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Laboratory of Tissues and Physiological Processes' Models

01VJKMV

A.A. 2023/24

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Biomedica - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 42
Esercitazioni in aula 9
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 9
Tutoraggio 18
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Chiono Valeria Professore Ordinario ING-IND/34 12 6 0 0 3
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/34 6 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria biomedica
2022/23
The course aims at providing knowledge in the field of the design of in vitro and in silico models for the preclinical testing of biomedical implants, drugs and advanced therapies. Innovations in preclinical models - stimulated by EU regulation- will prospect new work opportunities for Biomedical Engineers. Currently, preclinical investigations on biomedical implants, drugs and advanced therapies proceed through initial in vitro trails, using 2D human cell cultures, followed by in vivo animal tests. However, 2D human cell culture models are not able to closely reproduce cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions present in human tissues, which indeed possess a 3D complex structure. Animal experiments have greatly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and to the study of new treatments for diseases. However, main weak points of animal experimentation include: (1) the influence of laboratory environment and other variables on animal study outcomes; (2) recognized differences between animal models of disease and human diseases; (3} specie specific physiology and genetics; (4) the large use of experimental animals in basic and applied research, associated with animal suffering. Based on EU Directive 2010163, alternative methods for preclinical validation are under development or - in a few cases - have been already approved , to Replace, Reduce and Refine animal testing according to the 3Rs Principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) (lntroduction of the course). After this introduction, in vivo animal trials will be illustrated including animal welfare principles and applicative examples. Alternative preclinical testing methods currently under development will be illustrated, including: - Traditional 2D in vitro models - 3D in vitro models: spheroids and organoids (definition and main uses; examples from literature ); wider part on in vitro models by tissue engineering approaches (characteristics and main uses: examples from literature ) with focus on skin and cardiac tissue engineering; brief and general outlook of characteristics and main uses of organ-on-chips models. - Classroom practical exercises on statistical analysis of data from in vitro models. Some of the models will be described/prepared in practical lectures hold in the laboratories. Typical in vitro assays exploited for experimental 3D in vitro model characterizations will be described in the classrooms and in practical lectures in the laboratories. Additionally, students will learn how also in vitro tests can involve the use of animals, through the use of animals-derived media or materials, and the need for a paradigm shift. In silico models will be also described including molecular and computational approaches in support of 3Rs principle, involving a practical part with classroom exercises (15 hours) Seminars/webinars from Biomedical Industries working in the sector of in silico and in vitro models will be hold. The course will have practical activities in the laboratory which will also help the students to develop their exam project and to better understand the in vitro models.
The course aims at providing knowledge in the field of the design of in vitro and in silico models for the preclinical testing of biomedical implants, drugs and advanced therapies. Innovations in preclinical models, stimulated by EU regulation, will prospect new work opportunities for Biomedical Engineers. Currently, preclinical investigations on biomedical implants, drugs and advanced therapies proceed through initial in vitro trails, using 2D human cell cultures, followed by in vivo animal tests. However, 2D human cell culture models are not able to closely reproduce cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions present in human tissues, which indeed possess a 3D complex structure. Animal experiments have greatly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and to the study of new treatments for diseases. However, main weak points of animal experimentation include: (1) the influence of laboratory environment and other variables on animal study outcomes; (2) recognized differences between animal models of diseases and human diseases; (3} specie-specific physiology and genetics; (4) the large use of experimental animals in basic and applied research, associated with animal suffering. Based on EU Directive 2010/63, alternative methods for preclinical validation are under development or - in a few cases - have been already approved , to Replace, Reduce and Refine animal testing according to the 3Rs Principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) (as