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Smart electricity systems

01RUKND

A.A. 2021/22

2021/22

Smart electricity systems

The course presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, with the on-going transition towards a growing utilization of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. The course starts from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc. The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. On the local system side, the course deals with the structures of the power electronic conversion systems, including both the source-side converters and grid-side converters. To better understand the power electronic conversion concepts and their application, an experimental activity is carried out in the laboratory of the Energy Department. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations carried out in the computer laboratory.

Smart electricity systems

The course presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, with the on-going transition towards a growing utilization of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. The course starts from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc. The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. All the aspects included in the course are integrated in order to enhance the possibility of understanding the innovation in progress in the power and energy area, and the relations of the electrical sector with other energy systems. This kind of knowledge opens the possibility of employment in energy companies, energy service providers, public administrations, or in research institutes.

Smart electricity systems

The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include: - ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications; - ability to interpret the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.

Smart electricity systems

The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include the ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications, and the ability to interpret and tackle the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.

Smart electricity systems

The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).

Smart electricity systems

The preliminary knowledge needed for this course include matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).

Smart electricity systems

At the beginning, up to 6 hours of non-mandatory tutoring will be available on the basic concepts of Electrotechnics and Electrical Machines. PART 1 (20 hours): Smart grid architecture and emerging scenarios Structures of electrical transmission and distribution systems. Emerging paradigms (smart grid, distributed energy resources, virtual power plants, microgrids, multi-energy systems, prosumers). Technical evolution of the grid infrastructures. Steady-state model of the electrical networks. Power flow calculations. Short circuit calculations. Use of computational tools for power flow calculations and for the solution of network problems. Active electrical networks. Demand Side Management. Smart metering concepts. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Notes on the energy markets. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time pricing. Smart grid architecture model (SGAM). PART 2 (20 hours): Power electronics for smart grid connection Structures of power electronic conversion systems for distributed generation: grid-side converters and source-side converters. Examples of distributed energy sources (micro-turbines, micro-hydro, wind generators, photovoltaic panels and fuel cells). Grid-side converters: topologies (single-phase and three-phase inverters, output filters); operation in parallel with the grid as current-controlled voltage sources and the corresponding control schemes; island operation or in parallel with a micro-grid as voltage-controlled voltage source with droop control. International standards for the connection with the grid of power converters for distributed generation (IEEE 519, UL1741, IEC 61000-3-12, VDE 0126-1-1). Source side converters: AC/DC converters for electrical generators used by wind turbines and micro-turbines; DC/DC power converters for photovoltaic panels and fuel cells along with control schemes. PART 3 (20 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER) Distributed energy resources (DER). Limits to the DER diffusion. Island operation of a portion of the distribution network. Microgrids. Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). Black box analysis. The Energy Hub matrix model. Impact of the combined production on smart grids. The role of the environment. Local and global emissions. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. Storage applications in the smart grid area. Power vs. energy. Drivers to storage development. Parameters of the storage systems. Objectives of the use of storage in the electrical systems. Storage in the Energy Hub model. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Active and passive users. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems. Capability limits of the generators with transformer-based or converter-based interfaces. Electrical load representations. Load duration curves. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles. Demand Side Management principles. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time. Demand response (DR). Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Costs and benefits for DR. DR baseline. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Framework for studying the grid integration of electric vehicles.

