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Solid state physics/Electronic devices

01RLUPE

A.A. 2020/21

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 12
Esercitazioni in aula 40
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 8
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
2020/21
The course is taught in English. Aim of the course (1st semester, 1st year) is to provide the theoretical basics of solid state physics and their applications to solid state electronic devices, with particular emphasis in applications in the area of ICTs and energy. This course plays a central role in the development of an Engineer expert in Nanotechnologies, because it extensively provides the basic elements for the understanding of subsequent courses of the MSc learning program. The integrated course is divided in two sections. In the Solid State Physics section the students are organized into two teams for the initial 4 ECTS. The first team is composed of students with a low background in the areas of quantum mechanics and statistics, which have to be learned in order to understand ensuing subjects in physics of matter and electronic devices. The second team is composed of students with an adequate background of modern physics. In both cases the students get (up to different levels of in-depth analysis) the fundamentals of solid state physics functional to study electronic properties of nanostructured materials. The second part of the first section (taught to all students) general methods for the evaluation of the band structure of conducting/semiconducting solids are given. In the Electronic Devices section, the students learn the basics for understanding the physics and the design of electronic devices.
The course is taught in English. Aim of the Solid state physics/Electronic devices course is to provide the theoretical basics of solid state physics and their applications to solid state electronic devices, with particular emphasis in applications in the area of ICTs and energy. This course plays a central role in the development of an Engineer expert in Nanotechnologies, because it extensively provides the basic elements for the understanding of subsequent courses of the MSc learning program. In the Electronic Devices section, the students learn the basics for understanding the physics and the design of electronic and optoelectronic devices. The students are organized into two teams for the initial 3 ECTS (first module). The first team is composed of students with a limited background in the area of semiconductor devices, in particular junctions and MOSFETs, which have to be learned in order to understand further topics in (opto)electronic devices. The second team is composed of students with an adequate background of semiconductors and basic electronic devices. In both cases the students get (although with different levels of in-depth analysis) the fundamentals of semiconductor device physics, in particular semiclassical models for the analysis and design of (opto)electronic devices and their analytical approximations, functional to study more advanced topics and devices. The second part (3 ECTS, second module) is taught to all students, and covers electronic devices based on compound semiconductors and nanostructures.
- Knowledge of the radiation-matter interaction - Knowledge of electronic and optical properties of solids and nanostructures. - In-depth knowledge of quantum charge conduction in metals, semiconductors and insulators (bulk and nanostructures) - Knowledge of the effects related to quantum coherence and ballistic regime of electrons in nanostructures - Ability to evaluate the effects related to electronic motion un nanostructures with side confinement - Ability to evaluate band structures, even in low-dimensional systems - Knowledge of the operating principles of semiconductor (opto)electronic devices - Ability to apply the basics of solid state physics to the understanding of electronic devices.. - Ability in understanding and interpreting important experimental characterization techniques of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices - Ability to use physics-based models for the analysis and design of the main semiconductor (opto)electronic devices - Ability to derive and use circuit-based models for the analysis of the main semiconductor (opto)electronic devices
- Knowledge of electronic and optical properties of semiconductors and nanostructures and of first order transport models. - Knowledge of the operating principles of semiconductor (opto)electronic devices - Ability to apply the basics of semiconductor physics to the understanding of electronic devices - Ability in understanding and interpreting important experimental characterization techniques of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices - Ability to use physics-based models for the analysis and design of the main semiconductor (opto)electronic devices - Ability to derive and use circuit-based models for the analysis of the main semiconductor (opto)electronic devices
- Elementary physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, wave optics, elements of structure of matter) - Elements of modern physics - Elements of electronics
- Elementary physics (mechanics, thermodynamics, wave optics, elements of structure of matter) - Elements of modern physics - Elements of electronics
Section: Solid State Physics Team 1 (4 ECTS) From classical physics to quantum mechanics (0,5 ECTS) Schrodinger equation. Measurement of a physical quantity. Interemination principle (0,5 ECTS) Analysis of one-dimensional quantum problems, the Schroedinger's equation for an infinite array of potential wells, electrons in crystalline solids (1 ECTS) The gas of photons and phonons (the Bose-Einstein's distribution), the black-body problem, the electron gas (the Fermi-Dirac's distribution). (1 ECTS) Electronic properties of metals and semiconductors Photon-matter interaction (0,5 ECTS) Team 2 (4 ECTS) The Boltzmann equation and the electrical conductivity of metals (0,5 ECTS) Phonons and electrons (0,5 ECTS) Surface and interface effects (0,5 ECTS) Low dimensionality systems (2 ECTS); graphene, the Landauer formula; resonant tunneling; Coulomb blockade ; single-electron trasnsistor Elements of spintronics: spintronic transistors (0,5 ECTS) Team 1 and 2 (2 ECTS) The density functional theory (1 ECTS) Applications of the model to determine band structures in solids (including low-dimensional systems) (1 ECTS) Section: Electronic Devices (Team 1 and 2 ) Semiclassical models for the analysis and design of electronic and optoelectronic devices (0,75 ECTS) p-n junction and heterojunctions (0,75 ECTS) Homo- and Hetero-junction bipolar transistors (1 ECTS) Metal-semiconductor junction and MESFET transistors (1,5 ECTS) Heterostructure field effect transistors (HEMT, HFET) (0,5 ECTS) MOS system and MOSFET transistor. (1 ECTS) Photovoltaic effect and solar cells (0,5 ECTS)
