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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Smart grids

01QWVBH

A.A. 2021/22

2021/22

Smart grids

This course is aimed at giving students with an ICT background a view on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), also pointing out the aspects referring to the interaction between power and energy systems and ICT contents. Starting from an overview on the evolution of the power and energy systems towards the construction of supergrids in high voltage bulk transmission systems and of microgrids in electrical distribution systems, the course addresses in a specific way the topics referring to the structure and operation of Medium Voltage and Low Voltage distribution systems, highlighting the contributions of the ICT sector to network modernization with increasing levels of automation, control, communication and data management. At the end of the semester, the student will have to gain knowledge on a set of aspects that enable him/her to dialogue with the operators of the electrical distribution system by using appropriate terminology and showing adequate competence in discussing about basic network-related problems. In addition, the student will have to gain competence in formulating optimization problems referring to the electrical distribution networks, choosing the most suitable methods to solve these problems. Finally, the student will be able to interact in an effective way with the network operators to discuss about the application of ICT solutions to the smart grid.

Smart grids

The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which we can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g. transportation) for assuring a set of socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. To achieve such performance ICT is a crucial enabler playing a more and more pervasive role in electricity systems at all levels (generation, transmission, distribution and utilization). This course is aimed at giving students with an ICT background, a view of the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), also pointing out the aspects referring to the interaction between power and energy systems and ICT contents, with a special focus on the applications of ICT in the electrical distribution networks with emerging prosumers. We start from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. We provide some visions about the evolutionary paths in electricity systems development, both underway and perspective. We present a conceptual model of the Smart Grids in which various aspects (technological, energy, data exchange, markets, etc.) can be analyzed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. We present some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems and relate them to the ICT architecture that allows for their implementation, pointing out its specificity in terms of protocols and data management. The interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid (Electric Vehicle, prosumers, electricity retailers, distributed energy sources, etc.) will be also introduced. At the end, we propose a set of topics (“focuses”) on specific applications in smart grids (e.g. Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Demand Side Management, etc.) that can be of inspiration for further work (project and thesis work). By introducing the prosumers and concerning electricity trades among them, the latest technologies such as blockchains, etc., will be introduced to support such shift towards energy transition and digitalization. At the end of the semester, the student will gain knowledge on a set of aspects that enable him/her to dialogue with the operators of the electrical distribution system by using appropriate terminology and showing adequate competence in discussing basic network-related problems. In addition, the student will gain competence in formulating optimization problems referring to the electrical distribution networks, choosing the most suitable methods to solve these problems. Finally, the student will be able to interact in an effective way with the network operators and regulators to discuss the application of ICT solutions to the smart grid.

Smart grids

The students who pass the exam will be able to understand the basic concepts referring to the structure and operation of the electrical networks at the transmission and distribution levels; use the correct terminology to address power and energy systems problems referring to smart grids; interpret appropriately the role of smart grids in the current energy system context; formulate analysis and optimization problems referring to smart grid applications and choosing the suitable solver; understand the role of distributed generation and resources in active distribution network management and demand-side management, and their connections with ICT solutions for communication, control and data management.

Smart grids

The students who pass the exam will be able to understand the basic concepts referring to the structure and operation of the electrical networks at the transmission and distribution levels; use the correct terminology to address power and energy systems problems referring to smart grids; interpret appropriately the role of smart grids in the current energy system context; formulate analysis and optimization problems referring to smart grid applications and choosing the suitable solver; understand the role of distributed generation and resources in active distribution network management and demand-side management, and their connections with ICT solutions for communication, control and data management; understand the role and challenges of energy trading among prosumers, especially the ICT techniques that could support the bilateral/self-organized trading among them as well as supporting the dispatch and operation of the system operators.

Smart grids

The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current and single-phase alternating current circuits), automatic control (transfer functions, feedback control) and electrical measurement (measurement accuracy, principle of operation of the instrumentation for electrical measurement).

Smart grids

The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current and single-phase alternating current circuits), automatic control (transfer functions, feedback control), and electrical measurement (measurement accuracy, principle of operation of the instrumentation for electrical measurement).

