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Solar thermal technologies

01TVCND

A.A. 2019/20

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Energy And Nuclear Engineering - Torino

Borrow

01OKDMW 01OKDNF

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 46
Esercitazioni in aula 30
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 4
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Simonetti Marco Professore Associato ING-IND/11 28 36 16 0 2
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/11
ING-IND/19
5
3
B - Caratterizzanti
B - Caratterizzanti
Ingegneria energetica e nucleare
Ingegneria energetica e nucleare
2019/20
The course covers the main technologies for exploiting low-medium temperature and concentrating solar systems, the methods to correctly design the installations, and to estimate their performance in terms of energy and economics outcomes.
The course covers the main technologies for exploiting low-medium temperature and concentrating solar systems, the methods to correctly design the installations, and to estimate their performance in terms of energy and economics outcomes.
At the end of the course, the students should have a good knowledge of the main technologies for exploiting the solar source through thermal conversion. The 2 fields of application considered will be the civil construction sector, where Low-medium temperature (<100°C) systems (LTS) are used to meet heating, domestic hot water and cooling demands, and the concentrating solar power generation (CSP) plants. A core knowledge acquired will be to understand the coupling of transient and intermittent availability of the sources with the temporal profile of the demand, by the application of heat storage and automated controls. The students who successfully complete the course will be able to correctly design the main parts of the systems, evaluate the useful energy which may be produced, and make a cost-benefit analysis, also taking into account environmental impact issues.
At the end of the course, the students should have a good knowledge of the main technologies for exploiting the solar source through thermal conversion. The 2 fields of application considered will be the civil construction sector, where Low-medium temperature (<100°C) systems (LTS) are used to meet heating, domestic hot water and cooling demands, and the concentrating solar power generation (CSP) plants. A core knowledge acquired will be to understand the coupling of transient and intermittent availability of the sources with the temporal profile of the demand, by the application of heat storage and automated controls. The students who successfully complete the course will be able to correctly design the main parts of the systems, evaluate the useful energy which may be produced, and make a cost-benefit analysis, also taking into account environmental impact issues.
Good knowledge of heat transfer and thermodynamics; basic knowledge of renewable energy sources.
Good knowledge of heat transfer and thermodynamics; basic knowledge of renewable energy sources.
Low-medium temperature solar thermal systems LTS (56h) • Solar source: position of the Sun in the sky; atmospheric models for clear and average skies; data bases of horizontal solar radiation energy; solar spectrum; solar irradiance components. • Solar collector typologies and definition of efficiency. Thermal balance of a solar collector and analysis of temperature profile of the plate. Hottel equation. Thermal and optical characterization of plate, glazed cover, ducts, and insulation. • The role of thermal storage and sizing criteria. Installation typologies, components and applications. Production of hot water for domestic and space heating uses. Methods for the evaluation of seasonal performance of solar thermal installations. The f-chart method. Software for the dynamic simulation of solar thermal installations (Polysun). • Analysis of as-built technical diagrams. Control, regulation and safety components. • Practical laboratory exercise with microcontrollers (like Arduino). • Solar cooling through absorption/adsorption refrigeration. Solar DEC (Desiccant Evaporative Cooling) system. • Cost-benefit analysis. • Some hints on solar district heating network and seasonal storage systems. • Recent research trends. Introduction to Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies (24h) In this module an overview of the main CSP technologies (Parabolic Trough, Central Tower, Linear Fresnel, Stirling Dish) will be presented, with particular emphasis on the first two. The state of the art of each technology will be discussed, as well as the main physics principles, features and technical characteristics, together with an analysis of current and future R&D lines and trends. An overview of the commercial experiences worldwide will be given. In detail: • Motivation • Principles of concentration of Solar Radiation • Analysis of the most successful technologies so far - Parabolic Trough - Central Tower • Principles of energy storage in CSP plants • Modeling & Design tools: Optics – the open-source Tonatiuh code, Thermal fluid dynamics – commercial CFD codes at component level and tools for system-level modeling, Integration • Thesis opportunities