Team 1 Basics of semiconductors: electronic properties and transport (1 ECTS) p-n junction and MS junction (1 ECTS) MOS system and MOSFET transistor (1 ECTS) Team 2 Review on semiconductors out of equilibrium (0.75 ECTS) MS junction (0.6 ECTS) RG mechanisms and generalized junction law (0.75) Solar cells (0.9 ECTS) Team 1+ Team 2 Compound semiconductors, heterostructures and heterojunctions (0.6) MESFET and HEMT (1.2 ECTS) Homo- and Hetero-junction bipolar transistors (1.2 ECTS)
Section: Solid State Physics Class practices include simple problem solving activities, with strict connections to theoretical lectures. In some cases scientific calculators (students' personal property) may be required. In the second part of this Section (joint student teams) the students will learn how to apply the DFT method to practical cases by informatics practices. Section: Electronic Devices Class practices include problems to be solved with analytical techniques (with the possible use of student’s scientific calculator) and problems to be solved with numerical techniques (with the use of student’s personal computer). In each week further exercises are proposed for individual study (homework), whose discussion and solution is provided in the following week
Besides theoretical lectures, the course includes class practices and numerical labs. Class practices propose problems to be solved with analytical techniques (with the possible use of student’s scientific calculator), whereas numerical labs propose group-work sessions dealing with problems to be solved with numerical techniques (with the use of student’s personal computer). These include either more advanced models for a particular class of devices, or the use of numerical fitting techniques to apply analytical models to the analysis of experimental data of real devices. Students are requested to prepare (one per group) a report on 2 numerical labs covering one topic of the first module and one topic of the second module. In each week further exercises are proposed for individual study (homework), whose discussion and solution are provided in the following week. Lectures and practices will be performed in class or online or blended, depending on sanitary emergency conditions.
C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley) H. Ibach ' H. Luth: Solid-State Physics: An Introduction to Theory and Experiment (Springer) N. W. Ashcroft ' N. D. Mermin, Solid state physics (Brooks Cole) Material distributed by teachers Actual texts (selected among those in the list) will be stated by the teacher.
For the basics topics: F. Bonani, G. Piccinini, Electronic Devices, CLUT, 2019 R.F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, Addison-Wesley For more advanced topics: J. Nelson, Physics of solar cells, Imperial College Press, 2003 S.M. Sze, K.K. Ng, Physics of semiconductor devices, Wiley, 2007 U. K. Mishra, J. Singh, Semiconductor Device Physics and Design Material distributed by teachers (slides, notes, homework solution) made available on the course website
Modalità di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
The exam is written. It includes numerical exercises and open answer questions and it is aimed at assessing the student ability to analyze the operation of the devices presented during the course. The written exam may be complemented by an optional (on request of the student or of the teacher) oral exam. In this case the final mark is given as arithmetic average of the written and oral parts. Students are requested to prepare (in team) a report on 2 numerical labs covering one topic of the first module and one topic of the second module. The reports are scored max 2 points each. These points are added to the written/oral assessment.
Exam: Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform; Group project;
The exam is written. It includes numerical exercises and open answer questions and it is aimed at assessing the student ability to analyze the operation of the devices presented during the course. The written exam may be complemented by an optional (on request of the student or of the teacher) oral exam. In this case the final mark is given as arithmetic average of the written and oral parts. Students are requested to prepare (in team) a report on 2 numerical labs covering one topic of the first module and one topic of the second module. The reports are scored max 2 points each. These points are added to the written/oral assessment.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
The exam is written. It includes numerical exercises and open answer questions and it is aimed at assessing the student ability to analyze the operation of the devices presented during the course. The written exam may be complemented by an optional (on request of the student or of the teacher) oral exam. In this case the final mark is given as arithmetic average of the written and oral parts. Students are requested to prepare (in team) a report on 2 numerical labs covering one topic of the first module and one topic of the second module. The reports are scored max 2 points each. These points are added to the written/oral assessment.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform; Group project;
The exam is written. It includes numerical exercises and open answer questions and it is aimed at assessing the student ability to analyze the operation of the devices presented during the course. The written exam may be complemented by an optional (on request of the student or of the teacher) oral exam. In this case the final mark is given as arithmetic average of the written and oral parts. Students are requested to prepare (in team) a report on 2 numerical labs covering one topic of the first module and one topic of the second module. The reports are scored max 2 points each. These points are added to the written/oral assessment.
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