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Testing and fault tolerance

01RKZOV, 01RKZOQ, 01RKZQW

A.A. 2021/22

2021/22

Testing and fault tolerance

The usage of electronic systems in applications where failures may results in critical consequences (e.g., in space, aircrafts, automobiles, trains, biomedical equipment) requires ensuring that the probability of a failure does not overcome some maximum threshold. This can be achieved by identifying and removing defective products (test) and by making products resilient to faults (fault tolerance). The course introduces methods and techniques for the design of reliable electronic circuits and systems, with special emphasis on the test performed to identify products affected by hardware faults, and on the solutions to harden electronic products with respect to faults and to the techniques to estimate the probability that possible faults may force them to produce failures.

Testing and fault tolerance

The usage of electronic systems in applications where failures may results in critical consequences (e.g., in space, aircrafts, automobiles, trains, biomedical equipment) requires ensuring that the probability of a failure does not overcome some maximum threshold. This can be achieved by identifying and removing defective products (test) and by making products resilient to faults (fault tolerance). The course introduces methods and techniques for the design of reliable electronic circuits and systems, with special emphasis on the test performed to identify products affected by hardware faults, and on the solutions to harden electronic products with respect to faults and to the techniques to estimate the probability that possible faults may force them to produce failures.

Testing and fault tolerance

- Knowledge of the concepts of testing and dependability. - Knowledge of the main techniques used for testing a digital circuit. - Knowledge of the main techniques used for testing an embedded system. - Knowledge of the basic techniques used for hardening an electronic products with respect to possible faults. - Knowledge of the main techniques for estimating the reliability of an electronic system. - Capability of developing the test plan for a digital device or embedded system - Capability to use the main software tools for testing an embedded system: fault simulators, automatic test pattern generators, automatic scan chain inserters. - Knowledge of the concept of Built-In Self-Test (BIST) and Boundary Scan (BS). - Knowledge of the concept of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). - Capability of designing BIST hardware modules.

Testing and fault tolerance

- Knowledge of the concepts of testing and dependability. - Knowledge of the main techniques used for testing an electronic circuit. - Knowledge of the main techniques used for testing an embedded system. - Knowledge of the basic techniques used for hardening an electronic products with respect to possible faults. - Knowledge of the main techniques for estimating the reliability of an electronic system. - Capability of developing the test plan for a digital device or embedded system - Capability to use the main software tools for testing an embedded system: fault simulators, automatic test pattern generators, automatic scan chain inserters. - Knowledge of the concept of Built-In Self-Test (BIST) and Boundary Scan (BS). - Knowledge of the concept of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). - Capability of designing BIST hardware modules.

Testing and fault tolerance

The course is better followed if the student owns the knowledge about • Digital system design • Microelectronics.

Testing and fault tolerance

The course is better followed if the student owns the knowledge about • Digital system design • Microelectronics.

Testing and fault tolerance

1. Introduction to test and dependability (1 credit) a. Dependability: definition, attributes b. Fault models (temporary and transient): stuck-at, bridge, open, delay, SEU, SET c. Test of ICs, boards and systems d. Defect level: definition and evaluation e. ATEs 2. Techniques and tools for generating test stimuli for combinational and sequential modules (1 credit) a. Fault simulation b. Automatic Test Pattern Generation 3. Techniques and tools for testing specific modules (1 credit) a. Memory test b. Processor test 4. Design for Testability techniques (1 credit) a. Scan b. BIST c. Boundary Scan d. System on Chip test (IEEE 1500 and 1687) 5. Board test (0.5 credit) a. Main steps in PCB test b. IEEE 1149.1 6. Basics in fault tolerant system design (1.5 credits) a. Basic fault tolerant design solutions (hw redundancy, information redundancy, time redundancy) b. Reliability evaluation (FMEA, radiation experiments, fault injection)

Testing and fault tolerance

1. Introduction to test and dependability (1 credit) a. Dependability: definition, attributes b. Fault models (temporary and transient): stuck-at, bridge, open, delay, SEU, SET c. Test of ICs, boards and systems d. Defect level: definition and evaluation e. ATEs 2. Techniques and tools for generating test stimuli for combinational and sequential modules (1 credit) a. Fault simulation b. Automatic Test Pattern Generation 3. Techniques and tools for testing specific modules (1 credit) a. Memory test b. Processor test 4. Design for Testability techniques (1 credit) a. Scan b. BIST c. Boundary Scan d. System on Chip test (IEEE 1500 and 1687) 5. Board test (0.5 credit) a. Main steps in PCB test b. IEEE 1149.1 6. Basics in fault tolerant system design (1.5 credits) a. Basic fault tolerant design solutions (hw redundancy, information redundancy, time redundancy) b. Reliability evaluation (FMEA, radiation experiments, fault injection)

Testing and fault tolerance

Testing and fault tolerance

Testing and fault tolerance

Laboratory activities are an integral part of this course. During the lab sessions students will face the practical aspects introduced by lectures. Lab sessions will allow students to work with commercial tools for Fault Simulation, Scan Insertion, Automatic Test Pattern Generation and Boundary Scan test development. Students will also be asked to develop assignments concerning the course subjects. A typical assignment consists in implementing a given test solution (whose main characteristics have been described in the lectures) for a specific case study.

