Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Excavation engineering and mining plants

01RWHNW

A.A. 2020/21

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Petroleum And Mining Engineering (Ingegneria Del Petrolio E Mineraria) - Torino

Borrow

01RVLNF 01SGQNW 02RVLNW

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 80
Esercitazioni in aula 20
Tutoraggio 10
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Cardu Marilena Professore Associato ING-IND/28 70 0 0 0 5
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/28 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Valutazione CPD 2020/21
2020/21
The course aims to provide the fundamentals on excavation techniques and processing plants, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out the works, the rules for setting the organization and performing such work in a technically correct and safe way. Part of the course is devoted to processing, with the aim of making the excavation/production cycle clear in all its phases. The contents of the course are continuously updated, depending on the requirements of different operating conditions, and therefore they can’t be crystallized into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, with the intention of stimulating topics of research and personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with the technical international language.
The course aims to provide the fundamentals on excavation techniques and processing plants, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out properly a given work, together with the rules for setting its organization in a technically suitable and safe way. Part of the course is devoted to processing plants, with the aim of making the excavation/production cycle clear in all its phases. The contents of the course are continuously updated, depending on the requirements of different operating conditions, and therefore they can’t be frozen into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, to highlight the different topics of research and encourage personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with good technical international language.
The acquisition of technical skills to perform excavation works in different contexts (open pit, underground, underwater construction sites) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of the equipment and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The topics treated have the aim to stimulate research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on the criticism of the context. It therefore intends to encourage the independence and the learning ability, stimulating the discussion: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the discussion is fundamental. Students will be then invited to write technical reports on the cases presented during the lectures, to take a reasoned decision, to estimate the orders of magnitude of the numerical values that the engineer has to manage in the main reference cases, to understand the international terminology.
The acquisition of technical skills to perform excavation works in different contexts (open pit, underground, underwater construction sites) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of the equipment and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The faced topics are aimed to approach the research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on the criticism of the context; the aim is, therefore, encouraging intellectual independence through the critical ability to face design choices in line with the evolution of technology; another objective is to test the individual's ability to learn, through frequent discussions on different design scenarios: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the choice, which must be compatible with the best technical-economic evaluation, is fundamental. Students could be then invited to draw up technical reports on subjects discussed during the lectures, to make a reasonable decision, and evaluate the orders of magnitude of the parameters that an engineer has to manage in the field of excavation technologies.
Chemistry, Physics, Materials’ science and technology, Applied Geology and Geomechanics
Chemistry, Physics, Materials’ science and technology, Applied Geology, and Geomechanics
General principles and definitions; mechanical properties and materials behaviour; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; geometry of the stope; organization of the work phases. PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data of explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; non electric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; powder factor, specific drilling, detonators consumption and related costs; firing line and blasting circuit calculations. Open pit blasts. Bench blasts; single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts. Contour blasting and unwanted effects. Dynamic splitting. Underground blasts. Tunnelling. Charges’ geometry and initiation sequence; type of cuts; muck-pile geometry. Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly-rocks, dust and air blast). Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; open pit and underground drilling equipment. Mucking and transportation: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater excavations. PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Description of the most common machines. Hardness and toughness; tools’ material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanism of action and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in terms of specific energy. Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems. PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclic machines: weight, power and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket wheel excavators. Excavation and transportation equipment. Dredges: Cyclical and continuous equipment. PART IV. Exploratory drilling. Introduction and overview. Core drilling. Diamond core drills; drill rods; core barrels (single, double, Wire Line). Drill units. Wire Line Rods. Flush pumps. Drill bits; reaming shells; casing shoes; casing tubes; flushing water recommendations. Casing tubes for overburden drilling; Percussion/Rotary rods; In-the-hole equipment accessories. Special operations. Exploratory drilling for mining and/or geotechnical surveys. Sampling: general principles; core barrels (single, double, triple tube). Interpretation of survey results. PART V: Process plants and separation systems. State-of-the-art on mineral processing plants. Separation process principles and capabilities. Jigging machines. Washing and crushing equipment. Modular mineral processing equipment and uupgraded solutions. Base metal operations and grade control. Key performance indicators (KPI) development to optimize the "mine-to-mill" process. Power plants. Underground ventilation systems. Water supply systems. Underground extraction systems. Haulage and conveyance plants
