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Advanced parametric design

01VOGPX

A.A. 2023/24

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
2022/23
In line with the characterization of the degree course, the atelier "Project and Innovation" intends to deepen the theme of parametric design of the building through the adoption of computational strategies applied to the increasing complexity of the design process. This is meant both in terms of shapes and required performance standards, and as a way to verify constructive and productive modes in line with the most innovative professional practices. Computation activities in the design process translates complexity into simple and measurable information (data and algorithms) that can support design and technological choices. A well-structured parametric definition allows to quickly and accurately make changes to the project or to investigate a range of possibilities/alternatives, starting from numerical (dimensional, quantitative, performance) or formal assumptions assigned, consistent with the role and educational objectives proposed by the architectural and urban design and building physics disciplines. On the other hand, the connection of the parametric definition with the possibility to evaluate the effect of geometric, compositional and technological parameters on the physical performance of the building, in real time, allows to inform and optimize the project from the performance point of view during the whole design process, and not only as a final verification. The atelier also intends to highlight the role of digital representation as a method of project prefiguration and as an investigation tool for knowledge. The interest in procedures of digital drawing involves the use of open and shared processes to promote the dialogue between disciplines. This approach "informs" the model of the building and creates a new link between the conceptual and the construction model. The atelier focuses as well on the quantity and quality of the information, the discretization needed to support the physical-technical simulations, andthe way to assess the results of these simulations in order to re-inform and improve the project. In this regard some performance parameters will be used, such as the management of the energy performance, the internal and external environmental comfort. These parameters will be set according to local legislative requirements. For the achievement of these objectives, parametric modeling softwares will be used: the use of mathematical algorithms will allow to describe processes and actions that will be translated into three-dimensional models. From the building physics point of view, the parametric modeling software will be integrated with parametric tools for the calculation of energy and environmental performance.
In line with the characterization of the degree course, the atelier intends to deepen the theme of parametric design through the adoption of computational strategies, with a case study selected for its peculiar complexity at all levels. On the one hand, this means designing shapes and elements defining their performance standards and verifying constructive and productive modes, in line with the most innovative professional practices. On the other, the aim is to face the design of massive buildings while taking care of public space. In this sense, from the architectural point of view, the main topic is using parametric design to control complex design topics and face the issue of the so-called “bigness”, developing the typical massing phase of the design with special attention toward the “empty” spaces and their quality. In this sense, the parametric approach will potentially permeate every side of the project, from the pre-design phase - definition of requirements, evaluation of the present situation - to the detail phase - linking technical elements to their actual effects. Therefore, the parametric approach will be developed as a way for managing different information systems and using the project itself as a solution, instead of being limited to the most obvious technical issues of facade elements and such. Computation activities in the design process translate complexity into simple and measurable information (data and algorithms) that can support the design and technological choices. A well-structured parametric definition allows to quickly and accurately make changes to the project or to investigate a range of possibilities/alternatives, starting from numerical (dimensional, quantitative, performance) or formal assumptions assigned, consistent with the role and educational objectives proposed by the architectural and urban design and building physics disciplines. On the other hand, the connection of the parametric definition with the possibility to evaluate the effect of geometric, compositional and technological parameters on the physical performance of the building, in real-time, allows for information and optimisation of the project from the performance point of view during the whole design process, and not only as a final verification. The atelier also intends to highlight the role of digital representation as a method of project prefiguration and as an investigation tool for knowledge. The interest in procedures of digital drawing involves the use of open and shared processes to promote the dialogue between disciplines. This approach "informs" the model of the building and creates a new link between the conceptual and the construction model. The atelier focuses as well on the quantity and quality of the information, the discretization needed to support the physical-technical simulations, and the way to assess the results of these simulations in order to re-inform and improve the project. In this regard some performance parameters will be used, such as the management of the energy performance, and the internal and external environmental comfort. These parameters will be set according to local legislative requirements. For the achievement of these objectives, parametric modelling software will be used: the use of mathematical algorithms will allow the description of processes and actions that will be translated into three-dimensional models. From the building physics point of view, the parametric modelling software will be integrated with parametric tools for the calculation of energy and environmental performance.
The atelier aims to disseminate knowledge useful to develop: - a reasoning approach in which architectural and environmental aspects are combined with the parameterization of complex information referable to natural elements or artifacts already existing or not. - a conscious evaluation of the project alternatives on the basis of information discretization procedures. The expected learning outcomes concern: - the ability to critically evaluate the design options by analyzing their effects in terms of control of environmental conditions and well-being for buildings during the design, construction and production processes of the building components; - the knowledge of parametric design methodology for design and process innovation; - the critical understanding of the relationship between parametric and algorithmic modeling in the transition from the ideal shape to the built model - the ability to develop and manage complex shapes and responsive models; - the understanding of visual programming languages for digital drawing; - the ability to analyze macro and micro-climatic parameters in relation to building form and envelope; - the ability to establish energy-environmental performance requirements of the envelope, also related to local legislative requirements; - the ability to model, in a parametric way, and simulate the physical and technical behavior of the building, with particular emphasis on the design shape and materials of the envelope in order to pursue an optimization between environmental and climatic parameters; - the knowledge of innovative technologies of high performance envelopes for the reduction of energy demand and the improvement of environmental comfort.