analysed in the lntroduction of the course). Alternative preclinical testing methods currently under development will be then illustrated in the course as described below. PART 1 - IN VITRO MODELS: - Traditional 2D in vitro models and use of animals-derived components in cultures, underlining the need for a paradigm shift. - 3D in vitro models: spheroids, organoids and organs-on-chip (definition and main uses) with focus on in vitro models by tissue engineering approaches (particularly skin tissue engineering) and applications of organoids. - Some of the studied in vitro models and their validation will be analysed during practical lectures in laboratories. Typical in vitro assays exploited for 3D in vitro model characterizations will be described in the classrooms and in practical lectures in the laboratories. - Statistical analysis of data from in vitro models - lecture and exercises (in groups). PART 2 - STUDENTS' PROJECTS After this first part dedicated to in vitro experimental models and lab exercises, the rules for Exam Project will be the subject of a lecture, followed by specific lectures aimed at providing a general knowledge on the project subjects before project assignments to students' groups. In the following part of the course, some of the lectures will be dedicated to project activity in the classroom under teacher's supervision. PART 3 - IN VIVO ANIMAL MODELS The remaining theoretical lectures will be dedicated to provide knowledge on in vivo models, including principles of animal welfare and main animal models used for preclinical validation of regenerative medicine solutions. PART 4 - IN SILICO MODELS Finally, in silico models will be described including molecular and computational approaches in support of 3Rs principle, involving a practical part with classroom exercises in groups. The in silico model part could be integrated into the project work. EXTERNAL ACTIVITIES During the course, exernal activity in the form of seminars/webinars from researchers and Biomedical Industries working in the sector of in silico and in vitro models will be hold. PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES The course will have practical activities in classrooms (in silico part) and in laboratory (in vitro part) which will also help the students to better understand the in vitro models and to carry out their project.
Learning Outcomes include knowledge on: 1) 3R Principle and Directive 2010163; methods of refinement and reduction in the planning of animal studies; replacement methods for safety and biocompatibility assessments: potentialities and limitations. 2) Preclinical experimental models in vivo (animal trials) and their integration with in vitro cell trials with examples of mouse models of human diseases 3) Protection of animal welfare in European legislation, according to the animal species and their native social organization. 4) Experimental in vitro models and their most recent applications: 2D cultures and 3D models with practical laboratories 5) Statistical analysis of experimental data from testing in in vitro models: procedure for data analysis (basic knowledge) 6} In silico models in preclinical experimentation and their main recent applications. The ability to apply the knowledge and understanding of the topics will be gained through classroom discussions during the development of projects and the analysis of scientific literature. The teachers will give tips for excellent scientific presentations and project writing, which could be beneficial for the final thesis activity. The students will learn group working and will visit the laboratories for practical lectures to better learn the theoretical concepts.
Learning Outcomes include knowledge on: 1) 3R Principle and Directive 2010 / 63; methods of refinement and reduction in the planning of animal studies; replacement methods for safety and biocompatibility assessments: potentialities and limitations. 2) Preclinical experimental models in vivo (animal trials) and their integration with in vitro cell trials with examples of mouse models of human diseases 3) Protection of animal welfare in European legislation, according to the animal species and their native social organization. 4) Experimental in vitro models and their most recent applications: 2D cultures and 3D models with practical laboratories 5) Statistical analysis of experimental data from testing in in vitro models: procedure for data analysis (basic knowledge) 6} In silico models in preclinical experimentation and their main recent applications. 7) Ability to perform project activity in group: interaction with other students for getting information, project writing and its oral presentation. Furthermore, practical lectures in classrooms and in the laboratories will be useful to consolidate the theoretical concepts. The ability to apply the knowledge and understanding will also be gained through classroom discussions during the development of projects and the critical analysis of scientific literature and students' ideas. The teachers will give tips for excellent scientific presentations and project writing, which could be beneficial for further activities by the students beyond the course (e.g., final thesis activity).
