Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Excavation engineering and mining plants

01RWHNW

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Petroleum And Mining Engineering (Ingegneria Del Petrolio E Mineraria) - Torino

Borrow

01RVLNF 01SGQNW 02RVLNW

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 80
Esercitazioni in aula 20
Tutoraggio 10
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Cardu Marilena Professore Associato ING-IND/28 75 0 0 0 5
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/28 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Valutazione CPD 2021/22
2021/22
The course aims to provide the fundamentals on excavation techniques and processing plants, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out the works, the rules for setting the organization and performing such work in a technically correct and safe way. Part of the course is devoted to processing, with the aim of making the excavation/production cycle clear in all its phases. The contents of the course are continuously updated, depending on the requirements of different operating conditions, and therefore they can’t be crystallized into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, with the intention of stimulating topics of research and personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with the technical international language.
The course aims to provide the fundamentals on excavation techniques and processing plants, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out the works, the rules for setting the organization and performing such work in a technically correct and safe way. Part of the course is devoted to processing, with the aim of making the excavation/production cycle clear in all its phases. The contents of the course are continuously updated, depending on the requirements of different operating conditions, and therefore they can’t be crystallized into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, with the intention of stimulating topics of research and personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with the technical international language.
The acquisition of technical skills to perform excavation works in different contexts (open pit, underground, underwater construction sites) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of the equipment and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The topics treated have the aim to stimulate research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on the criticism of the context. It therefore intends to encourage the independence and the learning ability, stimulating the discussion: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the discussion is fundamental. Students will be then invited to write technical reports on the cases presented during the lectures, to take a reasoned decision, to estimate the orders of magnitude of the numerical values that the engineer has to manage in the main reference cases, to understand the international terminology.
The acquisition of technical skills to perform excavation works in different contexts (open pit, underground, underwater construction sites) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of the equipment and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The topics treated have the aim to stimulate research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on the criticism of the context. It therefore intends to encourage the independence and the learning ability, stimulating the discussion: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the discussion is fundamental. Students will be then invited to write technical reports on the cases presented during the lectures, to take a reasoned decision, to estimate the orders of magnitude of the numerical values that the engineer has to manage in the main reference cases, to understand the international terminology.
Chemistry, Physics, Materials’ science and technology, Applied Geology and Geomechanics
Chemistry, Physics, Materials’ science and technology, Applied Geology and Geomechanics
General principles and definitions; mechanical properties and materials behaviour; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; geometry of the stope; organization of the work phases. PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data of explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; non electric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; powder factor, specific drilling, detonators consumption and related costs; firing line and blasting circuit calculations. Open pit blasts. Bench blasts; single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts. Contour blasting and unwanted effects. Dynamic splitting. Underground blasts. Tunnelling. Charges’ geometry and initiation sequence; type of cuts; muck-pile geometry. Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly-rocks, dust and air blast). Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; open pit and underground drilling equipment. Mucking and transportation: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater excavations. PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Description of the most common machines. Hardness and toughness; tools’ material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanism of action and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in terms of specific energy. Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems. PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclic machines: weight, power and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket wheel excavators. Excavation and transportation equipment. Dredges: Cyclical and continuous equipment. PART IV. Exploratory drilling. Introduction and overview. Core drilling. Diamond core drills; drill rods; core barrels (single, double, Wire Line). Drill units. Wire Line Rods. Flush pumps. Drill bits; reaming shells; casing shoes; casing tubes; flushing water recommendations. Casing tubes for overburden drilling; Percussion/Rotary rods; In-the-hole equipment accessories. Special operations. Exploratory drilling for mining and/or geotechnical surveys. Sampling: general principles; core barrels (single, double, triple tube). Interpretation of survey results. PART V: Process plants and separation systems. State-of-the-art on mineral processing plants. Separation process principles and capabilities. Jigging machines. Washing and crushing equipment. Modular mineral processing equipment and uupgraded solutions. Base metal operations and grade control. Key performance indicators (KPI) development to optimize the "mine-to-mill" process. Power plants. Underground ventilation systems. Water supply systems. Underground extraction systems. Haulage and conveyance plants