General principles and definitions; mechanical properties and materials behavior; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; the geometry of the stope; organization of the work phases. PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data of explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; non-electric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; powder factor, specific drilling, detonators consumption, and related costs; firing line and blasting circuit calculations. Open-pit blasts. Bench blasts; a single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts. Contour blasting and unwanted effects. Dynamic splitting. Underground blasts. Tunneling. Charges’ geometry and initiation sequence; type of cuts; muck-pile geometry. Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly-rocks, dust, and air blast). Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; open pit and underground drilling equipment. Mucking and transportation: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater excavations. PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit, and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Drilling machines. Description of the most common equipment depending on the excavation site. Cyclic and continuous machines. Hardness and toughness; tools’ material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanisms and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in terms of specific energy. Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems. PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclic machines: weight, power, and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket-wheel excavators. Excavation and conveyance equipment depending on the excavation site. Dredges: Cyclic and continuous equipment. PART IV: Mining plants. State-of-the-art. Principles and capabilities of different processes. Key performance indicators (KPI) development to optimize the process. Power plants. Underground ventilation systems. Compressed air supply. Water supply systems. Underground hoisting systems. Haulage and conveyance plants.
For the current year, the lectures will be delivered in virtual mode; however, it is hoped that exercises can be carried out at least partially in the classroom, especially those related to practical issues on which discussion should be encouraged. A tutoring program will also be developed to provide clarifications on doubts and problems encountered during the theoretical part of the course.
As for the Academic Year 2020-2021, the lectures will be delivered in virtual mode; however, if the evolution of the conditions caused by the coronavirus will make it possible, at least a part of the exercises would be carried out in the classroom, especially those related to practical issues where the discussion must be encouraged. Anyhow, the lectures will be recorded, to allow those who cannot reach the Politecnico to participate in virtual mode. A tutoring program will also be developed, to provide clarifications on doubts and problems encountered during the theoretical part of the course.
The course, in addition to lectures (about 64 hours) involves practical exercises (approximately 36 hours), essentially based on examples of calculation and evaluation of the major parameters influencing different types of excavation techniques. Group works are also provided for the analysis and discussion of real cases presented by the teacher. Finally, depending on the number of students, technical visits to excavation sites or process plants (maximum one day) are organized.
The course, in addition to lectures (about 64 hours) involves practical exercises (approximately 36 hours), essentially based on examples of calculation and evaluation of the major parameters influencing different types of excavation techniques. Group works can be also provided for the analysis and discussion of real cases presented by the teacher. For the current year, it is intended to contact other international Universities to organize virtual visits to excavation sites equipped with innovative technologies, to stimulate students' personal interest and to encourage contacts with other international students; virtual visits to the laboratories of prestigious international Universities would be also provided (WITS Johannesburg, UNSW Sydney, West Virginia USA, Freiberg Germany, Clausthal Germany)
Since the topics explained and discussed are a particular synthesis of many aspects of Geo-Engineering, the material is continually updated and made available to students before the beginning of the course through the didactic portal. The available texts are numerous, and these are explicitly referred to in the material provided, as well as expressly suggested for further details. The constant updating of the topics discussed is also suggested by consulting the most recent International Magazines and/or conference papers provided by the teacher. The slides shown during the lectures are the most complete and comprehensive as possible, to facilitate understanding of the concepts contained in the course. Tutorials: Proposed texts, technical sheets, synthesis of manuals and so on, are also available through the portal. The exercises are solved entirely on the board by the teacher or, in any case, their trace is suggested in the classroom.