Low-medium temperature solar thermal systems LTS (56h) • Solar source: position of the Sun in the sky; atmospheric models for clear and average skies; data bases of horizontal solar radiation energy; solar spectrum; solar irradiance components. • Solar collector typologies and definition of efficiency. Thermal balance of a solar collector and analysis of temperature profile of the plate. Hottel equation. Thermal and optical characterization of plate, glazed cover, ducts, and insulation. • The role of thermal storage and sizing criteria. Installation typologies, components and applications. Production of hot water for domestic and space heating uses. Methods for the evaluation of seasonal performance of solar thermal installations. The f-chart method. Software for the dynamic simulation of solar thermal installations (Polysun). • Analysis of as-built technical diagrams. Control, regulation and safety components. • Practical laboratory exercise with microcontrollers (like Arduino). • Solar cooling through absorption/adsorption refrigeration. Solar DEC (Desiccant Evaporative Cooling) system. • Cost-benefit analysis. • Some hints on solar district heating network and seasonal storage systems. • Recent research trends. Introduction to Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies (24h) In this module an overview of the main CSP technologies (Parabolic Trough, Central Tower, Linear Fresnel, Stirling Dish) will be presented, with particular emphasis on the first two. The state of the art of each technology will be discussed, as well as the main physics principles, features and technical characteristics, together with an analysis of current and future R&D lines and trends. An overview of the commercial experiences worldwide will be given. In detail: • Motivation • Principles of concentration of Solar Radiation • Analysis of the most successful technologies so far - Parabolic Trough - Central Tower • Principles of energy storage in CSP plants • Modeling & Design tools: Optics – the open-source Tonatiuh code, Thermal fluid dynamics – commercial CFD codes at component level and tools for system-level modeling, Integration • Thesis opportunities
Experimental activity at laboratories (3h) Guided technical visit to real plants (3h) Project: Large domestic hot water production and solar cooling system analysis and design (18h). The project is a team work (3-4 people). Each team must write a final report, to be discussed before the end of May.
Experimental activity at laboratories (3h) Guided technical visit to real plants (3h) Project: Large domestic hot water production and solar cooling system analysis and design (18h). The project is a team work (3-4 people). Each team must write a final report, to be discussed before the end of May.
• Notes from the teachers • Duffie & Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley & sons, 4th edition, New York 2013. • Tiwari G.N., Solar Energy - Fundamentals, Design, Modelling, and Applications, CRC Press, 2002 • Bent Sorensen, Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics, Elsevier Associated Press, London, 2004. • Notes from the EnerMENA lectures on CSP
Notes from the teachers • Duffie & Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, John Wiley & sons, 4th edition, New York 2013. • Tiwari G.N., Solar Energy - Fundamentals, Design, Modelling, and Applications, CRC Press, 2002 • Bent Sorensen, Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics, Elsevier Associated Press, London, 2004. • Notes from the EnerMENA lectures on CSP
Modalitΰ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Progetto di gruppo;
The project discussion is part of the final mark and weights as 7/30 points. The project is developed during the course and 15 minutes discussion for each group is held before the end of May. The discussion is a team one, but individual scores will be assigned. The written examination consists of multi-answer questions, open question and/or short exercises concerning Low-medium temperature solar thermal systems (LTS) (including the experimental exercise and the guided visit) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), and, if the availability is confirmed, will be made in electronic form using PCs at LAIBs. The details of the grading of the different parts are: 7 points for the project, 25 for the written/electronic test (15 LTS and 10 points CSP), to reach a total of 32 points, corresponding to "30 cum laude".
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
The exam will verify that students have achieved the expected learning outcomes. The dynamic coupling of transient and intermittent availability of the source with the temporal profile of the demand will be explored by the student in the team project. The outcome of the project will be evaluated in team oral discussion, which will be part of the final mark. This part will weight as 7/30 points: 5 points are given for full compliance with assignments, and 2 for excellence, critical thinking and original solutions. The discussion is a team one, but individual scores will be assigned. The written examination consists of multi-answer questions, open questions and/or short numerical exercises concerning Low-medium temperature solar thermal systems (LTS) (including the experimental exercises and the guided visit) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). During the test, the ability to correctly design the main part of the systems will be verified, with simple component sizing exercise or with questions about technical diagrams. Simple numerical exercises will be used to verify that students have learned to evaluate useful energy produced by systems and to perform cost-benefit analysis. The written exam will be made in electronic form. The details of the grading of the different parts are: 7 points for the project, 25 for the written test (15 LTS and 10 points CSP), to reach a total of 32 points, corresponding to "30 cum laude".


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