The course is aimed to teach the design of a simple reinforced concrete structure for residential (housing, school, commercial...) use.
The course is aimed at providing students with the essential tools to operate on the built environment. In particular, the basic notions rleated to conceptual, preliminary and detailed design of reinforced concrete and steel structures will presented and discussed. Furthermore, the course is aimed at providing students with the essential tools for structural analysis of buildings also using numerical approaches. The topics treated during the course will be applied to a case study integrated with other courses.
The student will obtain the following competences at the end of the course:
1. Structural modelling and design skill using a commercial finite element software.
2. The competence to select, define and apply the correct external loads to a simple structure.
3. The skill to design simple three-dimensional frames in reinforced concrete.
4. Being able to write a design relation of a simple reinforced concrete structure.
5. The skill to draw simple blueprints of reinforced concrete elements:
5.1 General arrangement and reinforcement of a flooring slab;
5.2 General arrangement and reinforcement of beams and columns;
5.3 General arrangement and reinforcement of foundation girder.
The course is aimed at providing students with the essential tools to operate on the built environment. A further objective is to provide some useful results for immediate and common application use.
The course prerequirements are:
1.1. Structural analysis competences:
1.1.1. Geometrical properties of areas: centroid, inertia moments, principal inertia axes.
1.1.2. Statically determined plane frames solution.
1.1.3. Statically determined truss-systems solution.
1.2. Structural design competences:
1.2.1. Basis of structural safety (semi-probabilistic limit state design)
1.2.2. Design and verification of reinforced concrete cross section subjected to banding and axial forces at Ultimate Limit State and Serviceability Limit State
Basic knowledge of Structural Theory and Building Technology.
1. Design using limit states
1.1. Basic concepts of structural safety with semi-probabilistic approach
1.1.1. Definition of characteristic value of actions and resistances
1.2. Ultimate limit states
1.2.2. Structural failure
1.2.3. Geotechnical failure
1.2.4. Accidental combination
1.2.5. Seismic combination
1.3. Serviceability limit states
1.3.1. Characteristic, Frequent and Quasi Permanent combinations
1.3.2. Stress control
1.3.3. Deformability control
1.3.4. Crack control
2. Actions on structures
2.1. Self-weight and permanent loads
2.2. Anthropic actions (crowd loads, moving loads)
2.2.1. Residential buildings
2.2.3. Buildings subjected to congregation of people (restaurants, conference halls, sport…)
2.2.4. Shopping buildings
2.2.5. Storage facilities (libraries, warehouses)
2.3. Wind loads
2.3.1. Basic concepts (wind velocity, terrain category, turbulence, wind pressure)
2.3.2. Wind forces
220.127.116.11. Local verification
18.104.22.168. Global verification
2.3.3. Wind action on structures
22.214.171.124. Vertical walls (front and side walls)
126.96.36.199. Flat roofs
188.8.131.52. Mono-pitch roofs
184.108.40.206. Duo-pitch roofs
220.127.116.11. Hipped roofs
18.104.22.168. Multi-span roofs
2.4. Snow loads
2.4.1. Flat roof
2.4.2. Single pitch roof
2.4.3. Double pitched roof
2.4.4. Cleristory or M shaped roofs
2.4.5. Flat roof close to taller construction
2.4.6. Cylindrical roof
2.5. Temperature loads
2.5.1. Seasonal effect
2.5.2. Daily effect
2.6. Foundation settlements
3. Durability of reinforced concrete structures
3.1. The concept of durability
3.2. Environmental aggressions to concrete structures
3.2.1. Chemical attack
3.2.2. Reinforcement corrosion
3.2.3. Freeze and thaw
3.3. Concrete prescription according to EN 206
3.3.1. Resistance class
3.3.2. Environmental exposure class
3.3.3. Maximal dimension of aggregates
3.3.4. Consistency class
3.3.5. Chloride content class
3.4. Concrete cover calculation
3.5. Reinforcing steel prescriptions according to EN10080
4. Reinforced concrete structural typologies: flooring systems
4.1. Two way solid body flat slab
4.2. Two way solid body flat slab with drops
4.3. Two way waffle plate (with and without drops)
4.4. Two way solid body flat slab with deeper beams
4.5. One way joist slabs:
4.5.1. without blocks
4.5.2. with precast panels (predalles)
4.5.3. with hollow clay blocks and cast in situ concrete joists
4.5.4. with hollow clay blocks and lattice prefabricated joist
4.5.5. with hollow clay blocks and precast, prestressed concrete joists
4.5.6. with synthetic blocks and precast, prestressed concrete joists
4.6. Hollow core slabs with cast in situ topping
4.7. Bubble deck
4.8. Composite steel concrete slab with profiled steel decking
5. Structural verifications
5.1.1. Effect of geometrical imperfections
5.1.2. Slenderness of an element
5.1.3. Verification for instability
5.2. Review of shear resistance of a concrete member without shear reinforcement
5.3. Review of shear resistance of a concrete member with shear reinforcement
5.4. Combination of shear and torsion
6. Finite element modelling of a residential building
6.1. Definition of nodes and elements
6.2. Definition of materials
6.3. Definitions of cross sections
6.4. Definitions of element groups
6.5. Definitions of boundary conditions
6.6. Definitions of loads:
6.6.1. Nodal loads
6.6.2. Element loads
6.7. Definition of load cases an loads combos
6.8. Design verifications at ULS and SLS
7. Reinforced concrete basic elements details
7.2. Beam reinforcement layout
7.3. Column reinforcement layout
7.4. Beam-column node
7.5. Staircase layout
7.6. Foundation footing with connecting beam layout
7.7. Foundation beam reinforcement layout
1. Basics of structural design
2. Design of reinforced concrete structures (RC)
- Conceptual design, durability and materials, structutal analysis
- ULS verifications
- SLS verifications
- RC structural members and detailing
3. Design of steel structures
- Conceptual design, structural analysis and materials
- ULS verification of steel members
- SLS verification of steel members
The teacher will present and describe the design procedure of a small residential building in reinforced concrete. Theory lessons are presented as support to the design steps.