Smart grids

Introductory concepts: Structure of the electricity transmission and distribution systems. Emergent paradigms: smart grids, supergrids, microgrids. Energy and electricity supply. Capacity and energy provisions, supply adequacy, load balancing. Role of ICT for smart grids. Layer-based representation of power and information flows. Electricity transmission and distribution: Three-phase systems in balanced and unbalanced conditions. Characteristics and modelling of generators, lines, transformers, loads and storage systems. Technical evolution of the network infrastructure. Meshed, radial and reconfigurable weakly meshed network representations. Notes on service continuity and reliability. Smart distribution network analysis and optimization: Matrix-based representation of the network. Power flow calculations in radial and weakly meshed networks. Fault analysis, calculation of the short-circuit currents. Principles of network protection. Relays, switchgears, protective devices. Measurement technologies and applications. Distribution substations and distribution grid automation. Notes on the IEC Standardization. Optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks: objective function, constraints, solution methods and heuristics. Examples of optimal operational planning: problem formulation, solution methods and heuristics. Distributed generation and resources: distributed generation schemes, autonomous systems, grid-connected systems, islanding operation, microgrids. Notes on distributed generation (from renewable sources and combined energy production) and storage technologies. Distribution network models with distributed resources, active distribution network management. Probabilistic power flow calculations. Effects of the diffusion of the distributed resources. Evolution of the standards. Interface with the networks, local voltage control, frequency control. Virtual power plants. Integration of fluctuating renewable energy in transmission and distribution systems. Demand-side management: technologies for electrical load management. Customer interactions with smart metering systems, assessment of the controllable load. Thermostat-controlled loads. Aggregate residential load. Demand response concepts and programmes, demand flexibility, impacts of demand-side management on customer choices. Specific aspects of ICT applications for smart grid operation. Analysis of real cases.

Smart grids

Introductory concepts: Structure of the electricity transmission and distribution systems. Emergent paradigms: smart grids, supergrids, microgrids. Energy and electricity supply. Capacity and energy provisions, supply adequacy, load balancing. Role of ICT for smart grids. Layer-based representation of power and information flows. Electricity transmission and distribution: Three-phase systems in balanced and unbalanced conditions. Characteristics and modelling of generators, lines, transformers, loads and storage systems. Technical evolution of the network infrastructure. Meshed, radial and reconfigurable weakly meshed network representations. Notes on service continuity and reliability. Smart distribution network analysis and optimization: Matrix-based representation of the network. Power flow calculations in radial and weakly meshed networks. Fault analysis, calculation of the short-circuit currents. Principles of network protection. Relays, switchgears, protective devices. Measurement technologies and applications. Distribution substations and distribution grid automation. Notes on the IEC Standardization. Optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks: objective function, constraints, solution methods and heuristics. Examples of optimal operational planning: problem formulation, solution methods and heuristics. Prosumer communities: Features of the emerging distribution systems (EDS), General framework for modeling the emerging distribution systems, Multi-layer emerging distribution systems as complex systems, an application to simulate the self-sustainable prosumers community in the EDS, example build on IEEE33 distribution test system. Energy digitalization and blockchain: Electricity digitalization trends & policies, distributed ledger technologies, blockchain, use cases & applications, power system blockchain solutions, energy system blockchain, solutions, integrated blockchain solutions, blockchain enablers & roadblocks. Demand-side management: technologies for electrical load management. Customer interactions with smart metering systems, assessment of the controllable load. Thermostat-controlled loads. Aggregate residential load. Demand response concepts and programmes, demand flexibility, impacts of demand-side management on customer choices. Smart grid architecture models: smart grids definitions and notions, concept of smart grid reference model, some smart grids models and framework activities, motivation for smart grid architecture model (SGAM), definition of SGAM, SGAM plane domains, SGAM hierarchical zones. Smart functions: substation automation system, distribution automation equipment, distribution management system (DMS), DMS SCADA, DMS modelling and analysis tools, DMS smart applications, smart metering Specific aspects of ICT applications for smart grid operation. Analysis of real cases.

Smart grids

Smart grids

Smart grids

The lectures present the course contents, with possible numerical examples and calculations. No experimental activity is planned.

Smart grids

The lectures present the course contents, with numerical examples and calculations. No experimental activity is planned.

Smart grids

There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal.

Smart grids

There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal.

Smart grids

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula);

Smart grids

The exam is composed of a mandatory written part (with maximum score 30/30) and of a non-mandatory oral part (accessible only is the score of the written exam is equal to or higher than 27/30. During the exam, the students have to respond a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, provided in a written way, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The maximum score assigned to each question is indicated after the text of the question. The minimum score to pass the exam (18/30) cannot be reached if one or more questions are not responded at all. The main competences evaluated are the ability of illustrating concepts, formulating problems, describing solution methods, and solving possible numerical exercises. The written test has duration of 2 hours. The time limit for completing the test is indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. The students must exhibit a valid document with photo. During the test the students may exit from the room only if they withdraw from the test of deliver the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the student’s name and surname on the first page and with the writing “WITHDRAWN” or “NOT DELIVERED”. When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the student’s name and surname must be included in the delivered material. The students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The clothes and the personal belongings must not remain on the work plan, nor under the desk, and must be closed and located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled and the student will have to leave the room. Any question concerning the test must be addressed to a member of the exam Commission. In case the question is of general interest, a member of the exam Commission will inform all the students participating in the exam. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test during the period of the current exam session.