Since the topics explained and discussed are a synthesis of many aspects of both Geo-Engineering and Mining, the material is continuously updated and made available to students before the beginning of classes through the portal. The available texts are numerous, and are explicitly referred to in the material provided, as well as expressly suggested for further details. The constant updating of the topics discussed is also suggested by referring to the most recent International Magazines and/or conference papers provided by the teacher. The slides shown during the lectures are the most complete and comprehensive as possible, to facilitate understanding of the issues and their proposed solutions. Tutorials: Proposed texts, technical sheets, synthesis of manuals, and so on, are also available through the portal. The exercises are completely solved by the teacher or, in any case, their trace is always suggested.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato grafico prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti; Prova scritta tramite l'utilizzo di vLAIB e piattaforma di ateneo;
Expected learning outcomes: Knowledge and comprehension skills; ability to analyze and compute the characteristic parameters of the various types of excavation sites, knowing how to evaluate the advantages of using each technique in different contexts. Knowledge of the fundamental notions of excavation engineering and mining plants for the understanding of the processing and analysis techniques to be carried out, both in the design phase and on-site. The ability to apply knowledge and understanding to real cases will be also verified. Criteria, rules, and procedures for the examination: The final exam aims to verify the acquisition of knowledge and skills through a theoretical written test, consisting of 10 open-ended questions, relating to all the topics of the lectures. The assessment of the test is expressed in thirtieths and is done considering a) the correctness of the answers, b) the relevance of the information provided, c) the ability to respond clearly, precisely and rationally, adequately motivating the considerations produced. The test also includes 4-5 exercises, to verify the ability to analyze practical situations and apply knowledge in particular contexts of use, bound by singular technical specifications. The time available to the student for the written test is 2 hours (Excavation Engineering) + 1 hour (Mining Plants) and it is not allowed to consult teaching materials or notes or other texts. The student can use only protocol sheets, which will be verified by the teacher after the student has affixed his name and the date of the writing, and one or more black or blue pens (not red). The final mark is composed of the evaluation of the written and the mark of the oral exam (which can change the mark both for positive and negative). As a rule, the oral part of the exam must be taken in the session where the written exam was passed. Students, in groups of two, can integrate the final assessment, up to a maximum of three out of thirty, through a drafting project proposed by the teacher to be delivered and discussed within the first exam session. The project constitutes a further element to evaluate the student's skills in solving problems in new and wider contexts compared to the specific cases analyzed during the course and to verify their autonomy in learning the new necessary knowledge.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group graphic design project; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff; Written test via vLAIB using the PoliTo platform;
Expected learning outcomes: knowledge and comprehension skills; ability to analyze and compute the characteristic parameters of the various types of excavation sites, to evaluate the advantages of using each technique in different contexts. Knowledge of the fundamental notions of excavation engineering and mining plants for the understanding of the processing and analysis techniques to carry out, both in the design phase and on-site. The ability to apply knowledge and understanding to real cases will also be checked. Criteria, rules, and procedures for the examination: The final exam aims to verify the acquisition of knowledge and skills through a theoretical written test, consisting of 10 open-ended questions, with regard to the whole program of the lectures. The assessment of the test is expressed in thirtieths and is done considering a) the correctness of the answers, b) the relevance of the information provided, c) the ability to answer clearly, accurately and rationally, adequately motivating the comments and proposals produced. The test also includes 4-5 exercises, to verify the skill in analyzing practical problems in different contexts, bound by singular technical specifications. The time available to the student for the written test is 2 hours (Excavation Engineering) + 1 hour (Mining Plants) and it is not allowed to use notes or texts, or anything else. The student can use only white sheets, which will be verified by the teacher after the student has written his name, ID and the date of the writing, and one or more black or blue pens (not red). To access the oral exam, a score of at least 18/30 in writing is necessary. The oral exam consists of specific questions on the written test (clarification of doubts on the solution of exercises, or on any shortcomings found in the answer to theoretical questions); then some specific questions can be asked regarding topics covered in the lectures, which can lead to a discussion on the approach to be adopted in order to optimize the choice of the most suitable excavation technique, respecting the productivity to be achieved, the costs and the consequent selection of the more suitable equipment. The final mark is composed of the evaluation of the written and the oral exam (which can change the mark both for positive and negative). As a rule, the oral part of the exam must be taken in the session where the written exam was done. Students, in groups of two, can integrate the final assessment, up to a maximum of three out of thirty, through a drafting project proposed by the teacher, to be delivered and discussed within the oral exam. The project is a further element to evaluate the student's skills in solving problems in new and wider contexts compared to the specific cases analyzed during the lectures, and to verify their autonomy in improving their knowledge.