Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Transport economy and technique

01VKEMX

A.A. 2022/23

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Civile - Torino

Borrow

02VKENE

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 59
Esercitazioni in aula 21
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Diana Marco Professore Associato ICAR/05 27 21 0 0 2
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ICAR/05 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria civile
2022/23
L’insegnamento intende fornire i fondamenti dell’analisi dei sistemi di trasporto attraverso la trattazione delle principali teorie che stanno alla base dell'economia, della tecnica, della pianificazione, della regolazione e gestione dei sistemi di trasporto. Si configura pertanto come insegnamento formativo d’inquadramento generale sui sistemi di trasporto, analizzati oltre che sotto l’aspetto economico e normativo, anche mediante l'illustrazione delle loro principali caratteristiche tecniche. L’impianto dell’insegnamento, multidisciplinare e trasversale rispetto a diversi corsi di studio, vuole inoltre costituire per l’allievo un’occasione per prendere coscienza della necessità di un approccio integrato ai fini dell’acquisizione di capacità realmente operative nel campo dei trasporti. Parallelamente, le esercitazioni sono volte a sviluppare le competenze progettuali dell’allievo attraverso l’apprendimento delle tecniche di base necessarie per l’analisi dei sistemi di trasporto.
The goal of the course is to provide students with the methodological foundations of transport systems analysis, through the coverage of the most important theories that are at the basis of the transport economics, technique, planning and management, including energy and environmental aspects. It can therefore be seen as a formative course to provide a general framework on transport systems, that are analysed through the explanation of their main technical characteristics, beyond considering the economic viewpoint. The structure of the course, that is multidisciplinary and transversal as regards different master degrees of Politecnico, is an occasion for students to raise their awareness on the need of an integrated approach in order to develop truly operational skills in the transport sector. In parallel, the solution of practical exercises targets the development of planning skills of the students through the learning of the basic techniques that are needed to analyse transport systems.
The knowledge acquired all along the course is both methodological and applied. The methodological knowledge is based on learning about theories and methods to dimension a transport system (all the transport modes), both private and public, as well as to evaluate the financial profitability and the economic efficiency, the environmental and energy impact, also under the point of view of the external costs. Furthermore, the study of the economic theories on which the markets are based and of the competition for and within the market allow defining the most appropriate management approach for transport companies and the principles of market regulations (fare policies, internalisation of costs). This last aspect is supported by acquiring the knowledge in terms of techniques to measure the financial performances of the enterprises. The knowledge of the national accounts, with a thorough analysis of the transport sector, completes the framework within the enterprises offer their services. The applied knowledge is acquired through the experimental work carried out during the course, that provides the analysis of real cases to which apply the learned theories. For example, the students learn how to evaluate the performances of the transport systems (capacity, potentiality, level of service), how to evaluate the financial equilibrium, the monetary liquidity, the investments’ profitability. The knowledge acquired during the course allows to develop: a) the ability to describe and analyse a transport system; b) the mastery of the basic techniques to dimension a transport system; c) the ability to measure the performances of a transport service; d) the skills in the evaluation of a transport system according to the point of view of the different stakeholders (users, firm operating the service or managing the system, general public, policy and decision maker); e) the ability to analyse the markets and to define the fares if the different transport systems.
The knowledge acquired all along the course is both methodological and applied. The methodological knowledge is based on learning about theories and methods to dimension a transport system (all the transport modes), both private and public, as well as to evaluate its economic efficiency, the environmental and energy impact, also under the point of view of the external costs. Furthermore, the study of the economic theories on which the markets are based allows understanding the principles of transport systems regulations (fare policies, internalisation of costs). The applied knowledge is acquired through the experimental work carried out during the course, which provides the analysis of real cases to which apply the learned theories. For example, the students learn how to evaluate the performances of the transport systems (daily capacity, potentiality, level of service) and how to evaluate the economic benefits and costs. The knowledge acquired during the course allows to develop: a) the ability to describe and analyse a transport system; b) the mastery of the basic techniques to dimension a transport system; c) the ability to measure the performances of a transport service; d) the skills in the evaluation of a transport system according to the point of view of the different stakeholders (users, firm operating the service or managing the system, general public, policy and decision maker); e) the ability to analyse the markets and to define the fares of the different transport systems.
Basic notions of Mathematics, Statistics, Physics and Mechanics.
