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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Industrial chemistry and process simulation

01RWNMW

A.A. 2018/19

Course Language

Italian

Course degree

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 40
Esercitazioni in aula 10
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Bensaid Samir
Industrial chemistry for oil and polymers
Professore Associato ING-IND/27 40 10 0 0 3
Gozzelino Giuseppe
Industrial chemistry for oil and polymers
Professore Associato ING-IND/27 40 10 0 0 2
Bensaid Samir
Process simulation
Professore Associato ING-IND/27 40 10 0 0 3
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
2018/19
The lectures give an up-to-date and essential knowledge of the chemical industrial processes used to transform the petroleum into chemicals and final products, for chemical industry and manufacturing, respectively. Chemical, technological and economical issues are investigated, as well as the use of process simulators to design and optimize industrial equipment and complex processes, thus assessing the effect of the operating conditions on final product.
The lectures give an up-to-date and essential knowledge of the chemical industrial processes used to transform the petroleum into chemicals and final products, for chemical industry and manufacturing, respectively. Chemical, technological and economical issues are investigated, as well as the use of process simulators to design and optimize industrial equipment and complex processes, thus assessing the effect of the operating conditions on final product.
Aims of the course are the development of abilities in the chemical process evaluation for industrial production, the application of theoretical principles to control the conversion of a raw material into a chemical product, the identification of the process parameters playing a critical role on the transformation and the gathering of factors critical for the product cost reduction. Moreover, the course is planned to develop the student expertise on models handling, for single equipment or whole plant process representation, with the task of verification of the process performances, parameters optimization and simulation result presentation. At the end of the course, it is expected that the student has knowledge on: - industrial cycles for transformation of petroleum into chemicals and polymeric end products, - critical parameters that control the chemical transformations on a large scale, - applicable technologies to produce polymeric material on large scale, - the problems related to chemical processes modelling, - the characteristics of a professional process simulator, - how to present in an effective form the results obtained using a process simulator; that he has the following capacities: - evaluate the suitability of a hydrocarbons transformation process on industrial scale, - design processes for polymeric material production, - test the influence of the polymerisation conditions on the properties of the polymeric product, - develop useful models for process simulation, - identify suitable thermodynamic methods for the description of the single steps of a chemical process, - employ a process simulator to design equipment and processes, - analyze the results obtained through process simulation; that he is able: - to identify a suitable industrial process for the production of a specified chemical product, - to change the process conditions to reach the specification target about the product, - to present in a suitable way the results obtained through process simulation. The course, in order to reach all the planned goals, has been structured on three main parts, exploiting as a subject the whole cycle of the petroleum transformation, from the refinery to the petrochemical plants. The processes, involved in the crude refining or hydrocarbon conversion into chemicals or monomers, are described through the analysis of the thermodynamic, kinetic and technological aspects of each transformations step. The second part of the course deals with the principles of industrial production of polymers and with the product characterization. The fundamentals, for step and chain reactions of polymer formation, are illustrated together with the industrial technologies developed to produce thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric materials. In the third part of the course, the necessary knowledge for the use of a professional software to simulate chemical processes is developed, and single equipments, as well as whole processes, are designed, with particular emphasis on crude transformation.
Aims of the course are the development of abilities in the chemical process evaluation for industrial production, the application of theoretical principles to control the conversion of a raw material into a chemical product, the identification of the process parameters playing a critical role on the transformation and the gathering of factors critical for the product cost reduction. Moreover, the course is planned to develop the student expertise on models handling, for single equipment or whole plant process representation, with the task of verification of the process performances, parameters optimization and simulation result presentation. At the end of the course, it is expected that the student has knowledge on: - industrial cycles for transformation of petroleum into chemicals and polymeric end products, - critical parameters that control the chemical transformations on a large scale, - applicable technologies to produce polymeric material on large scale, - the problems related to chemical processes modelling, - the characteristics of a professional process simulator, - how to present in an effective form the results obtained using a process simulator; that he has the following capacities: - evaluate the suitability of a hydrocarbons transformation process on industrial scale, - design processes for polymeric material production, - test the influence of the polymerisation conditions on the properties of the polymeric product, - develop useful models for process simulation, - identify suitable thermodynamic methods for the description of the single steps of a chemical process, - employ a process simulator to design equipment and processes, - analyze the results obtained through process simulation; that he is able: - to identify a suitable industrial process for the production of a specified chemical product, - to change the process conditions to reach the specification target about the product, - to present in a suitable way the results obtained through process simulation. The course, in order to reach all the planned goals, has been structured on three main parts, exploiting as a subject the whole cycle of the petroleum transformation, from the refinery to the petrochemical plants. The processes, involved in the crude refining or hydrocarbon conversion into chemicals or monomers, are described through the analysis of the thermodynamic, kinetic and technological aspects of each transformations step. The second part of the course deals with the principles of industrial production of polymers and with the product characterization. The fundamentals, for step and chain reactions of polymer formation, are illustrated together with the industrial technologies developed to produce thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric materials. In the third part of the course, the necessary knowledge for the use of a professional software to simulate chemical processes is developed, and single equipments, as well as whole processes, are designed, with particular emphasis on crude transformation.