1) Basic knowledge of general chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry. 2) Basic knowledge of science and technology of inorganic and polymeric materials. 3) Basic knowledge of cell biology and physiology. 4) Basic knowledge of techniques for determining the surface and massive properties of materials. 5) Basic knowledge of mechanics of fluids and solids 6) Knowledge on Tissue Engineering principles lf some knowledge is missing, the teachers will provide additional information to students requiring them. Teachers will provide complementary video lectures on basic cell biology including inner cell pathways discussed during lectures. Such video lectures will be uploaded on the portal.
1) Basic knowledge of general chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry. 2) Basic knowledge of science and technology of inorganic and polymeric materials. 3) Basic knowledge of cell biology and physiology. 4) Basic knowledge of techniques for determining the surface and massive properties of materials. 5) Basic knowledge of mechanics of fluids and solids 6) Basic knowledge on Tissue Engineering principles lf some knowledge is missing, the teachers will provide additional information to students requiring them. Teachers will provide complementary video lectures on basic cell biology including inner cell pathways discussed during lectures. Such video lectures will be uploaded on the portal.
1) lntroduction and European Standards for preclinical experimentation 2) Animal models, principles for the protection of animal welfare in EU 3) Brief recall on cell biology (supplemented by additional video lectures loaded on the course portal for those students who require such knowledge) 4) In vitro experimental models (2D vs. 3D models); biologicaI assays exploited in in vitro models 5) Computational fluidodynamic and molecular models in preclinical (and clinical) experimentation and their main applications 6) Statistical analysis of experimental data: software and practical methods 7) Laboratory activities on experimental in vitro models 8) Group work for the project exam
1) lntroduction and European Standards for preclinical experimentation 2) Brief recall on cell biology (supplemented by additional video lectures loaded on the course portal for those students who require such knowledge) and introdiction of in vitro experimental models (2D vs. 3D models); biologicaI assays exploited in in vitro models 3) Focus on in vitro skin models: preparation, validation and use; commercially available and approved skin models. 4) Focus on organoids 5) Laboratory activities on experimental in vitro models in groups. 6) Presentation of Exam Projects: details on the activity and documents (project text and presentation) to be prepared for the exam. 7) Presentation of the Exam Project topics (including cardiac regenerative medicine): overview and their assignment to students' groups; Q&A session. 5) Statistical analysis of experimental data from in vitro models: software and practical methods (lecture plus exercise) 6) In vivo animal models: overview, animal welfare principles, examples. 7) Computational fluidodynamic and molecular models in preclinical (and clinical) experimentation and their main applications: lectures and exercises in classroom in groups. 8) Group work for the project exam during the course under the supervision and guide by the main teacher and the collaborators..
The course collects interdisciplinary topics and different teachers participate with their own block of lectures. There are 4 main blocks of subjects (animal trials, in vitro experimental models, in silico models and laboratory activities) The official language is English. lf foreign students are not attending the course, it will be possible to hold part of the most complex theoretical lectures in ltalian on request by students.
The course collects interdisciplinary topics and different teachers participate with their own block of lectures. There are 4 main blocks of subjects (in vitro models, project activity, in vivo animal models, in silico models) plus external activities (seminars) and laboratory/exercise activities. The official language is English. lf foreign students are not attending the course, it will be possible to hold part of the most complex theoretical lectures in ltalian on request by students. This course is ideal at the second year of Master Degree Course in Biomedical Engineering. However it is possible to follow the course also for the other students. Students from Biomedical Instrumentation and E-health may experience some comprehension problems in case they have never followed Tissue Engineering courses. In such a case they may ask help to teachers for additional material or explanations.
Classroom lessons with slides project on (37.5 hours) • Lab or practical lectures (13.5 hours) • Classroom exercises: Q&A sessions and exercises (9 hours )
Theoretical classroom lessons with slides (42 hours)*. Exercise lecture (divided into groups): • Lab practical lectures (12 hours). • Classroom exercises: Q&A sessions and exercises (6 hours ). *The theoretical lectures also include the activity dedicated to exam project explanation, introduction and execution.
