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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

e-Transition, Sustainability and Economics

01UQONC

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Elettrica - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 85
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 15
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Bompard Ettore Francesco Professore Ordinario ING-IND/33 42 0 0 0 1
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/33 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria elettrica
2021/22
Prova
The mankind experienced several transitions across history, with different key energy sources depending on the period: “biological” energy sources, natural energy sources (wind, water, wood), fossil fuels. Currently, we are living a new transition – driven by the need of ensuring a sustainable development to the planet – towards a new use of natural (and renewable) energy resources. Starting from this context, the Course aims at analysing, in a holistic perspective, the causes and the possible pathways of the ongoing energy transition, with a special attention payed to the role of electricity. The first point is represented by the assessment of the main issues related to the current energy paradigm, which can be synthetized through the so-called “energy trilemma”: environmental sustainability, economic affordability and energy security. The transition from fossil to renewable energy is crucial for trying to solve these issues. However, several alternatives strategies can be implemented for reaching these goals, corresponding to different political and technological choices and investments. These mid-/long-term strategies are reflected in different impacts, not just involving the energy dimension. The Course investigates therefore these intertwined effects, in a multi-layer perspective, considering the physical, environmental, economic, social and geopolitical dimensions, also providing an overview of the possible models and tools to be used for effectively support the policy-decision making process related to the energy transition aspects. Since electricity is expected to play a major role, according to the so-called “electric triangle” (production from renewables, transmission and distribution of energy through the electricity vector, electrification of the final energy uses), the Course specifically deepens the different paradigms that could be implemented (from super grids to smart grids) and the potential for electricity penetration in the different end-use sectors, highlighting benefits and barriers of the electrification process. A significant part of the Course is also devoted to address the electricity market implications (in terms of market structure evolution) of the energy transition. Eventually, the synergic combination of electricity and other commodities, namely “green” hydrogen and gas (fossil natural and synthesis gas) is described.
By the end of the course, students are expected to: - understand the multi-layer aspects of the energy transition and the relevance and implications that alternative strategical policy choices can have on them, acquiring knowledge about the scientific methodologies to quantitatively evaluate the impacts on the various involved dimensions of different long-term trajectories; - understand the role of electricity in the transition process with reference to all the aspects involved: generation from RES, transmission/distribution of electricity, electrification of final uses; - acquire knowledge about the evolution of the electricity market structure in the framework of the energy transition; - being able to evaluate the role that the interplay among different commodities (electricity, hydrogen, gas) can play in the framework of energy transition, and to quantitatively compare the impacts of different energy mixes for the fulfilment of the energy services demands.
By the end of the course, students are expected to: - understand the multi-layer aspects of the energy transition and the relevance and implications that alternative strategical policy choices can have on them, acquiring knowledge about the scientific methodologies to quantitatively evaluate the impacts on the various involved dimensions of different long-term trajectories; - understand the role of electricity in the transition process with reference to all the aspects involved: generation from RES, transmission/distribution of electricity, electrification of final uses; - acquire knowledge about the evolution of the electricity market structure in the framework of the energy transition; - being able to evaluate the role that the interplay among different commodities (electricity, hydrogen, gas) can play in the framework of energy transition, and to quantitatively compare the impacts of different energy mixes for the fulfilment of the energy services demands.
A basic knowledge about the energy system analysis and about the structure of the electricity systems is suggested, but not mandatorily requested.
A basic knowledge about the energy system analysis and about the structure of the electricity systems is suggested, but not mandatorily requested.
