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Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics

01UCHNF

A.A. 2019/20

2019/20

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

The applied hydrology part of the course offers to the students a basic understanding of the processes that regulate the water cycle at the catchment scale, from the annual water balance to the dynamics of surface outflows in river networks and their extremes.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

The course is a brief introduction to mixing and transport processes occurring in aquatic environments and atmospheric boundary layers. Despite having a fairly rich theoretical basis, the course will be taught by introducing equations and concepts within the context of specific applications that are of interest to Environmental and Civil engineers.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

At the end of the course the students will be able to: -Evaluate the catchment water balance at different temporal scales -Use statistical methods for quantifying design storm and flood of a given probability of exceedance -Prepare a professional hydrological report on flood risk or water resources assessment

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

At the end of the course the students will be able to: - Identify and critically assess transport processes in aquatic and atmospheric environments - Describe and quantify turbulence properties of open channel flows and atmopsheric boundary layers. - Apply and manipulate equations describing the transport of contaminants in the environment - Model simple morphodynamic processes in riverine environments - Apply models to simulate the fate of contaminants in rivers and atmospheric flows

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Basic knowledge of calculus, probability and statistics

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Basic knowledge of calculus; basic knowledge of Fluid Mechanics and/or Hydraulics;

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

-Water balance at annual and seasonal time scales Competition between water and energy (Budyko curve) Climate variability and the effect on the water balance Water storage in the catchment: snowpack, lakes, soils and groundwater Seasonality of water and energy – in phase and out of phase -Water balance at daily time scales Statistical description of rainfall sequences Fast and slow streamflow response Conceptual model of water balance partitioning Flow duration curves -Water balance at event time scale Variability of rainfall intensity within an event Physical models of the infiltration process at the point scale Runoff generation: infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff, SCS Curve Number method Runoff routing: hillslope and channel routing, unit hydrograph -Flood frequency analysis Propagation of probabilities from rainfall to floods Flood frequency estimation from streamflow observations Intensity, duration and frequency of extreme rainfall Design storm method Flood frequency and water balance at multiple time scales (effects of antecedent soil moisture, seasonality and long term variability of climate)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

- Introductory concepts Water and air quality issues (also within the context of climate change); an overview of transport processes occurring in the aquatic and atmospheric environment; Approaches to environmental management; basic definitions (concentration, flux, dimensional analysis and the pi-theorem); - Molecular diffusion Fick’s law; basic diffusion equation; fundamental solution and its mathematical properties; Solutions of the Diffusion Equation for Various Initial and Boundary Conditions; effects of boundaries; advective diffusion equation and applications; effects of chemical reactions. - Turbulence and turbulent diffusion Definition of turbulence; Reynolds experiment; Reynolds number; statistical description of turbulence: Reynolds decomposition and definition of ensemble/ temporal averaging; Conservation of momentum and physical meaning of the Reynolds stress tensor components; Conservation equations for Turbulent and Mean Kinetic Energy; the problem of closure; turbulence phenomenology: energy cascade, Kolmogorov length and velocity scales; Kolmogorov spectrum; wall turbulence; Taylor’s theory of turbulent diffusion; turbulent diffusion equation. - Shear flow dispersion Taylor’s theory of shear dispersion for laminar and turbulent flows. - Scalar and particles transport in rivers Vertical, transverse and longitudinal mixing: idealised cases and effects from complicating factors; computation of the full-mixing length; longitudinal dispersion: Elder’s solution vs real cases; transverse-shear effects; Hyporheic transport; basics concepts of sediment transport in rivers: sediment characterization, Shields’ incipient motion theory, slope effects, flow resistance and bed-forms; suspended, bed-load and total sediment transport formulae. - The atmospheric boundary layer Virtual potential temperature; Boundary layer structure and growth; concept of stability; effects of temperature on wall turbulence: characteristic velocity and length scales of the atmospheric Boundary layer; Monin-Obukhov Similarity theory; Fundamentals of atmospheric dispersion modelling.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

In order to support students in their Learning process, office hours of the lecturer will be agreed right at the beginning of the course.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