Basic notions of Mathematics, Statistics, Physics and Mechanics. Basic notions on the evaluation of investment projects given in courses such as "Construction project management" (Civil Engineering) or "Business economics and organization" (Mechanical Engineering).
Mechanics of locomotion: 9 hours - Traction and friction - Ordinary and accidental resistances on roads and railways - The motion equation and the phases of motion - Power and traction diagrams, performance curves and manual integration of the motion equation - Braking and stop distances on roads and railways - Motion diagrams of a vehicle. Vehicular flows: 14 hours - Kinds of traffic streams, motion diagrams of several vehicles, headway and spacing - Physical quantities characterising the flow - The fundamental law of traffic flow on road transport - Stationary road traffic flow and related theoretical-deductive models - Empirical-inductive models for road traffic flows: HCM manual - Railways circulation rules - Theoretical (block theory) and empirical (Fiche UIC 406) models for flows on railway networks. Scheduling transport services: 7 hours - Physical quantities and measurement units for traffic in transport systems - Graphical timetables, operations at same or different speeds, rights of ways and crossings in railways - Line transports: cycle time, frequency and capacity. Fundamentals of macroeconomics: 5 hours - National accounts: gross and net national product. Income accounts, gross internal product and balance with foreign countries. The role of different parties in national accounts - National transport accounts, comparison between Italy and France. Fundamentals of microeconomics: 10 hours - Introduction: economic organisation, production factors and definition of market - Demand and supply curves, market equilibrium point; elasticity of the demand; analysis of production costs - Free competition markets and monopolies. Engineering economics: 8 hours - Interests, economic equivalence and depreciation - Economic evaluation of investments. Transport economics: 27 hours - Transport policy tools. - Deregulation in the transport sector: air, road (including freight), rail and public transport. - European and national regulations on transport markets and evolution of the regulatory framework. - Railway companies and the owner of the infrastructure. Italian legislation on railways and FS structure from 1905 to today. - The infrastructure access fee, Network Prospectus (PIR) and Performance Regime, catalogue and its critical issues. - Local public transport: legislative and regulatory evolution. Management of tenders and in-house assignments. Service contracts. Comparison among European countries. - Funding mechanisms for public transport and transport companies in the European market. - Transport authorities in Italy and France: role, tasks and international public transport market. - Costs and pricing in transport. The classification of investments, operational and infrastructure costs. - Marginal cost pricing. Collective surplus. Prices and tariffs. - Road pricing: role and reactions of users.
Vehicle motion: 8 hours – only for the 8 CFU class - Adhesion and friction - Basic and alignment resistances for road and rail vehicles - Equation of motion and regimes of motion - Power, tractive effort and resistance diagrams - Braking and stopping distance for road and rail vehicles, UIC formula - Motion diagrams for one vehicle Traffic flows on roads and railways: 14 hours - Kinds of traffic streams, trajectories for many vehicles, headway and spacing - Definition of traffic stream features: flow, density, space and time mean speed; fundamental equation; occupancy - Stationary traffic and related deductive models: Greenshields and Greenberg - Empirical-inductive models for traffic flow: capacity and level of service of uninterrupted flows on motorways - Train separation principles in railways - Traffic steams in railways: theoretical model of the speed-capacity relationship - Empirical model for the capacity computation in railways (UIC leaflet 406) Scheduling line transport services: 7 hours - Measures of input and output transportation quantities, efficiency and effectiveness indicators - Line services: cycle time, headway and capacity Fundamentals of microeconomics: 10 hours – only for the 8 CFU class - Introduction: economic organisation, factors of production and definition of market - Demand and supply curves, market equilibrium point - Price elasticity of the demand, link between elasticity and revenues - Analysis of production costs: fixed, variable, marginal, average costs, link between production levels and costs - Perfectly competitive markets: profit maximisation, zero profit and shutdown points - Monopoly: varieties of imperfect competition and market failures, marginal revenues and profit maximisation, price discrimination and monopoly deadweight loss Evaluation of transport projects: 8 hours - Incremental costs, opportunity costs and sunk costs - Market versus shadow prices, externalities - Project evaluation in the public sector: cost-benefit analysis Transport and energy: 6 hours Energy consumption of transport systems and related emissions: sustainability of transport systems, overall impact of transport on energy production, consumption of single modes of transport, international comparison, introduction to energy carriers, resulting pollutant emissions; relationship of fuel consumption to the state budget and transport economy; alternatives to internal combustion engines, energy carriers for motor vehicles, relationship to energy and environmental impact: technical, energy, environmental and economic aspects; new powertrains for road transport. Workshop using on-board diagnostics: 6 hours Exercises with data obtained from motor vehicles, with on-board diagnostic devices (OBD II) Classroom discussion of the results of the exercise on tracking the motion of a road vehicle using an OBD II device, accelerometer and/or GPS/Galileo. Delivery and discussion of OBD exercises. Intelligent transport