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Groundwater engineering

01UCLNF

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Per L'Ambiente E Il Territorio - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 60
Esercitazioni in aula 20
Tutoraggio 40
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Tosco Tiziana Anna Elisabetta   Professore Associato ICAR/03 55 0 0 0 3
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ICAR/03
ING-IND/30
6
2
B - Caratterizzanti
B - Caratterizzanti
Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
2021/22
The course focuses on environmental-relevant flow and transport processes in the subsoil, namely groundwater flow, contaminant transport in aquifer systems and carbon storage in deep porous formations. The course covers both theoretical and practical aspects. At the end of the course, the students will be able to - characterize aquifer systems from the hydrogeological viewpoint; - face a potentially contaminated aquifer system, being able to plan its characterization, build a conceptual model and consider the main remediation technologies available for clean up; - characterize underground formations, whether depleted reservoirs or deep saline aquifers, for carbon storage. More into details, the course faces groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems and carbon storage solutions, with a rigorous, quantitative approach. In the first lectures the structure of the shallow subsoil and the role of groundwater as a source of fresh water is presented, and fundamental properties of porous media are discussed (water flow and storage parameters, dual phase flow); differential equations and their analytical solutions are provided for groundwater flow problems, and applied to the hydrodynamic characterization of aquifer systems; water wells construction and testing fundamentals are presented; analytical solutions are also derived for carbon flow in deep porous formations. To this end, the relevant fluid-rock interaction properties are also introduced. Carbon storage options and trapping mechanisms are discussed. Methods to assess storage capacity and injectivity are also addressed with a quantitative approach; risk assessment connected with underground activities is thoroughly discussed. In the second part of the course groundwater contamination and technical solutions for its remediation are discussed. The contaminant properties, main mechanisms of contaminant transport in groundwater and tools for their quantitative evaluation are presented. Finally, the general approaches for the characterization and remediation of contaminated groundwater are discussed, with a focus on selected remediation technologies.
The course focuses on environmental-relevant flow and transport processes in the subsoil, namely groundwater flow, contaminant transport in aquifer systems and carbon storage in deep porous formations. The course covers both theoretical and practical aspects. At the end of the course, the students will be able to - characterize aquifer systems from the hydrogeological viewpoint; - face a potentially contaminated aquifer system, being able to plan its characterization, build a conceptual model and consider the main remediation technologies available for clean up; - determine the main characteristics of deep saline aquifers for carbon storage. More into details, the course faces groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems and carbon storage solutions, with a rigorous, quantitative approach. In the first lectures the structure of the shallow subsoil and the role of groundwater as a source of fresh water is presented, and fundamental properties of porous media are discussed (water flow and storage parameters, dual phase flow); differential equations and their analytical solutions are provided for groundwater flow problems, and applied to the hydrodynamic characterization of aquifer systems; water wells construction and testing fundamentals are presented; analytical solutions are also derived for carbon flow in deep porous formations. To this end, the relevant fluid-rock interaction properties are also introduced. Carbon storage options and trapping mechanisms are discussed. Methods to assess storage capacity and injectivity are addressed with a quantitative approach; risk assessment connected with underground activities is thoroughly discussed. In the second part of the course groundwater contamination and technical solutions for its remediation are discussed. The contaminant properties, main mechanisms of contaminant transport in groundwater and tools for their quantitative evaluation are presented. Finally, the general approaches for the characterization and remediation of contaminated groundwater are discussed, with a focus on selected remediation technologies.
The course aims at providing the knowledge and skills in the field of groundwater engineering, at developping the ability to identify groundwater-related problems and solve them with a rigorous, technical approach. In particular, at the end of the course the student is expected to face problems in the field of the characterization of aquifer systems, groundwater flow, contaminant propagation, remediation of contaminated acquifer systems, XXXXXXXXXXXXX In order to develop critical skills and independent judgement capabilities based on the acquired knowledge, and to promote the development of professional communication skills, the students will be asked to prepare short technical reports.
The course aims at providing the knowledge and skills in the field of groundwater engineering, at developing the ability to identify groundwater-related problems and solve them with a rigorous, technical approach. In particular, at the end of the course the students are expected to face problems in the field of the characterization of aquifer systems, groundwater flow, contaminant propagation, remediation of contaminated aquifer systems, underground site evaluation for carbon storage. In order to develop critical skills and independent judgement capabilities based on the acquired knowledge, and to promote the development of professional communication skills, the students will be asked to prepare short technical reports.