• Slides and articles or material uploaded by the teachers • Your own notes during lectures in the lab
• Slides and articles or material uploaded by the teachers • Your own notes collected during lectures in the lab
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
... The exam consists of the preparation of a group project by 4-5 students on a topic in the field of 3Rs-Principle, assigned during the course. The exam aims to improve students' ability to: - perform a research work in a group, - design a research work which in compliance with the 3Rs Principle, - acquire more knowledge on research methods (such as the tools available for literature research, the structure of a research activity plan, etc.), - elaborate a plan for research work in both written and oral form, - improve their oral and written communication skills, - promote interactions with other students and with teachers. Students will decide the group composition, while project topic will be selected among a list of topics provided by the teacher. Concerning the project topic, students will have the possibility to discuss it with the teachers during planned meetings. Part of the lectures will be also dedicated to project discussion and development. Project exam consists of: 1) a project document (with page limitations) in English, following guidelines provided by the teachers during lectures and planned meetings and strictly following a template provided by the main teacher. Such document should be sent to teacher no later than 7 days before the date of the oral exam. 2) A ppt presentation with slides in English to be sent to the teacher by the day before the exam. The presentation should last 15 minutes. The presentation is in English. One student in the group will present the project. After, a series of questions will be done to each student in the group by the examination board. Examination board will consist of at least 3 teachers. The examination board will make questions on the presentation and project. The teachers will evaluate: - originality and feasibility of the group project (max 6 points) - Aims and Workplan (compliant with 3Rs principles) (max 8 points) - Students’ interaction during project (max 5 points) - Bonus for lack of mistakes in the project and/or outstanding project idea (up to 2 points) - Presentation (quality of the slides, clarity and completeness of the presentation) & questions on the project (12 points) The mark will be differentiated among students in the same group by their answers to questions. Exam is passed if the students reach a mark equaI or superior to 18. The maximum mark 30L is possible if the student has a mark of at least 30.5. The ONSITE exam will be hold in a classroom. The duration is approximately 1 h - 1,5 h per group.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group project;
The exam consists of the preparation of a group project by 4-5 students on a topic in the field of 3Rs-Principle, assigned during the course. The exam aims to improve students' ability to: - perform a research work in a group, - design a research work which in compliance with the 3Rs Principle, - acquire more knowledge on research methods (such as the tools available for literature research, the structure of a research activity plan, etc.), - elaborate a plan for research work in both written and oral form, - improve their oral and written communication skills, - promote interactions with other students and with teachers. Students will decide the group composition, while project topic will be selected among a list of topics provided by the teacher. Concerning the project topic, students will have the possibility to discuss it with the teachers during planned meetings. Part of the lectures will be also dedicated to project discussion and development. Project exam consists of: 1) a project document (with page limitations) in English, following guidelines provided by the teachers during lectures and planned meetings and strictly following a template provided by the main teacher. Such document should be sent to teacher no later than 7 days before the date of the oral exam. 2) A ppt presentation with slides in English to be sent to the teacher by the day before the exam. The presentation should last 15 minutes. The presentation is in English. One student in the group will present the project. After, a series of questions will be done to each student in the group by the examination board. Examination board will consist of at least 3 teachers. The examination board will make questions on the presentation and project. The teachers will evaluate: - originality and feasibility of the group project (max 6 points) - Aims and Workplan (compliant with 3Rs principles) (max 8 points) - Students’ interaction during project (max 5 points) - Bonus for lack of mistakes in the project and/or outstanding project idea (up to 2 points) - Presentation (quality of the slides, clarity and completeness of the presentation) & questions on the project (12 points) The mark will be differentiated among students in the same group by their answers to questions. Exam is passed if the students reach a mark equaI or superior to 18. The maximum mark 30L is possible if the student has a mark of at least 30.5. The ONSITE exam will be hold in a classroom. The duration is approximately 1 h - 1,5 h per group.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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