L0. Introduction to the course L1. Overview of the history of energy - key energy commodities across ages and centuries: the different energy transitions: - from biological energy to natural energy resources - the age of coal: the first industrial revolution - oil and electricity: the second industrial revolution - the age of natural gas - renewable energy: the current energy transition towards decarbonisation L2. Issues with the current energy paradigm - the “energy trilemma” - the environmental sustainability issues: ghg emissions, global warming and climate change - the economic affordability: energy access inequalities and energy poverty - the energy security: uneven distribution of fossil resources; geopolitical instabilities and energy dependency - fossil fuels as finite resources L3. The need for the current energy transition - the definition of “sustainability” - the evolution of the sustainability concept: from the “club of rome” to present - the international agreements and targets: the paris agreement, the eu green deal - the italian targets and plans - the role of carbon pricing mechanisms - the energy transition at the core of the european recovery plan from covid-19 pandemic - the renewable energy potential L4. The energy transition as multi-layer problem - the energy dimension - the environmental dimension - the economic dimension - the social dimension - the geopolitical dimensions - the multi-dimensional impacts of energy transition trajectories L5. Methodologies and tools for assessing the energy transition - modelling the energy systems: top-down and bottom-up approaches; simulation and optimisation approaches - the times and osemosys model generators - mid-/long-term scenarios and international outlooks - tracking the energy transition: kpis for quantifying the multi-dimensional impacts of alternative trajectories - web-platforms for energy planning L6. Electricity as key commodity for the energy transition - the “electricity triangle”: production from res, transmission and distribution of energy through the electricity vector, electrification of final uses - different paradigms for electricity generation: from super-grids to smart-grids - the role of storage systems - electrification of final energy uses - the energy communities - benefits and barrier of the electrification process - the “electrify italy” case study L7. Introduction to the economics of power systems - electricity and economic - market value of electricity - capital intensity - cost of blackout L8. Electricity as a commodity - peculiarity of electricity as commodity - physical and technical features of electricity L9. Economic value of goods and market equilibrium - definition of economics and economy of scale - historical excursus - average and marginal quantities - the concept of “scarcity” - the concept of “utility” and the demand curve - the concept of “cost” and the supply curve - “price” - revenues and profit - firm objectives and outcomes - market equilibrium L10. Reference markets and market power - reference markets - liberalized vs regulated monopoly markets - market power L11. Bidding and market clearing - supply/demand curves and offers/bids - uniform pricing - pay as bid - market clearing L12. Classification of markets for electricity - competition in electricity markets - whole sale vs retail markets - reference structures: pool and bilateral - energy markets - environmental markets - ancillary service markets - capacity markets L13. Concepts in optimization theory - optimization problem: formulation and types - unconstrained optimization - equality constrained optimization - equality/inequality constrained optimization - kkt necessary and sufficient condition - lagrangian multiplier and shadow prices - example: generation dispatch - example: market clearing without network constraints L14. The commodity interplay - the interplay among electricity, hydrogen and gas for ensuring decarbonisation - the production of “green” hydrogen through electrolysis - the production of synthesis gas through methanation - perspectives for hydrogen penetration - power lines, gas pipelines and maritime routes: the evolution of energy infrastructures L15. References
L0. Introduction to the course L1. Overview of the history of energy - key energy commodities across ages and centuries: the different energy transitions: - from biological energy to natural energy resources - the age of coal: the first industrial revolution - oil and electricity: the second industrial revolution - the age of natural gas - renewable energy: the current energy transition towards decarbonisation L2. Issues with the current energy paradigm - the “energy trilemma” - the environmental sustainability issues: ghg emissions, global warming and climate change - the economic affordability: energy access inequalities and energy poverty - the energy security: uneven distribution of fossil resources; geopolitical instabilities and energy dependency - fossil fuels as finite resources L3. The need for the current energy transition - the definition of “sustainability” - the evolution of the sustainability concept: from the “club of rome” to present - the international agreements and targets: the paris agreement, the eu green deal - the italian targets and plans - the role of carbon pricing mechanisms - the energy transition at the core of the european recovery plan from covid-19 pandemic - the renewable energy potential L4. The energy transition as multi-layer problem - the energy dimension - the environmental dimension - the economic dimension - the social dimension - the geopolitical dimensions - the multi-dimensional impacts of energy transition trajectories L5. Methodologies and tools for assessing the energy transition - modelling the energy systems: top-down and bottom-up approaches; simulation and optimisation approaches - the times and osemosys model generators - mid-/long-term scenarios and international outlooks - tracking the energy transition: kpis for quantifying the multi-dimensional impacts of alternative trajectories - web-platforms for energy planning L6. Electricity as key commodity for the energy transition - the “electricity triangle”: production from res, transmission and distribution of energy through the electricity vector, electrification of final uses - different paradigms for electricity generation: from super-grids to smart-grids - the role of storage systems - electrification of final energy uses - the energy communities - benefits and barrier of the electrification process - the “electrify italy” case study L7. Introduction to the economics of power systems - electricity and economic - market value of electricity - capital intensity - cost of blackout L8. Electricity as a commodity - peculiarity of electricity as commodity - physical and technical features of electricity L9. Economic value of goods and market equilibrium - definition of economics and economy of scale - historical excursus - average and marginal quantities - the concept of “scarcity” - the concept of “utility” and the demand curve - the concept of “cost” and the supply curve - “price” - revenues and profit - firm objectives and outcomes - market equilibrium L10. Reference markets and market power - reference markets - liberalized vs regulated monopoly markets - market power L11. Bidding and market clearing - supply/demand curves and offers/bids - uniform pricing - pay as bid - market clearing L12. Classification of markets for electricity - competition in electricity markets - whole sale vs retail markets - reference structures: pool and bilateral - energy markets - environmental markets - ancillary service markets - capacity markets L13. Concepts in optimization theory - optimization problem: formulation and types - unconstrained optimization - equality constrained optimization - equality/inequality constrained optimization - kkt necessary and sufficient condition - lagrangian multiplier and shadow prices - example: generation dispatch - example: market clearing without network constraints L14. The commodity interplay - the interplay among electricity, hydrogen and gas for ensuring decarbonisation - the production of “green” hydrogen through electrolysis - the production of synthesis gas through methanation - perspectives for hydrogen penetration - power lines, gas pipelines and maritime routes: the evolution of energy infrastructures L15. References
The Course is organized in lectures and practical works. Lectures introduce to the students the key-concepts of the energy transition, also with an interactive approach. Practical work, in the classroom and ICT lab, will provide some insight, with the direct involvement of the students, on the topics presented in the lectures, also through general computational SW (Matlab, Excel) and dedicated power systems SW (Powerword). Practical work topics: Current status and possible evolutive trajectories of energy systems at country level; Economic and energetic issues in power systems; Optimization in power system and congestion management; Optimal power flow; Alternative pathways for fulfilling energy services.