The course is intended for students in the second year of the Master program in Environment and Land Engineering. As a consequence, students are expected to have basic knowledge in chemistry, geology, and more in general in the fundamental courses of engineering. Familiarity with Microsoft Office programs is expected.
The course is intended for students in the second year of the Master program in Environment and Land Engineering. As a consequence, students are expected to have basic knowledge in chemistry, geology, geomechanics, hydraulics, calculus, and more in general in the fundamental courses of engineering. Students are also expected to be experienced users of the Microsoft Office package (in particular, Word, Excel) or alternative text editing and spreadsheet software. Basic knowledge in Matlab programming can be useful.
Nozioni di base: capacità di immagazzinamento e di rilascio, capacità di trasporto di un acquifero. Criteri di classificazione degli acquiferi. L'applicazione della legge di Darcy sul terreno, ricostruzione della superficie piezometrica. Fondamenti teorici dell'equazione differenziale di flusso. Soluzioni analitiche dell'equazione differenziale di flusso per una geometria radialpiana: acquiferi confinati, semiconfinati e non confinati. Caratterizzazione di un acquifero: prove di falda in declino, prove di falda in risalita, slug test, altri metodi di determinazione dei parametri caratteristici di un acquifero. Capacità produttiva ed efficienza idraulica di un pozzo. Ottimizzazione della capacità produttiva di un sistema di approvvigionamento idrico. Vulnerabilità di un acquifero e rischio di inquinamento. Delimitazione delle aree di salvaguardia dei pozzi ad uso potabile. Classificazione chimica, fisica e tossicologica dei contaminanti presenti nelle acque sotterranee. Meccanismi di propagazione degli inquinanti in falda: advezione, dispersione idrodinamica, adsorbimento, decadimento radioattivo, biodegradazione, altri processi. Fondamenti teorici dell'equazione differenziale del trasporto di massa. Soluzioni analitiche dell'equazione differenziale del trasporto di massa per soluti conservativi e per soluti reattivi. Propagazione delle sostanze non miscibili con l'acqua di falda. La normativa italiana in materia di messa in sicurezza, bonifica e ripristino ambientale di siti contaminati. Piano della caratterizzazione: metodologie di campionamento del mezzo saturo e non saturo. L'analisi di rischio sanitario ambientale. Bonifica e messa in sicurezza di acquiferi contaminati.
The topics covered in the course include: - fundamental properties of porous media (aquifer system, deep formations for carbon storage): storage and flow capacity and associated characteristic parameters; Darcy’s law; classification of aquifer systems; piezometric maps (construction and interpretation). - groundwater flow: partial differential equation (PDE) for one-phase flow in porous media. Analytical solutions to the flow PDE for radial geometry (confined, leacky, unconfined aquifers). Hydrodynamic characterization of an aquifer system: well pumping tests, slug tests, indirect methods. Productive capacity and hydraulic efficiency of a pumping well. Optimization of a drinking water supply system. - mobility (rock permeability and fluid viscosity) and fundamental properties of fluid-rock interactions (relative permeabilities, capillary pressures) - fluid flow: partial differential equation (PDE) for two-phase flow in porous media. Analytical solutions to the flow PDE for radial geometry and confined systems. Characterization of underground systems: well tests and lab tests. Well productivity and injectivity. Fundamentals of 3D dynamic modeling. - contaminant transport and attenuation in aquifer systems: chemical, physical and toxicity properties of typical groundwater contaminants. Contaminant transport mechanisms in porous media: advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, sorption, degradation. Solute transport in porous media: partial differential equation and analytical solution for selected scenarios, for reactive and non reactive contaminants. Propagation of immiscible contaminants (non aqueous phase liquids, NAPLs). - Groundwater remediation: Italian law procedures for contaminated site characterization, risk assessment and remediation; comparison with other EU procedures. Techniques for the characterization of a contaminated site. Groundwater remediation technologies: free phase recovery, air sparging, Pump & Treat, permeable reactive barriers and reactive zones.
