book (optional): C. Dongiovanni, D. Misul, ¿Exercises on Thermal and Hydraulic Machines¿, CLUT Eds, Torino. Required material Mollier diagram for steam (¿Diagramma entalpico per il vapor d¿acqua¿), CLUT Eds. To be procured by the student. Saturation lines tables for steam. Provided by the teacher.
References - M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, ¿Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics¿, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons. - S.L. Dixon, C.A. Hall, ¿Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery¿, 6th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier. - Lecture Slides - Exercise book (optional): C. Dongiovanni, D. Misul, ¿Exercises on Thermal and Hydraulic Machines¿, CLUT Eds, Torino. Required material Mollier diagram for steam (¿Diagramma entalpico per il vapor d¿acqua¿), CLUT Eds. To be procured by the student. Saturation lines tables for steam. Provided by the teacher.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta in aula tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test in class using POLITO platform;
... The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The exam is made up of a written test and of an oral test, which may be either optional or mandatory depending on the score of the written test. Written test (duration: about 4 h) The written test is made up of two parts: - The first part (duration: 45-60 minutes) is constituted by 17-18 multiple choice questions. This part will mainly deal with the theoretical topics of the course, however some questions may require the solution of quick numerical exercises. Each question with correct answer is assigned 2 points, each question without answer is assigned 0 points, each question with a wrong answer is assigned -0.5 points. The maximum score of the first part is 30/30. The first part is intended to verify the acquisition of the learning outcome n. 1. - In the second part (duration: 2.5 - 3h), the student is asked to solve exercises featuring a difficulty level similar to that of the exercises proposed during the applied lectures. The second part is intended to verify the acquisition of the learning outcomes n. 2-4. The exam is failed if the score of the first part of the written test is lower than 18/30 or if the score of the second part of the written test is lower than 15/30. The final score of the written test is a weighted average of the scores achieved for the two parts (the weights are 0.3 for the first part and 0.7 for the second part). During the written test, the students are only allowed to use a scientific calculator, the steam Mollier chart and the saturation tables. A formulary is also provided by the teacher for the second part of the written test. The use of notes, books, notebooks, smart phones, cell phones or any other electronic device is strictly forbidden. Should any candidate use any un-authorized electronic devices (regardless of whether it is switched on or off, online or offline), he/she will be immediately withdrawn from the exam. The paper sheets for the exam will be provided by the teacher. Each sheet has to be returned at the scheduled hand-in time or at the exam withdrawal. The candidate can withdraw from the written test at any time up to the hand-in time. In this case, the exam failure will not be registered. Once the written test has been corrected, the exam will be registered with either a positive or negative result. Any candidate who is not satisfied with the written test result can ask to be failed before the oral start. Oral test The oral test can be either optional or mandatory, depending on the outcomes from the written one, according to teacher's discretion. In case the student sits for the oral test, the overall mark is the average between the written and the oral test scores.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test in class using POLITO platform;
The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The exam is made up of a written test. The oral test is optional. The test is constituted by 17 multiple choice questions and 1 exercise and its duration is 2 hours. The multiple choice questions (which require about 50 mins-1h) mainly deal with the theoretical topics of the course, however some questions will require the solution of quick numerical exercises. Each question with correct answer is assigned 1.5 points, each question without answer is assigned 0 points, each question with a wrong answer is assigned -0.375 points. The questions are mainly intended to verify the acquisition of the learning outcome n. 1. The exercise (which requires about 40-50 mins) can deal with any of the topics of the course (including thermal and hydraulic machine topics and fluid power topics). The maximum score of the exercise is 8 points. The exercise is intended to verify the acquisition of the learning outcomes n. 2-4. The maximum score of the written test is 33.5/30 (which is saturated at 30/30). The exam is FAILED if the score of the written test is lower than 18. During the written test, the students are only allowed to use a scientific calculator (not programmable), a pen, some blank papers in order to do the calculations for the exercises, the printed simplified steam Mollier chart provided by the teacher, the printed steam tables and the printed formulary provided by the teacher on the teaching portal. The use of written notes, books, slides, smartphones or any other electronic device (pads) is strictly forbidden. Any misconduct will lead to the annulment of the exam. The candidate can withdraw from the written test or hand in only after that 50% of the total available time has passed. If the candidate withdraws, the exam failure will not be registered. Once the written test has been corrected, the exam will be registered with either a positive or negative result. Oral test The oral test is in general optional. However, an oral test may be required by the teacher in case of suspected misconduct. The oral test is constituted by two questions. The first question is related to the "Thermal and Hydraulic machines" topic, the second question is related to the "Fluid power" topic. The maximum score of the oral test is 30/30. The questions related to the oral test are aimed at verifying not only the basic knowledge (i.e., learning outcome 1) but also the ability of the student to apply the knowledge and to graphically represent the systems (i.e., learning outcomes 2-4). Therefore, also the solution of short exercises may be requested. In case the student sits for the oral test, the overall mark is the average between the written and the oral test scores.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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