Smart grids

Exam: Written test;

Smart grids

The exam is composed of a mandatory written part (with maximum score 30/30). During the exam, the students have to respond a number of questions (multiple choices and open questions) referring to the entire course programme provided in a written way, with the possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The main competencies evaluated are the ability of illustrating concepts, formulating problems, describing solution methods, and solving possible numerical exercises. The minimum score to pass the exam (18/30) cannot be reached if one or more questions are not responded at all. Topics may involve the following: The basic concepts referring to the structure and operation of the electrical networks at the transmission and distribution levels; concepts of smart grids; the role of smart grids in the current energy system context; numerical questions on smart grid applications for analysis and optimization problems; questions on the role of distributed generation and resources in active distribution network management and demand-side management, and their connections with ICT solutions for communication, control and data management; questions on the role and challenges of energy trading among prosumers, especially the ICT techniques that could support the bilateral/self-organized trading among them as well as supporting the dispatch and operation of the system operators; questions on SGAM models and related smart functions. The written test has a duration of 2 hours. The time limit for completing the test is indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. The students must exhibit a valid document with photo. During the test the students may exit from the room only if they withdraw from the test of deliver the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the student’s name and surname on the first page and with the writing “WITHDRAWN” or “NOT DELIVERED”. When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the student’s name and surname must be included in the delivered material. The students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The clothes and the personal belongings must not remain on the work plan, nor under the desk, and must be closed and located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled and the student will have to leave the room. Any question concerning the test must be addressed to a member of the exam Commission. In case the question is of general interest, a member of the exam Commission will inform all the students participating in the exam. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test during the period of the current exam session.

Smart grids

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Smart grids

The exams will be composed of 3-4 open questions (with possible related subquestions) and 1-2 questions involving calculations (with possible related subquestions).

Smart grids

Exam: Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Smart grids

The exam is composed of a mandatory written part (with a maximum score of 30/30), possibly with a computer-based test. During the exam, the students have to respond a number of questions (multiple choices and open questions) referring to the entire course programme provided in a written way, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The principal competencies evaluated are the ability to illustrate concepts, formulating problems, describing solution methods, and solving possible numerical exercises. The minimum score to pass the exam is (18/30). Topics may involve the following: The basic concepts referring to the structure and operation of the electrical networks at the transmission and distribution levels; concepts of smart grids; the role of smart grids in the current energy system context; numerical questions on smart grid applications for analysis and optimization problems; questions on the role of distributed generation and resources in active distribution network management and demand-side management, and their connections with ICT solutions for communication, control and data management; questions on the role and challenges of energy trading among prosumers, especially the ICT techniques that could support the bilateral/self-organized trading among them as well as supporting the dispatch and operation of the system operators; questions on SGAM models and related smart functions. The written test has a duration of 2 hours. The time limit for completing the test is indicated by clear instructions at the beginning of the written exam. Before the test, the identification of the students would be conducted. The students must exhibit a valid document with a photo. When the answering sheets are delivered, the student’s name and surname, and student number must be included in the produced material. The students may use only clean paper, pen, and calculator. The students cannot refer to any material concerning the course and the exam. The students must also obey the regulations on the exam published by Politecnico di Torino. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test during the current exam session.

Smart grids

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Smart grids

The exams will be composed of 3-4 open questions (with possible related subquestions) and 1-2 questions involving calculations (with possible related subquestions).

Smart grids

Exam: Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Smart grids

The exam is composed of a mandatory written part (with a maximum score of 30/30), possibly with a computer-based test for online students, and a printed copy of the same questions will be given to the onsite students. During the exam, the students have to respond a number of questions (multiple choices and open questions) referring to the entire course programme provided in a written way, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The principal competencies evaluated are the ability to illustrate concepts, formulating problems, describing solution methods, and solving possible numerical exercises. The minimum score to pass the exam is (18/30). Topics may involve the following: The basic concepts referring to the structure and operation of the electrical networks at the transmission and distribution levels; concepts of smart grids; the role of smart grids in the current energy system context; numerical questions on smart grid applications for analysis and optimization problems; questions on the role of distributed generation and resources in active distribution network management and demand-side management, and their connections with ICT solutions for communication, control and data management; questions on the role and challenges of energy trading among prosumers, especially the ICT techniques that could support the bilateral/self-organized trading among them as well as supporting the dispatch and operation of the system operators; questions on SGAM models and related smart functions. The written test has a duration of 2 hours. The time limit for completing the test is indicated by clear instructions at the beginning of the written exam. Before the test, the identification of the students would be conducted. The students must exhibit a valid document with a photo. When the answering sheets are delivered, the student’s name and surname, and student number must be included in the produced material. The students may use only clean paper, pen, and calculator. The students cannot refer to any material concerning the course and the exam. The students must also obey the regulations on the exam published by Politecnico di Torino. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test during the current exam session.

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