General principles and definitions; mechanical properties and materials behavior; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; geometry of the stope; organization of the work phases. PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data of explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; nonelectric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; powder factor, specific drilling, detonators consumption, and related costs; firing line and blasting circuit calculations. Open-pit blasts. Bench blasts; single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts. Contour blasting and unwanted effects. Dynamic splitting. Underground blasts. Tunneling. Charges’ geometry and initiation sequence; type of cuts; muck-pile geometry. Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly rocks, dust, and air blast). Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; open pit and underground drilling equipment. Mucking and transportation: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater excavations. PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit, and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Description of the most common machines. Hardness and toughness; tools’ material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanism of action and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in terms of specific energy. Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems. PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclic machines: weight, power, and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket-wheel excavators. Excavation and transportation equipment. Dredges: Cyclical and continuous equipment. PART IV. Exploratory drilling. Introduction and overview. Core drilling. Diamond core drills; drill rods; core barrels (single, double, Wire Line). Drill units. Wire Line Rods. Flush pumps. Drill bits; reaming shells; casing shoes; casing tubes; flushing water recommendations. Casing tubes for overburden drilling; Percussion/Rotary rods; In-the-hole equipment accessories. Special operations. Exploratory drilling for mining and/or geotechnical surveys. Sampling: general principles; core barrels (single, double, triple tube). Interpretation of survey results. PART V: Process plants and separation systems. State-of-the-art on mineral processing plants. Separation process principles and capabilities. Jigging machines. Washing and crushing equipment. Modular mineral processing equipment and upgraded solutions. Base metal operations and grade control. Key performance indicators (KPI) development to optimize the "mine-to-mill" process. Power plants. Underground ventilation systems. Water supply systems. Underground extraction systems. Haulage and conveyance plants
The course, in addition to lectures (about 64 hours) involves practical exercises (approximately 36 hours), essentially based on examples of calculation and evaluation of the major parameters influencing different types of excavation techniques. Group works are also provided for the analysis and discussion of real cases presented by the teacher. Finally, depending on the number of students, technical visits to excavation sites or process plants (maximum one day) are organized.
The course, in addition to lectures (about 64 hours) involves practical exercises (approximately 36 hours), essentially based on examples of calculation and evaluation of the major parameters influencing different types of excavation techniques. Group works are also provided for the analysis and discussion of real cases presented by the teacher. Finally, depending on the number of students, technical visits to excavation sites or process plants (maximum one day) are organized.
Since the topics explained and discussed are a particular synthesis of many aspects of Geo-Engineering, the material is continually updated and made available to students before the beginning of the course through the didactic portal. The available texts are numerous, and these are explicitly referred to in the material provided, as well as expressly suggested for further details. The constant updating of the topics discussed is also suggested by consulting the most recent International Magazines and/or conference papers provided by the teacher. The slides shown during the lectures are the most complete and comprehensive as possible, to facilitate understanding of the concepts contained in the course. Tutorials: Proposed texts, technical sheets, synthesis of manuals and so on, are also available through the portal. The exercises are solved entirely on the board by the teacher or, in any case, their trace is suggested in the classroom.
Since the topics explained and discussed are a synthesis of many aspects of Geo-Engineering, the material is continually updated and made available to students before the beginning of the course through the didactic portal. The available texts are numerous, and these are explicitly referred to in the material provided, as well as expressly suggested for further details. The constant updating of the topics discussed is also suggested by consulting the most recent International Magazines and/or conference papers provided by the teacher. The slides shown during the lectures are the most complete and comprehensive as possible, to facilitate understanding of the concepts contained in the course. Tutorials: Proposed texts, technical sheets, synthesis of manuals, and so on, are also available through the portal. The exercises will be solved on the board by the teacher or, in any case, the trace will be suggested in the classroom.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto individuale;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Individual essay;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Individual essay;
Exam, written and oral, at the end of the course. In order to verify students’ learning, it consists of different parts: the written part contains theoretical questions and exercises that will be solved without the aid of notes or books. Of course, a calculator is allowed, but no cell phones; the exam lasts 2.5 hours. A minimum score of 15 points (30 being the maximum) is required to access the oral exam, which consists of: a review of the written exam; a discussion of the reports drawn up during the practical part (exercises); an oral investigation on specific problems.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto individuale; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Individual essay; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
If it is not possible to take the written exam in the classroom, the Respondus platform will be used. The exam will consist of a series of multiple choice exercises and open questions. The oral exam will be accessed starting from a minimum score of 15/30. The oral exam will be done in virtual mode through the BBB (or Zoom) platform.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato grafico individuale; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Individual graphic design project; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
Expected learning outcomes Understanding of the topics covered and calculation skills in the use of the related tools introduced. Ability to recognize and use adequate tools in the subject matter. Ability to build a logical path, using the tools introduced. Criteria, rules, and procedures for the exam The exam is aimed at ascertaining knowledge of the topics listed in the official course program and the ability to apply the theory and related calculation methods to solving exercises. The evaluations are expressed out of thirty and the exam is passed if the final mark reported (written and oral) is at least 18/30. The exam consists of a written test containing 5 exercises and 10 theoretical questions on the topics of the course and has the purpose of verifying the level of knowledge and understanding of the topics covered. The written exam aims to verify the above skills (cf. Expected learning outcomes): the exam, in fact, includes calculation exercises that require the need to choose the most appropriate solution, but also questions of the theoretical type, which require the student's ability to build a logical chain by applying the techniques seen in class. The duration of the written test is 2.5 hours. Each closed-ended exercise is worth: 3 points if right, 0 points if no answer, -0,5 points if wrong. Theoretical questions range 1.5 points each if correct, 0 points if unanswered or incorrect. An additional point is reserved for notational clarity and expository rigor and allows for praise. During the examination, it is not allowed to keep and consult notebooks, books, sheets with exercises. The use of a portable calculator is allowed. The results of the exam are communicated on the teaching portal, together with the date on which students can view the assignment and ask for clarification.
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