The Course is organized in lectures and practical works. Lectures introduce to the students the key-concepts of the energy transition, also with an interactive approach. Practical work, in the classroom and ICT lab, will provide some insight, with the direct involvement of the students, on the topics presented in the lectures, also through general computational SW (Matlab, Excel) and dedicated power systems SW (Powerword). Practical work topics: Current status and possible evolutive trajectories of energy systems at country level; Economic and energetic issues in power systems; Optimization in power system and congestion management; Optimal power flow; Alternative pathways for fulfilling energy services.
The slides of the course will be available on the university portal. 1. S. Stoft - Power System Economics: Designing Markets for Electricity – John Wiley& Sons, I edizione, May 2002. ISBN: 0-471-15040-1 2. D.Kirschen, G.Strbac – Fundamentals of Power System Economics – Wiley, 2004. G.Rothwell, T. Gomez – Electricity Economics – IEEE Press, Wiley Interscience, 2003. ISBN:0-470-84572-4 3. G.Rothwell, T. Gomez – Electricity Economics – IEEE Press, Wiley Interscience, 2003. ISBN:0-471-23437-0 4. P. A. Samuelson, W. D. Nordhaus - Microeconomics –McGraw-Hill/Irwin, XVII edizione, May 2001. 5. Hisham Khatib – IEEE Power Series: Economic Evaluation of Projects in the Electricity Surpply Industry – The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, Luglio 2003. ISBN:0-86341-304-8 6. S. Tagliapietra – Global Energy Fundamentals. Economics, Politics, and Technology. 2020. Cambridge University Press 7. H. Farzaneh – Energy Systems Modeling. Principles and Applications. 2019. Springer Singapore 8. H. Qudrat-Ullah, M. Asif. – Dynamics of Energy, Environment and Economy. A Sustainability Perspective. Lecture notes in energy, vol. 77. 2020. Springer 9. G. Giannakidis, M. Labriet, B. Ó Gallachóir, G. Tosato, G. – Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models. Lecture notes in energy, vol. 30. 2015. Springer
The slides of the course will be available on the university portal. 1. S. Stoft - Power System Economics: Designing Markets for Electricity – John Wiley& Sons, I edizione, May 2002. ISBN: 0-471-15040-1 2. D.Kirschen, G.Strbac – Fundamentals of Power System Economics – Wiley, 2004. G.Rothwell, T. Gomez – Electricity Economics – IEEE Press, Wiley Interscience, 2003. ISBN:0-470-84572-4 3. G.Rothwell, T. Gomez – Electricity Economics – IEEE Press, Wiley Interscience, 2003. ISBN:0-471-23437-0 4. P. A. Samuelson, W. D. Nordhaus - Microeconomics –McGraw-Hill/Irwin, XVII edizione, May 2001. 5. Hisham Khatib – IEEE Power Series: Economic Evaluation of Projects in the Electricity Surpply Industry – The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, Luglio 2003. ISBN:0-86341-304-8 6. S. Tagliapietra – Global Energy Fundamentals. Economics, Politics, and Technology. 2020. Cambridge University Press 7. H. Farzaneh – Energy Systems Modeling. Principles and Applications. 2019. Springer Singapore 8. H. Qudrat-Ullah, M. Asif. – Dynamics of Energy, Environment and Economy. A Sustainability Perspective. Lecture notes in energy, vol. 77. 2020. Springer 9. G. Giannakidis, M. Labriet, B. Ó Gallachóir, G. Tosato, G. – Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models. Lecture notes in energy, vol. 30. 2015. Springer
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;
The first exam immediately after the end of the course (“primo appello”), is a written test composed by two open-ended questions/exercises and 3 multiple choice questions; the duration is 2 hours. During the written examination no support material (books, notes, …) will be allowed. The following ones are oral examinations, with at least three questions on the topics of the course
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;
The first exam immediately after the end of the course (“primo appello”), is a written test composed by two open-ended questions/exercises and 3 multiple choice questions; the duration is 2 hours. During the written examination no support material (books, notes, …) will be allowed. The following ones are oral examinations, with at least three questions on the topics of the course
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;
The first exam immediately after the end of the course (“primo appello”), is a written test composed by two open-ended questions/exercises and 3 multiple choice questions; the duration is 2 hours. During the written examination no support material (books, notes, …) will be allowed. The following ones are oral examinations, with at least three questions on the topics of the course
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