The course can be followed if the student has the basic knowledge of: - principles of general and organic chemistry, - Operating basic principles of the equipments used in the industrial chemistry, like heat exchangers, absorption columns, distillation equipments or chemical reactors. - thermodynamic methods for property evaluation of chemical compounds and for liquid-vapour equilibrium analysis.
The course can be followed if the student has the basic knowledge of: - principles of general and organic chemistry, - Operating basic principles of the equipments used in the industrial chemistry, like heat exchangers, absorption columns, distillation equipments or chemical reactors. - thermodynamic methods for property evaluation of chemical compounds and for liquid-vapour equilibrium analysis.
Part one (20 hrs) Petroleum, a raw material. Economic and historical aspects of the industrial exploitation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Industrial products from petrochemistry. Technological evaluation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Crude oil distillation. Fractions composition. Distillation curves. Technological properties and their graphical representation. Refining processes. Hydrocarbon fractions for energy and petrochemistry. Refining processes of gaseous mixtures by absorption and adsorption. Hydrotreating of liquid fractions. Conversion of liquid and gaseous fraction. Catalysts for hydrocarbon interconversion. Catalytic cracking, alkylation, isomerisation, isomerisation, oligomerization and catalytic reforming. Petroleum fractions. Product specifications. Blending. Additives. Environmental pollution by hydrocarbons. Ecological and safety criteria in the hydrocarbon mixture handling. Flammability. Production of light olefins. Ethylene. Olefins and diolefins from steam cracking. Reaction schemes. Unsaturated product separation and purification. Butadiene and isoprene from chemicals. Production of aromatics. Sources of aromatic hydrocarbons. Separation of BTX mixtures. Processes for separation and purification of aromatic C8 isomers. Alkylaromatics conversion. Aromatic derivatives. Chemicals. Monomers. Solvents. Light olefins derivatives through oxosynthesis, selective oxidation, hydration and halogenations. Part two (30 hrs) Introduction to polymers. Classification, structures, properties, applications. Mean molecular weight concept. MW from measure of polymer solutions properties. Instrumental techniques for molecular weight distribution measurements. Polymers from radical chain reactions. Monomers, initiators, reaction models, kinetics, MW control. Technologies for bulk, solution, suspension or emulsion polymerization. Polymers from step reactions. Monomers, catalysts, process variables and DP, MW distribution. Industrial production of polyamides and polyesters. Polymers from ionic chain reaction. Features of the ionic propagation process. Stereospecific polymerization. Polymer commodities. HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PP, PS PVC. Polymers from copolymerization. Copolimerization theoretical models. Polymer composition and monomers reactivity. Evaluation of the reactivity ratios. Industrial copolymers. Industrial production of some thermoplastic, thermosetting and elastomeric polymers. Environmental impact of the industrial polymers. Environmental degradation. Technologies for polymer re-using, disposal or recycling Polymers from renewable sources. Biopolymers. Production and application of starch and cellulose. Production an applications of poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxy alkanoates). Part three (30 hrs) - Process development through process simulation. Importance of the mathematical models in for process description and analysis. Problems and drawbacks in the process simulation practice. Criteria for simplified models selection. Selection of thermodynamic methods. Methods for the presentation of the simulation results. - Design of basic equipments for chemical processes. Design and optimization of heat exchangers, absorption or adsorption columns, distillation units, liquid-liquid contactors and chemical reactors through a professional process simulator. - Design of industrial processes. Design and optimization of industrial processes with energy integration and internal recycling. Applications to petrochemical processes for polymer production.
Part one (20 hrs) Petroleum, a raw material. Economic and historical aspects of the industrial exploitation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Industrial products from petrochemistry. Technological evaluation of hydrocarbon mixtures. Crude oil distillation. Fractions composition. Distillation curves. Technological properties and their graphical representation. Refining processes. Hydrocarbon fractions for energy and petrochemistry. Refining processes of gaseous mixtures by absorption and adsorption. Hydrotreating of liquid fractions. Conversion of liquid and gaseous fraction. Catalysts for hydrocarbon interconversion. Catalytic cracking, alkylation, isomerisation, isomerisation, oligomerization and catalytic reforming. Petroleum fractions. Product specifications. Blending. Additives. Environmental pollution by hydrocarbons. Ecological and safety criteria in the hydrocarbon mixture handling. Flammability. Production of light olefins. Ethylene. Olefins and diolefins from steam cracking. Reaction schemes. Unsaturated product separation and purification. Butadiene and isoprene from chemicals. Production of aromatics. Sources of aromatic hydrocarbons. Separation of BTX mixtures. Processes for separation and purification of aromatic C8 isomers. Alkylaromatics conversion. Aromatic derivatives. Chemicals. Monomers. Solvents. Light olefins derivatives through oxosynthesis, selective oxidation, hydration and halogenations. Part two (30 hrs) Introduction to polymers. Classification, structures, properties, applications. Mean molecular weight concept. MW from measure of polymer solutions properties. Instrumental techniques for