The module for Applied Hydrology is divided in 40 hours of frontal lectures and 20 hours of PC-assisted tutorials.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

The module for Environmental Fluid Mechanics is divided in 40 hours of frontal lectures (mainly at the blackboard, with support of power point presentations only where necessary) and 20 hours of PC-assisted tutorials. Students will be given homeworks to prepare for the exam.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

The slides of the curse will be made available on the Polito Teaching Portal https://didattica.polito.it Suggested books (for deepening the knowledge on the topics): - Ven Te Chow (2010), Applied Hydrology, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 572 pages, ISBN: 007070242X, 9780070702424 - David R. Maidment (1993,1st ed.), Handbook of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Education, 1424 pages, ISBN: 0070397325, 978-0070397323 - Wilfried Brutsaert (2005) Hydrology: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press, 618 pages, ISBN: 0521824796, 978-0521824798 - Nathabandu T. Kottegoda and Renzo Rosso (2008, 2nd ed.) Applied Statistics for Civil and Environmental Engineers, Blackwell Pub, 718 pages, ISBN: 1405179171, 978-1405179171

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

HB Fischer et al "mixing in inland and Coastal waters" Tennekes and Lumley "a first course in turbulence" S. Pope "Turbulent flows" R.B. Stull "An introduction to Boundary layer meteorology" JC Kaimal and J J. Finnigan "Atmospheric boundary layer flows" The lecturer will also provide some further material in the form of lecture notes.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Modalità di esame: prova scritta; progetto di gruppo;

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Modalità di esame: prova scritta; elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Exam: written test; group project;

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

Exam: written test; group essay;

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Applied hydrology)

Type of exam: 2 written tests (80% weight) and an oral Power Point presentation (20% weight) The written exam of Environmental Fluid Mechanics lasts for two Hours and consists of three questions which may include numerical problems as well as theoretical questions (these include derivations). Each question is worth 10 points so that the maximum score is 30. The students can bring to the exam only their pen and a calculator. They will be given a formulae-sheet in support of the solutions of numerical problems. The evaluation of the exam-scripts will take into account the correctness of the solutions and the clarity of the presentation. The written exam of Applied Hydrology (2 hours duration) is aimed at verifying the achievement of a sufficient autonomy in facing a typical problem of hydrological evaluation of extremes or water resources. The exam script contains 2-3 exercises, one or two open questions and some multiple-choice questions. The exercises will be solved without the use of laptops and the questions will focus on the topics covered in class. The evaluation of the exam will take into account the resolution methods, the correctness of the numerical solutions, the demonstrated knowledge and the clarity of the presentation.

Applied hydrology/Environmental fluid mechanics (Environmental fluid mechanics)

The final exam include: - 2 written tests: one for Hydrology and one for Env. Fluid mechanics. The average of both tests will weight 80% of the final mark - An oral (Power Point) presentation accounting for 20% of the final mark. The written exam of Environmental Fluid Mechanics lasts for two Hours and consists of three questions which may include numerical problems as well as theoretical questions (these include derivations). Each question is worth 10 points so that the maximum score is 30. The students can bring to the exam only their pen and a calculator. They will be given a formulae-sheet in support of the solutions of numerical problems. The evaluation of the exam-scripts will take into account the correctness of the solutions and the clarity of the presentation. The written exam of Applied Hydrology (2 hours duration) is aimed at verifying the achievement of a sufficient autonomy in facing a typical problem of hydrological evaluation of extremes or water resources. The exam script contains 2-3 exercises, one or two open questions and some multiple-choice questions. The exercises will be solved without the use of laptops and the questions will focus on the topics covered in class. The evaluation of the exam will take into account the resolution methods, the correctness of the numerical solutions, the demonstrated knowledge and the clarity of the presentation. The oral presentation lasts for 20 minutes and will be targeting a topic covering aspects of both Applied Hydrology and Environmental Fluid Mechanics. The topic will be given to the students half way through the course. This presentation will reflect the work done by groups of 4 students and will be evaluated on the basis of its rigour and clarity.



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