The course includes classes on the abovementioned topics (60 hours), exercises (18 hours) and a practical activity in the field (approx. 2 hours, if sanitary situation allows). The exercises will cover the following topics: - reconstruction and interpretation of a piezometric map - interpretation of a well pumping test - interpretation of a step well test - exercises on the propagation of tracers and reactive contaminats in aquifer systems (analytical solutions to differential equations for reactive transport in porous media) - application of the risk assessment procedure for contaminated sites - preliminary design of a Pump & Treat barrier - preliminary design of a permeable reactive barrier - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX The field activity will include groundwater level measurements (and consequent reconstruction of the piezometric map), groundwater sampling and measurement of hydrochemical parameters, and a slug test (and associated intepretation) for the estimation of hydrodynamic parameters.
The course includes classes on the abovementioned topics (60 hours), exercises (18 hours) and a practical activity in the field (approx. 2 hours) if allowed by the sanitary situation. The exercises will cover the following topics: - reconstruction and interpretation of a piezometric map - interpretation of a well pumping test - interpretation of a step well test - exercises on the propagation of tracers and reactive contaminants in aquifer systems (analytical solutions to differential equations for reactive transport in porous media) - preliminary design of a Pump & Treat barrier - preliminary design of a permeable reactive barrier - assessment of storage capacity for carbon sequestration - design & interpretation of injection tests - risk evaluation for carbon injection and storage The exercises will be carried out with the support of the lecturer during the course. The exercise hours will include a short introduction to the topic and the quantitative tools to be used (if any), and then the students will work independently with the support of the lecturer. Tutoring hours will provide further support for completing the exercises. The field activity will include groundwater level measurements (and consequent reconstruction of the piezometric map), groundwater sampling and measurement of hydrochemical parameters, and a slug test (and associated interpretation) for the estimation of hydrodynamic parameters.
The course topic are covered in the following books: - R.Sethi, A. Di Molfetta. Groundwater Engineering, Springer 2019 ( https://tinyurl.com/yyvw67h7 ) - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXx A pdf print of the slides of all lectures will be uploaded in the student portal. Additional material (not compulsory for the final exam) will also be provided on the student portal for further reading on selected topics. The students can also refer to the following books (which are not compulsory, and cover the same topics included in the abovementioned books and in the course slides): - Fetter C. W. (2014), Applied Hydrogeology. Fourth Edition. Pearson Ed. - P.A. Domenico, F.W. Schwartz, Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, Second Edition, 1998. - V.Bathu, Aquifer Hydraulics, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York 1998.
The course topic are covered in the book R.Sethi, A. Di Molfetta (2019). Groundwater Engineering, Springer ( https://tinyurl.com/yyvw67h7 ). A pdf print of the slides of all lectures will be uploaded in the student portal. Additional material will also be provided on the student portal for further reading on selected topics. On a case by case basis, it will be specified whether the material is compulsory for the final exam. Students can also refer to the following books (which are not compulsory, and cover the same topics included in the abovementioned books and in the course slides): - Fetter C. W. (2014), Applied Hydrogeology. Fourth Edition. Pearson Ed. - P.A. Domenico, F.W. Schwartz, Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, Second Edition, 1998. - V.Bathu, Aquifer Hydraulics, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York 1998.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
The onsite exam consists in: - short written reports on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports will be submitted periodically during the semester and include the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be individual (one student) or can be prepared jointly by a maximum of 2 students. The report submission is compulsory to take the exam (maximum score is 5/30 if reports are submitted at due time during the semester, maximum score 2/30 if submitted at the end of the course, at least 5 working days before the written exam). - A written exam, including 1 question on dimensional analysis of fundamental parameters and 3 short exercises, duration 45 minutes, to be solved on paper with video surveillance (maximum score is 12/30). The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. - A few oral questions on the theory covered in the course (maximum score is 15/30). In the exam is insite for ALL students, also the questions on the theory will be answered in written form (consequently the total duration of the exam will be in this case 1.5 hours with a maximum score of (12+15)/30). Students can take the exam (written + oral) only if the report has been submitted before the exam. The score of the written and oral questions and exercises is attributed taking into account: - The correctness and completeness of the answers with respect to the questions - The ability to elaborate the topics presented and discussed in class for problem-solving - The ability to support the discussion with a correct language and clear form and with graphs (when relevant/required) The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test, oral questions and the individual report results (so the maximum can be 32/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude).
