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Smart electricity systems

01RUKND, 01RUKND

A.A. 2020/21

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Energy And Nuclear Engineering - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 65
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 15
Tutoraggio 6
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/32
ING-IND/33
2
4
D - A scelta dello studente
D - A scelta dello studente
A scelta dello studente
A scelta dello studente
2020/21
The course presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, with the on-going transition towards a growing utilization of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. The course starts from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc. The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. On the local system side, the course deals with the structures of the power electronic conversion systems, including both the source-side converters and grid-side converters. To better understand the power electronic conversion concepts and their application, an experimental activity is carried out in the laboratory of the Energy Department. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations carried out in the computer laboratory.
The course presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, with the on-going transition towards a growing utilization of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. The course starts from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc. The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. On the local system side, the course deals with the structures of the power electronic conversion systems, including both the source-side converters and grid-side converters. To better understand the power electronic conversion concepts and their application, an experimental activity is carried out in the laboratory of the Energy Department. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations carried out in the computer laboratory.
The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include: - ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications; - ability to interpret the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.
The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include: - ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications; - ability to interpret the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.
The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).
The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).
At the beginning, up to 6 hours of non-mandatory tutoring will be available on the basic concepts of Electrotechnics and Electrical Machines. PART 1 (20 hours): Smart grid architecture and emerging scenarios Structures of electrical transmission and distribution systems. Emerging paradigms (smart grid, distributed energy resources, virtual power plants, microgrids, multi-energy systems, prosumers). Technical evolution of the grid infrastructures. Steady-state model of the electrical networks. Power flow calculations. Short circuit calculations. Use of computational tools for power flow calculations and for the solution of network problems. Active electrical networks. Demand Side Management. Smart metering concepts. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Notes on the energy markets. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time pricing. Smart grid architecture model (SGAM). PART 2 (20 hours): Power electronics for smart grid connection Structures of power electronic conversion systems for distributed generation: grid-side converters and source-side converters. Examples of distributed energy sources (micro-turbines, micro-hydro, wind generators, photovoltaic panels and fuel cells). Grid-side converters: topologies (single-phase and three-phase inverters, output filters); operation in parallel with the grid as current-controlled voltage sources and the corresponding control schemes; island operation or in parallel with a micro-grid as voltage-controlled voltage source with droop control. International standards for the connection with the grid of power converters for distributed generation (IEEE 519, UL1741, IEC 61000-3-12, VDE 0126-1-1). Source side converters: AC/DC converters for electrical generators used by wind turbines and micro-turbines; DC/DC power converters for photovoltaic panels and fuel cells along with control schemes. PART 3 (20 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER) Distributed energy resources (DER). Limits to the DER diffusion. Island operation of a portion of the distribution network. Microgrids. Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). Black box analysis. The Energy Hub matrix model. Impact of the combined production on smart grids. The role of the environment. Local and global emissions. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. Storage applications in the smart grid area. Power vs. energy. Drivers to storage development. Parameters of the storage systems. Objectives of the use of storage in the electrical systems. Storage in the Energy Hub model. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Active and passive users. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems. Capability limits of the generators with transformer-based or converter-based interfaces. Electrical load representations. Load duration curves. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles. Demand Side Management principles. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time. Demand response (DR). Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Costs and benefits for DR. DR baseline. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Framework for studying the grid integration of electric vehicles.
In the initial part of the semester of the course, 3 hours of non-mandatory tutoring will be available on the basic concepts of Electrotechnics and Electrical Machines. PART 1 (20 hours): Smart grid architecture and emerging scenarios Structures of electrical transmission and distribution systems. Emerging paradigms (smart grid, distributed energy resources, virtual power plants, microgrids, multi-energy systems, prosumers). Technical evolution of the grid infrastructures. Steady-state model of the electrical networks. Power flow calculations. Short circuit calculations. Use of computational tools for power flow calculations and for the solution of network problems. Active electrical networks. Demand Side Management. Smart metering concepts. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Notes on the energy markets. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time pricing. Smart grid architecture model (SGAM). PART 2 (20 hours): Power electronics for smart grid connection Structures of power electronic conversion systems for distributed generation: grid-side converters and source-side converters. Examples of distributed energy sources (micro-turbines, micro-hydro, wind generators, photovoltaic panels and fuel cells). Grid-side converters: topologies (single-phase and three-phase inverters, output filters); operation in parallel with the grid as current-controlled voltage sources and the corresponding control schemes; island operation or in parallel with a micro-grid as voltage-controlled voltage source with droop control. International standards for the connection with the grid of power converters for distributed generation (IEEE 519, UL1741, IEC 61000-3-12, VDE 0126-1-1). Source side converters: AC/DC converters for electrical generators used by wind turbines and micro-turbines; DC/DC power converters for photovoltaic panels and fuel cells along with control schemes. PART 3 (20 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER) Distributed energy resources (DER). Limits to the DER diffusion. Island operation of a portion of the distribution network. Microgrids. Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). Black box analysis. The Energy Hub matrix model. Impact of the combined production on smart grids. The role of the environment. Local and global emissions. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. Storage applications in the smart grid area. Power vs. energy. Drivers to storage development. Parameters of the storage systems. Objectives of the use of storage in the electrical systems. Storage in the Energy Hub model. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Active and passive users. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems. Capability limits of the generators with transformer-based or converter-based interfaces. Electrical load representations. Load duration curves. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles. Demand Side Management principles. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time. Demand response (DR). Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Costs and benefits for DR. DR baseline. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Framework for studying the grid integration of electric vehicles.
The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples. The course includes activity held in the computer laboratory, as well as experimental activity, in particular: - 15 hours in the computer laboratory, with use of computational tools for the analysis of electrical systems. - 1.5 hours of experimental activity: assessment of the performance of a 15 kVA front-end three-phase converter da 15 kVA with LCL filter on the grid side, DC-supplied from a battery emulator.
The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples. The course includes activity held in the computer laboratory, as well as experimental activity, in particular: - 15 hours in the computer laboratory, with use of computational tools for the analysis of electrical systems. - 1.5 hours of experimental activity: assessment of the performance of a 15 kVA front-end three-phase converter da 15 kVA with LCL filter on the grid side, DC-supplied from a battery emulator.
The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. Remus Teodorescu, Marco Liserre, Pedro Rodriguez, “Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems”, Wiley 2011, ISBN: 978-0-470-05751-3. D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), Distributed Generation, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.
The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. Remus Teodorescu, Marco Liserre, Pedro Rodriguez, “Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems”, Wiley 2011, ISBN: 978-0-470-05751-3. D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), Distributed Generation, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);
The exam consists of a written test (online) of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to make a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.
Exam: Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);
The exam consists of a written test (online) of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to carry out a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula);
The exam consists of a written test (online) of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to make a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.
Exam: Written test;
The exam consists of a written test of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to carry out a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.


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