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato grafico prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;
Expected learning outcomes: Knowledge and comprehension skills; ability to analyze and compute the characteristic parameters of the various types of excavation sites, knowing how to evaluate the advantages of using each technique in different contexts. Knowledge of the fundamental notions of excavation engineering and mining plants for the understanding of the processing and analysis techniques to be carried out, both in the design phase and on-site. The ability to apply knowledge and understanding to real cases will be also verified. Criteria, rules, and procedures for the examination: The final exam aims to verify the acquisition of knowledge and skills through a theoretical written test, consisting of 10 open-ended questions, relating to all the topics of the lectures. The assessment of the test is expressed in thirtieths and is done considering a) the correctness of the answers, b) the relevance of the information provided, c) the ability to respond clearly, precisely and rationally, adequately motivating the considerations produced. The test also includes 4-5 exercises, to verify the ability to analyze practical situations and apply knowledge in particular contexts of use, bound by singular technical specifications. The time available to the student for the written test is 2 hours (Excavation Engineering) + 1 hour (Mining Plants) and it is not allowed to consult teaching materials or notes or other texts. The student can use only protocol sheets, which will be verified by the teacher after the student has affixed his name and the date of the writing, and one or more black or blue pens (not red). The final mark is composed of the evaluation of the written and the mark of the oral exam (which can change the mark both for positive and negative). As a rule, the oral part of the exam must be taken in the session where the written exam was passed. Students, in groups of two, can integrate the final assessment, up to a maximum of three out of thirty, through a drafting project proposed by the teacher to be delivered and discussed within the first exam session. The project represents a further element to evaluate the student's skills in solving problems in new and wider contexts compared to the specific cases analyzed during the course and to verify their autonomy in learning the new necessary knowledge.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group graphic design project; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;
Expected learning outcomes: knowledge and comprehension skills; ability to analyze and compute the characteristic parameters of the various types of excavation sites, to evaluate the advantages of using each technique in different contexts. Knowledge of the fundamental notions of excavation engineering and mining plants for the understanding of the processing and analysis techniques to carry out, both in the design phase and on-site. The ability to apply knowledge and understanding to real cases will also be checked. Criteria, rules, and procedures for the examination: The final exam aims to verify the acquisition of knowledge and skills through a theoretical written test, consisting of 10 open-ended questions, with regard to the whole program of the lectures. The assessment of the test is expressed in thirtieths and is done considering a) the correctness of the answers, b) the relevance of the information provided, c) the ability to answer clearly, accurately and rationally, adequately motivating the comments and proposals produced. The test also includes 4-5 exercises, to verify the skill in analyzing practical problems in different contexts, bound by singular technical specifications. The time available to the student for the written test is 2 hours (Excavation Engineering) + 1 hour (Mining Plants) and it is not allowed to use notes or texts, or anything else. The student can use only white sheets, which will be verified by the teacher after the student has written his name, ID and the date of the writing, and one or more black or blue pens (not red). To access the oral exam, a score of at least 18/30 in writing is necessary. The final mark is composed of the evaluation of the written and the oral exam (which can change the mark both for positive and negative). As a rule, the oral part of the exam must be taken in the session where the written exam was done. Students, in groups of two, can integrate the final assessment, up to a maximum of three out of thirty, through a drafting project proposed by the teacher, to be delivered and discussed within the oral exam. The project is a further element to evaluate the student's skills in solving problems in new and wider contexts compared to the specific cases analyzed during the lectures, and to verify their autonomy in improving their knowledge.
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