molecular weight distribution measurements. Polymers from radical chain reactions. Monomers, initiators, reaction models, kinetics, MW control. Technologies for bulk, solution, suspension or emulsion polymerization. Polymers from step reactions. Monomers, catalysts, process variables and DP, MW distribution. Industrial production of polyamides and polyesters. Polymers from ionic chain reaction. Features of the ionic propagation process. Stereospecific polymerization. Polymer commodities. HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, PP, PS PVC. Polymers from copolymerization. Copolimerization theoretical models. Polymer composition and monomers reactivity. Evaluation of the reactivity ratios. Industrial copolymers. Industrial production of some thermoplastic, thermosetting and elastomeric polymers. Environmental impact of the industrial polymers. Environmental degradation. Technologies for polymer re-using, disposal or recycling Polymers from renewable sources. Biopolymers. Production and application of starch and cellulose. Production an applications of poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxy alkanoates). Part three (50 hrs) - Process development through process simulation. Importance of the mathematical models in for process description and analysis. Problems and drawbacks in the process simulation practice. Criteria for simplified models selection. Selection of thermodynamic methods. Methods for the presentation of the simulation results. - Design of basic equipments for chemical processes. Design and optimization of heat exchangers, absorption or adsorption columns, distillation units, liquid-liquid contactors and chemical reactors through a professional process simulator. - Design of industrial processes. Design and optimization of industrial processes with energy integration and internal recycling. Applications to petrochemical processes for polymer production. - Tutorials: oil production processes are discussed and simulated: crude oil topping, oil-water-gas separation, natural gas sweetening, natural gas dehydration, natural gas liquids production, polymerization, co-polymerization.
Lectures are integrated with numerical exercise where students are asked to solve simple problems connected with the subject of the lesson. Moreover, a specific cycle of computing practice is developed in a computer laboratory (LAIB) with the use of a process simulator for the design of specific chemical equipments and plants. Aim of the practice is to become friendly with computing software for equipment and chemical process design, with particular reference to petroleum technology and polymer production. At first, the teacher illustrates the subject of the computing work together with exposition of solutions for some reference cases. Later, under teacher tutoring, each student tackles and solves some specific design problems. At the end of the course, it is planned that grouped students front the solution of a chemical process case and present the simulation results in a written report, submitted for evaluation to the teacher.
Lectures are integrated with numerical exercise where students are asked to solve simple problems connected with the subject of the lesson. Moreover, a specific cycle of computing practice is developed in a computer laboratory (LAIB) with the use of a process simulator for the design of specific chemical equipments and plants. Aim of the practice is to become friendly with computing software for equipment and chemical process design, with particular reference to petroleum technology and polymer production. At first, the teacher illustrates the subject of the computing work together with exposition of solutions for some reference cases. Later, under teacher tutoring, each student tackles and solves some specific design problems. At the end of the course, it is planned that grouped students front the solution of a chemical process case and present the simulation results in a written report, submitted for evaluation to the teacher.
Texts and exercises related to the three parts of the course will be available on the web student site before the beginning of the course. As an exception, for subjects requiring periodic updating, the material will be available at the end of the course. To deep the subjects of the course: P. J. Chenier, Survey of Industrial Chemistry, Plenum Publisher, 2002 C. Giavarini, Processi di raffinazione e petrolchimici, Siderea, Roma, 1999. A.I.M. , Macromolecole: Scienza e Tecnologia. Vol. 1, Pacini Editore, Pisa, 1992
Texts and exercises related to the three parts of the course will be available on the web student site before the beginning of the course. As an exception, for subjects requiring periodic updating, the material will be available at the end of the course. To deep the subjects of the course: P. J. Chenier, Survey of Industrial Chemistry, Plenum Publisher, 2002 C. Giavarini, Processi di raffinazione e petrolchimici, Siderea, Roma, 1999. A.I.M. , Macromolecole: Scienza e Tecnologia. Vol. 1, Pacini Editore, Pisa, 1992
Modalità di esame: prova scritta; prova orale obbligatoria;
The final exam consists of a written and an oral examination. In the written examination the students are requested to solve some simple exercises requiring to use the process simulator. In particular, the students have to select the proper model to simulate the process, and, then, to design the required equipment, to determine the values of one or more parameters in order to achieve some performance requirements and, finally, to present the results in the most suitable way. The duration of the written exam is 2 hours. The use of any kind of didactic material is not allowed during the written exam. The oral examination completes the evaluation of the student: this exam lasts for about 45 minutes, and it consists of three or four questions about theoretical issues, chemical processes description and simple calculations.
Exam: written test; compulsory oral exam;
The final exam consists of a written and an oral examination. In the written examination the students are requested to solve some simple exercises requiring to use the process simulator. In particular, the students have to select the proper model to simulate the process, and, then, to design the required equipment, to determine the values of one or more parameters in order to achieve some performance requirements and, finally, to present the results in the most suitable way. The duration of the written exam is 2 hours. The use of any kind of didactic material is not allowed during the written exam. The oral examination completes the evaluation of the student: this exam lasts for about 45 minutes, and it consists of three or four questions about theoretical issues, chemical processes description and simple calculations.


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