systems: 4.5 hours ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) for more sustainable transport systems. ITS architectures and standards. ITS components: communication systems, including V2V, V2X; localisation through AVLS; identification of vehicles, freight, travellers through AVI and AEI; traffic data collection through sensors, for both vehicles and passengers through APC (automated passenger counting) with related integrations, mainly addressed to road transport. Evolution of assisted driving and towards autonomous vehicles. Examples for integrated ITS. Intermodal transport systems: 6 hours Intermodal transport systems, for freight, by land and sea: ITU, transshipment techniques, combined transport and trucking, inland and port/container terminals. Optimisation methods in transport: 6 hours Optimisation methods and techniques in external logistics and freight transport, with numerical applications. Technical visit: 4.5 hours Technical visit at transport facilities and terminals (railway terminals and/or intermodal terminals and/or metro and/or ports and/or transport and traffic control rooms and/or transport vehicle industries).
The course for the Mechanical Engineering class provides 6 credits. Thus, the students who choose such course will have a deduction of 20 hours, defined at the beginning of the course. This choice aims to maximise the student learning, taking into account his/her educational background and avoiding potential overlapping with previous courses.
The course for the Mechanical Engineering class provides 6 credits. Thus, the students who choose such course will have a deduction of 20 hours, as detailed in the "course topics" field. This choice aims to maximise the student learning, taking into account his/her educational background and avoiding potential overlapping with previous courses.
Workshops, that last about three to four hours each, are targeted at the development of numerical applications that are related to the topics covered during lessons, in particular on the following points: 1. LOCOMOTION MECHANICS. The movement of single vehicles, active forces and resistances. The motion equation. Computation of the performances of vehicles moving at constant speed or during acceleration and deceleration phases. 2. PERFORMANCES OF THE MEANS. Experimental formulas to compute ordinary and accidental resistances. Traction diagrams and manual integration of the motion equation. 3. CAPACITY OF THE INFRASTRUCTURES. Vehicular flows, levels of service and HCM manual. Railways traffic. 4. RESOURCES FOR TRANSPORT SERVICES. Graphical timetables, fleet and crew scheduling. 5. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS. Interests, depreciation, curves of costs and revenues, breakeven and maximum profit point. Calculation of cost per kilometre of a vehicle. 6. EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS AND PROJECTS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR. Cost benefit analysis.
Workshops, that last about three to four hours each, are targeted at the development of numerical applications that are related to the topics covered during lessons, in particular on the following points: 1. VEHICLE MOTION. The movement of single vehicles, active forces and resistances, especially in public transport systems. The motion equation. Computation of the performances of vehicles moving at constant speed or during acceleration and deceleration phases. 2. CAPACITY OF MOTORWAYS. Vehicular flows, levels of service and HCM manual. 3. CAPACITY OF RAILWAYS. UIC 406 R leaflet method. 4. RESOURCES FOR TRANSPORT SERVICES. Graphical timetables, fleet and crew scheduling. 5. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS. Curves of costs and revenues, breakeven and maximum profit point. Calculation of cost per kilometre of a vehicle. 6. EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS AND PROJECTS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR. Cost benefit analysis. 7. WORKSHOP USING ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES. Field activities and discussion in class.
The nature of the course and the available references do not allow to have only one textbook; thus, the attendance to the course is fundamental for an effective learning process. All along the course, proper textbooks will be suggested to complete the training process. As an example, some topics are contained in the following textbook: - Samuelson, P.A., Nordhaus, W.D. (2009) Microeconomics. Concerning specific topics, ad hoc material (articles, reports, etc.) will be uploaded on the course web page at Politecnico web site.
The nature of the course and the available references do not allow to have only one textbook; thus, the attendance to the course is fundamental for an effective learning process. All along the course, proper textbooks will be suggested to complete the training process. Concerning specific topics, ad hoc material (articles, reports, etc.) will be uploaded on the course web page at Politecnico web site.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;
The exam implies a written as well as an oral part, both are compulsory. The goal of the exam is to ascertain the knowledge of the topics covered during classes and the achievement of the above mentioned learning outcomes. Written exam: solution of numerical exercises and quizzes on the topics dealt during the workshops. The written exam will include two exercises and some quizzes and it will last about 2.5 hours. It will be possible to consult personal notes only to solve the two exercises. Oral exam: it will deal with all the topics covered during the course and it will compulsorily take place after few days from the written exam. The oral exam will last about 30 minutes. The admittance requirement to the oral exam is having obtained a score of at least 18/30 in the written exam and, for each of the two exercises and for the quiz, a score of at least 5/10.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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