Smart electricity systems

PART 1 (30 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER) Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). Black box analysis. The Energy Hub matrix model. Impact of the combined production on smart grids. The role of the environment. Local and global emissions. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. Probabilistic models of generations and loads. Adequacy of the generation to cover the demand. Adequacy indicators. Distributed energy resources (DER). Limits to the DER diffusion. Island operation of a portion of the distribution network. Microgrids. Storage applications in the smart grid area. Power vs. energy. Drivers to storage development. Parameters of the storage systems. Objectives of the use of storage in the electrical systems. Storage in the Energy Hub model. Standards on storage. Connection schemes. Power-to-X. Storage systems for primary and secondary frequency regulation. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Active and passive users. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. Notes on the Standards CEI 0-16 and CEI 0-21. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems. Capability limits of the generators with transformer-based or converter-based interfaces. Capability curves with storage. Voltage control with distributed generation. Objective function and constraints for voltage control. Fault ride-through capability curves and limits for low voltage and medium voltage systems. Notes on the protection system with voltage and frequency relays. Electrical load representations. Load duration curves. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles. Demand Side Management principles. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time. Demand response (DR). Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Costs and benefits for DR. DR baseline. DR performance metrics. Notes on demand flexibility and on the new generation of smart meters. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Framework for studying the grid integration of electric vehicles. Operation and planning aspects. Optimization of the smart grid operation with storage systems and EVs. PART 2 (30 hours): Smart grid architecture and emerging scenarios This part first introduces the emerging scenarios of smart electricity architectures both in the transmission and distribution grids. The discussion will be more focused on the new paradigms and accompanied key technologies into the power systems that enable their smartness, such as the advanced metering infrastructures, smart functions, big data applications, block chain technologies, and the prosumer communities. In addition to those key enablers, the smart grid architecture model (SGAM) will be discussed for a basic understanding of how to design a smart grid with involved aspects and technologies and the interoperability with other systems. A self-sustainable prosumer community will be used as a possible scenario to introduce the regulation design and possible controls over a large number of autonomous prosumers by nudging their behaviors with interdisciplinary perspectives.

Smart electricity systems

The course is mutuated from the course with the same title held for the Master students in Electrical Engineering. As the number of credits is different (6 credits for this course, while the course for Electrical Engineering students has 8 credits) some adjustments in the timetable will be needed and will be communicated during the course. In the initial part of the semester of the course, up 3 hours of non-mandatory tutoring will be offered for recalling the basic concepts of Electrotechnics and Electrical Systems. These hours will not be calculated within the 6 credits.

Smart electricity systems

The course is mutuated from the course with the same title held for the Master students in Electrical Engineering. As the number of credits is different (6 credits for this course, while the course for Electrical Engineering students has 8 credits) some adjustments in the timetable will be needed and will be communicated during the course. In the initial part of the semester of the course, up 3 hours of non-mandatory tutoring will be offered for recalling the basic concepts of Electrotechnics and Electrical Systems. These hours will not be calculated within the 6 credits.

Smart electricity systems

The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples. The course includes activity held in the computer laboratory, as well as experimental activity, in particular: - 15 hours in the computer laboratory, with use of computational tools for the analysis of electrical systems. - 1.5 hours of experimental activity: assessment of the performance of a 15 kVA front-end three-phase converter da 15 kVA with LCL filter on the grid side, DC-supplied from a battery emulator.

Smart electricity systems

The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples assisted by the computer, in particular concerning scenario studies on the impact of the distributed generation in the distribution system, analysis of a distributed generation mix with various scenarios of diffusion of the local generation, and integration of distributed energy resources in the distribution networks.

Smart electricity systems

The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. Remus Teodorescu, Marco Liserre, Pedro Rodriguez, “Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems”, Wiley 2011, ISBN: 978-0-470-05751-3. D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), Distributed Generation, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.

Smart electricity systems

The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: Giorgio Graditi and Marialaura Di Somma (editors), ‘Distributed Energy Resources in Local Integrated Energy Systems’, Elsevier, 2021. Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), ‘Distributed Generation’, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.

Smart electricity systems

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula);