The students divided in small groups (max. 3 people) accomplish the design exercitation in detail.
The first part of the course is mainly conceptual and includes notions about construction technologies such as reinforced concrete and structural steel. To complete the theoretical part, a more practical activity will be developed with reference to the built heritage. The latter is aimed at a project application on a case study agreed and integrated with other courses.
Theory and practice lessons are done with the aid of electronica support:
1. Slides and textbook written by the teacher.
2. Software recording sessions.
Lesson slides are available for downloads on the Polito portal.
The following national and international design codes are can be downloaded freeware:
1. DECRETO 17 gennaio 2018. “Aggiornamento delle «Norme tecniche per le costruzioni»” - NTC 2018
2. CIRCOLARE 21 gennaio 2019, n. 7 C.S.LL.PP. Istruzioni per l’applicazione dell’«Aggiornamento delle “Norme tecniche per le costruzioni”» di cui al decreto ministeriale 17 gennaio 2018.
3. CNR-DT 207/2008 - Istruzioni per la valutazione delle azioni e degli effetti del vento sulle costruzioni
4. EN 1990 - Eurocode - Basis of structural design
5. EN 1991-1-1 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-1: General actions -Densities, self-weight, imposed loads for buildings.
6. EN 1991-1-3 Eurocode 1 - Actions on structures - Part 1-3: General actions - Snow loads.
7. EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-4: General actions -Wind actions
8. EN 1991-1-5 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 1-5: General actions -Thermal actions
9. EN 1992-1-1 (2004) - Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings
The following freeware books are suggested to reach a deeper knowledge:
1. EC2 Commentary – Published by the European Concrete Platform ASBL, June 2008
2. EC2 Worked Examples - Published by the European Concrete Platform ASBL, 2008
The following printed texts are also recommended:
1. Toniolo G., Di Prisco M., Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2, Springer Tracts in Civil Engineering, 2018.
2. O’ Brien E., Reinforced and prestressed concrete design to EC2: The Complete Process, 2012.
3. Kamara M.E., Novak L. C., Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Portland Cement Association, 2011.
- Daniel L. Schodek, Structures (ISBN 0-13-855304-1)
- A. W. Beeby and R. S. Narayanan, Designers’ Guide to EN 1992-1-1 and EN 1992-1-2. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. General Rules and Rules for Buildings and Structural Fire Design
- M. Pagano, Teoria degli edifici, Liguori Editore
- F. Angotti, M. Guiglia, P. Marro e M. Orlando, Progetto delle strutture in calcestruzzo armato.
- G. Ballio, F.M. Mazzolani, C. Bernuzzi, R. Landolfo, Strutture di Acciaio, Hoepli
- L. Gardner and D. A. Nethercot, Designers’ Guide to EN 1993-1-1. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel structures.
- R. Lancellotta, J. Calavera, Fondazioni, Mc Graw-Hill
Some national and international design codes
- DECRETO 17 gennaio 2018. “Aggiornamento delle «Norme tecniche per le costruzioni»” - NTC 2018
- CIRCOLARE 21 gennaio 2019, n. 7 C.S.LL.PP. Istruzioni per l’applicazione dell’«Aggiornamento delle “Norme tecniche per le costruzioni”» di cui al decreto ministeriale 17 gennaio 2018.
- Notes of the course
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
The exam intends to verify the achievement of the following objectives: ability in modeling, dimensioning and verifying structures and structural members through methodologies of immediate use and common application with respect to actions. This with respect to different construction materials and different structural elements analyzed in the course.
The exam will be exploited in two parts with separate evaluation:
1. the delivery of a design case study realized in groups;
2. an oral exam.
The oral exam will be composed by:
• the discussion of the assigned case study with the aim to assess the individual contribution;
• the discussion of the topics of the course. “
The final grade will be achieved as the average value between the grades of the design case study and the oral exam.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.