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
The onsite exam consists in: - short written reports on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports will be submitted periodically during the semester and include the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be individual (one student) or can be prepared jointly by a maximum of 2 students. The report submission is compulsory to take the exam. The maximum score is 5/30 if reports are submitted at due time during the semester, and is 2/30 if submitted at the end of the course, at least 5 working days before the written exam. - A written exam, including 1 question on dimensional analysis of fundamental parameters, 3 short exercises, 3 to 5 questions on the theory covered in the course, to be solved on paper. The maximum score is 27/30, the duration 1.5 hours. The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. Students can take the written exam only if the reports have been submitted before the exam, as detailed above. The score of the written and oral questions and exercises is attributed taking into account: - The correctness and completeness of the answers with respect to the questions - The ability to elaborate the topics presented and discussed in class for problem-solving - The ability to support the discussion with a correct language and clear form and with graphs (when relevant/required) The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test, oral questions and the individual report results (so the maximum can be 32/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude).
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;
The exam consists in: - a written test (on paper), including 4 short exercises and 5 open questions on theory topics (score: 3 per each question/exercise). The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. - written reports (individual or in a group of 2 students) on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports includes the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be submitted in two steps (total score is 4, first deadline approximately mid November, second deadline 5 working days before the written exam, 2 points per each submission) or in one step (total score is 3, deadline is 5 working days before the written exam). The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test and individual report results (so the maximum can be 31/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude). The students can take the written exam only if the report have been submitted before the exam (deadline: 5 working days before the written exam).
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group essay; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;
The online exam consists in: - short written reports on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports will be submitted periodically during the semester and include the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be individual (one student) or can be prepared jointly by a maximum of 2 students. The report submission is compulsory to take the exam. The maximum score is 5/30 if reports are submitted at due time during the semester, it is 2/30 if submitted at the end of the course, at least 5 working days before the written exam. - A written exam, including 1 question on dimensional analysis of fundamental parameters and 3 short exercises. The duration is 45 minutes, to be solved on paper with video surveillance. The maximum score is 12/30. The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. - A few oral questions on the theory covered in the course. The maximum score is 15/30. Students can take the exam (written + oral) only if the report has been submitted before the exam. The score of the written and oral questions and exercises is attributed taking into account: - The correctness and completeness of the answers with respect to the questions - The ability to elaborate the topics presented and discussed in class for problem-solving - The ability to support the discussion with a correct language and clear form and with graphs (when relevant/required) The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test, oral questions and the individual report results (so the maximum can be 32/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude).
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;
The exam consists in: - a written test (on paper), including 4 short exercises and 5 open questions on theory topics (score: 3 per each question/exercise). The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. - written reports (individual or in a group of 2 students) on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports includes the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be submitted in two steps (total score is 4, first deadline approximately mid November, second deadline 5 working days before the written exam, 2 points per each submission) or in one step (total score is 3, deadline is 5 working days before the written exam). The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test and individual report results (so the maximum can be 31/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude). The students can take the written exam only if the report have been submitted before the exam (deadline: 5 working days before the written exam).
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Group essay; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;
The blended exam consists in: - short written reports on the exercises carried out during the course. The reports will be submitted periodically during the semester and include the results of the exercises and a brief discussion. The reports can be individual (one student) or can be prepared jointly by a maximum of 2 students. The report submission is compulsory to take the exam. The maximum score is 5/30 if reports are submitted at due time during the semester, it is 2/30 if submitted at the end of the course, at least 5 working days before the written exam. - A written exam, including 1 question on dimensional analysis of fundamental parameters and 3 short exercises. The duration is 45 minutes, to be solved on paper with video surveillance. The maximum score is 12/30. The use of personal notes, books, or any other supporting material is not permitted. - A few oral questions on the theory covered in the course. The maximum score is 15/30. Students can take the exam (written + oral) only if the report has been submitted before the exam. The score of the written and oral questions and exercises is attributed taking into account: - The correctness and completeness of the answers with respect to the questions - The ability to elaborate the topics presented and discussed in class for problem-solving - The ability to support the discussion with a correct language and clear form and with graphs (when relevant/required) The final score is calculated as the sum of the written test, oral questions and the individual report results (so the maximum can be 32/30; scores equal to 30.5 or higher result in 30 cum laude).
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