Smart electricity systems

In the two calls of the winter exam session, the exam consists of a written test of duration 2 hours. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored (after the possible oral discussion indicated above) and registered. A positive final score cannot be refused. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test in the date communicated by the professor responsible of the course, with possible oral discussion aimed at clarifying specific aspects in case of unclear responses (not in case of incorrect responses). In the other sessions, there is a written test for the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection” (with duration of one hour, prepared in the official dates of exam), while for the other parts the exam is oral (it will be possible to come to the oral exam in the same day of the written exam, if the written exam is passed, otherwise the oral exam dates may be agreed with the Commission during the scheduled exam periods, if there are available dates before the end of the session). The student can access the oral exam only if the score obtained in the test of the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection” is positive (at least 50% of the maximum score of the test). The score of the written test is one third of the total score. The oral colloquium includes one question for each one of the other parts of the course. The final score refers to the knowledge and ability level reached on the different topics of the course programme. If the exam is not passed, also the written exam will have to be repeated. The rationale for this type of exam is that the written test refers to basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion, while the other parts deal with system-related concepts that require elaborating wider responses. The laboratory activities carried out during the course have no dedicated score; the discussion on the outcomes of the laboratory activity may be part of the written or oral exam. The time limit for completing the written test is indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. To access the exam room, each student must exhibit a valid document with photo. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. During the test the students may exit from the exam room only if they withdraw from the test or from delivering the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the student’s name and surname on the first page and with the writing “WITHDRAWN”. When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the student’s name and surname must be included in the delivered material. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must not remain on the work plan, nor under the desk, and must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled and the student will have to leave the room. Any question concerning the exam must be addressed to a member of the exam Commission. In case the question is of general interest, a member of the exam Commission will inform all the students participating in the exam. The exam is passed if all the minimum objectives indicated in the section "Expected learning outcomes" are reached. Failure in reaching one or more of the minimum objectives determines the non-passed exam evaluation.

Smart electricity systems

Exam: Written test;

Smart electricity systems

The exam is written, with multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions. The rationale for this type of exam is to verify that the main concepts and have been fully understood, the minimum objectives have been reached, and the students are able to identify the salient aspects and to synthesise these aspects in a written document. To access the exam room, each student must exhibit a valid document with photo. The written test has duration of one hour. The first 20 minutes are dedicated to closed responses, which score is one third of the total score. Only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. The remaining 40 minutes are dedicated to open responses. The time limit for completing the written test will be indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. During the test the students may exit from the exam room only if they withdraw from the test or from delivering the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the student’s name and surname on the first page and with the writing “WITHDRAWN”. When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the student’s name and surname must be included in the delivered material. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos or communicating with other persons are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of using course material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam before the end of the exam period.

Smart electricity systems

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Smart electricity systems

The exam consists of a written test (online) of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to make a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.

Smart electricity systems

Exam: Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Smart electricity systems

The exam is written, with multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions, using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus). The rationale for this type of exam is to verify that the main concepts and have been fully understood, the minimum objectives have been reached, and the students are able to identify the salient aspects and to synthesise these aspects in a written document. The written test has duration of one hour. The first 20 minutes are dedicated to closed responses, which score is one third of the total score. Only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. The remaining 40 minutes are dedicated to open responses. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos or communicating with other persons are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of using course material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam before the end of the exam period.

Smart electricity systems

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Smart electricity systems

The exam consists of a written test (online) of duration 1 hour. For the part “Power electronics for smart grid connection”, the written test has closed responses and the score is one third of the total score. For the other parts, the students have to respond in a written way to a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. For the part of the exam with closed responses, only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam. All the writings given to the Commission at the end of the written exam will be evaluated, scored and registered. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The written exam makes it possible to make a wide check on the basic aspects and components for power electronics conversion and system-related concepts. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled.

Smart electricity systems

Exam: Written test; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Smart electricity systems

The exam is written, with multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions. The rationale for this type of exam is to verify that the main concepts and have been fully understood, the minimum objectives have been reached, and the students are able to identify the salient aspects and to synthesise these aspects in a written document. For online students, the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus) will be used. For onsite students, to access the exam room, each student must exhibit a valid document with photo. The written test has duration of one hour. The first 20 minutes are dedicated to closed responses, which score is one third of the total score. Only one response is correct, and there is no penalty for incorrect or missing responses. The remaining 40 minutes are dedicated to open responses. For onsite students: the time limit for completing the written test will be indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. During the test the students may exit from the exam room only if they withdraw from the test or from delivering the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the student’s name and surname on the first page and with the writing “WITHDRAWN”. When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the student’s name and surname must be included in the delivered material. For online and onsite students: during the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, phones or equipment for taking photos or communicating with other persons are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of using course material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test will be annulled. It is possible to renounce to the exam only by withdrawing from the written exam before the end of the exam period.

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