Testing and fault tolerance

The course will be composed of - lectures - lab sessions - activities autonomously performed by students (assignments). Laboratory activities are an integral part of this course. During the lab sessions students will face the practical aspects introduced by lectures. Lab sessions will allow students to work with commercial tools for Fault Simulation, Scan Insertion, Automatic Test Pattern Generation and Boundary Scan test development. Students will also be asked to develop assignments concerning the course subjects. Only students who regularly followed the lab sessions can work on assignments. A typical assignment consists in implementing a given test solution (whose main characteristics have been described in the lectures) for a specific case study.

Testing and fault tolerance

Students may benefit of the following textbook: M. Bushnell, V. Agrawal: Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory, and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2000 Slides will be provided to students registered to the course through the Student Teaching Portal, as well as any additional non-copyrighted information material that will be used in the course.

Testing and fault tolerance

Students may benefit of the following textbook: M. Bushnell, V. Agrawal: Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory, and Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2000 Slides will be provided to students registered to the course through the Student Teaching Portal, as well as any additional non-copyrighted information material that will be used in the course.

Testing and fault tolerance

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam aims at verifying the student's knowledge about the course topics and his/her ability to apply the presented techniques to some specific case. The exam will be based on a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 5) open questions and to solve exercises. Each question/exercise contributes with up to 6 points to the final score. The exam will last for about 90 minutes. Students will not be allowed to access any material during the exam. If the student achieves at least 18 points in the written exam, he/she may ask for an oral exam. During the oral exam the student will be asked to report about issues and solutions described during the course, or solve specific problems related to the course topics. The oral exam is organized in about 3 questions and can increase or decrease the score achieved with the written exam by up to 6 points. The students will be allowed to work on an assignment (typically, in groups of 1 or 2 people) which could increase the score of the written exam by up to 5 points.

Testing and fault tolerance

Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group project;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam aims at verifying the student's knowledge about the course topics and his/her ability to apply the presented techniques to some specific cases. The exam will be based on a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 3) open questions and to solve exercises. Each question/exercise contributes with up to 5 points to the final score. The exam will last for about 60 minutes. Students will not be allowed to access any material during the exam. If the student achieves at least 9 points in the written exam, he/she can access to the oral exam. During the oral exam the student will be asked to report about issues and solutions described during the course, or solve specific problems related to the course topics. At the end of the oral exam the student receives a score between 0 and 25. The students who successfully worked (in groups of 1 to 3 people) to the assignments can get up to 6 extra points which will be added to the exam score.

Testing and fault tolerance

Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus); Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam will be based on - a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 6) questions and exercises. The written exam will last for about 60 minutes and provides a score between 0 and 15. The written part is passed if the score is at least 9. - an oral part (only for students who passed the written part). The students will be allowed to make an assignment which could increase the score of the exam by up to 5 points. The additional points stemming from the possible assignment are added to the exam score only if the latter is at least 18.

Testing and fault tolerance

Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus); Group project;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam aims at verifying the student's knowledge about the course topics and his/her ability to apply the presented techniques to some specific cases. The exam will be based on a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 3) open questions and to solve exercises. Each question/exercise contributes with up to 5 points to the final score. The exam will last for about 60 minutes. Students will not be allowed to access any material during the exam. If the student achieves at least 9 points in the written exam, he/she can access to the oral exam. During the oral exam the student will be asked to report about issues and solutions described during the course, or solve specific problems related to the course topics. At the end of the oral exam the student receives a score between 0 and 25. The students who successfully worked (in groups of 1 to 3 people) to the assignments can get up to 6 extra points which will be added to the exam score.

Testing and fault tolerance

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato grafico prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus); Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam will be based on - a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 6) questions and exercises. The written exam will last for about 60 minutes and provides a score between 0 and 15. The written part is passed if the score is at least 9. - an oral part (only for students who passed the written part). The students will be allowed to make an assignment which could increase the score of the exam by up to 5 points. The additional points stemming from the possible assignment are added to the exam score only if the latter is at least 18.

Testing and fault tolerance

Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group graphic design project; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus); Group project;

Testing and fault tolerance

The exam aims at verifying the student's knowledge about the course topics and his/her ability to apply the presented techniques to some specific cases. The exam will be based on a written part in which the students will be asked to answer to some (about 3) open questions and to solve exercises. Each question/exercise contributes with up to 5 points to the final score. The exam will last for about 60 minutes. Students will not be allowed to access any material during the exam. If the student achieves at least 9 points in the written exam, he/she can access to the oral exam. During the oral exam the student will be asked to report about issues and solutions described during the course, or solve specific problems related to the course topics. At the end of the oral exam the student receives a score between 0 and 25. The students who successfully worked (in groups of 1 to 3 people) to the assignments can get up to 6 extra points which will be added to the exam score.

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