The atelier aims to disseminate knowledge useful to develop: a reasoning approach in which architectural and environmental aspects are combined with the parameterization of complex information - a conscious evaluation of the project alternatives on the basis of information discretization procedures. The expected learning outcomes concern: - the ability to critically evaluate the design options by analyzing their effects in terms of control of environmental conditions and well-being for buildings during the design, construction and production processes of the building components; - the ability to conceptualize parametric design in creative and innovative ways; - the knowledge of parametric design methodology for design and process innovation; - the critical understanding of the relationship between parametric and algorithmic modeling in the transition from the ideal shape to the built model - the ability to develop and manage complex shapes and responsive models; - the understanding of visual programming languages for digital drawing; - the ability to analyze macro and micro-climatic parameters in relation to building form and envelope; - the ability to establish energy-environmental performance requirements of the envelope also related to local legislative requirements; - the ability to model, in a parametric way, and simulate the physical and technical behaviour of the building, with particular emphasis on the design shape and materials of the envelope in order to pursue an optimization between environmental and climatic parameters; - the knowledge of innovative technologies of high-performance envelopes for the reduction of energy demand and the improvement of environmental comfort.
To follow the course you need the knowledge acquired along the educational path of the three-year degree on the general principles of: Architectural Composition; Building Physics, Architectural Technology, Representation and Digital Modeling of Architecture.
To follow the course you need the knowledge acquired along the educational path of the three-year degree on the general principles of: Architectural and Urban Design; Building Physics, Architectural Technology, Representation and Digital Modeling of Architecture.
[Architecture and Urban Design] The discipline is oriented to the definition of the parametric design process both in a meta-design key, through the definition of the demanding-performance framework. The atelier aims to introduce the student to parametric design as a process of conception and composition, through the explanation of the process of conception closely and indissolubly linked to the process of representation. The design process will therefore be linked to the investigation of the methods and most frequently used drawing tools for the prefiguration of architectural design. From the Architectural Design point of view, the atelier aims to make the student acquire new abilities in controlling the complexity, not only, and not much, with respect to the purely formal aspects (like free-form, organic surfaces, which may be developed but are not mandatory): the aim is indeed to understand parameters as the rationalization of any design actions, exploiting this potential for producing better-quality projects. [Parametric modelling] The contribution to the taught module is focused on methodologies and tools for the analysis and design of complex surfaces, with a particular focus on double curvature shapes. The translation of complex shapes into technically feasible design options is investigated by means of drawing and modelling methodologies, by passing from a continuous shape to discrete surfaces: the continuous model is created by means of mathematical tools which enable the concept design of the architectural envelope; the discretisation of this continuous shape is a first step towards the technical feasibility of this concept. After the first concept investigations, the model is adopted as a base to develop the design and compare the design options, according to different technical perspectives. In detail this part of the module will provide the theoretical and technical basis for NURBS and mesh modelling; it will teach the fundamentals to understand concepts such as curvature and the possibility to develop curved complex surfaces; it will direct the student toward learning methods for the discretisation of continuous surfaces into discrete panels. Moreover algorithmic digital methods for size optimisation of the panelling and clustering of similar shapes will be introduced. Finally, the relationship between Building Information Modeling and algorithmic design will be studied, from the perspective of translating a shape from the concept to a building model. [Building Physics] The building physics part of the module is oriented toward the mastering of analysis methods and procedures to evaluate the performance of complex building envelopes, to support and integrated the architectural design, with the aim to improve the energy performance and the environmental quality of the design environment/building. To this aim, the module will focus on the analysis of the external climate, the parametric building physics modeling of building envelope, and of the environmental analysis of the building. By means of building performance simulation tools, the influence of building envelope design parameters on environmental performance will be studied (i.e. solar radiation on external surface, outdoor comfort, building energy performance, visual comfort etc.). [Tools] Rhinoceros, Grasshopper, environmental analysis plug-ins, BIM software, clustering and paneling tools and plugins, Illustrator and Photoshop.
The atelier will be organized in two main phases. In the first one, the whole design area will be analysed and a series of functional and non-functional parameters will be defined, so to arrive to produce a master plan. At the same time, preliminary work on the existing building will be completed, and there will be a series of environmental analyses. In the second phase, the design will go at the level of the building(s) and the public space, detailing their most relevant parts. Classroom activities will involve alternating theoretical lectures and practical exercises. The exercises will be conducted through collective and individual reviews and also through extempore. Assiduous attendance of classroom practice activities is essential to learning the expected outcomes. Both the analysis exercise and the design exercise will be conducted in small groups of students. Individual activities are also planned.
Carpo, M., The alphabet and the algorythm. MIT Press. 2011 Brawne, M., Architectural Thought: the design process and the expectant eye. Architectural Press 2003. Schumacher, P., Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture's Agenda for the 21st Century, Academy Edition. 2016 Jullien. F., A Treatise on Efficacy. Between Western and Chinese Thinking. University of Hawai'i Press. 2004. Koolhaas, R., “Bigness, or the problem of Large”, Domus, 764, 1994. Oxman, R., “Thinking difference: Theories and models of parametric design thinking”, Design Studies Volume 52, September 2017, Pages 4-39 Calvano, M., Disegno digitale esplicito. Rappresentazioni responsive dell’architettura e della città. Aracne 2019. Tedeschi, A. AAD, Algorithms-aided Design: Parametric Strategies Using Grasshopper. Le Penseur Publisher, 2014. Attilio Nebuloni (2018). Codice e progetto. Il computational design tra architettura, design, territorio, rappresentazione, strumenti, materiali e nuove tecnologie. Mimesis: Milano. Michele Calvano (2019). Disegno digitale esplicito. Rappresentazioni responsive dell’architettura e della città. Aracne: Ariccia. Massimiliano Lo Turco (2015). Il BIM e la rappresentazione infografica del processo edilizio. Dieci anni di ricerche e applicazioni. Aracne: Ariccia. IDES-EDU project slides (www.ides-edu.eu) Corrado V., Fabrizio E., Fondamenti di Termofisica dell’Edificio e Climatizzazione, II edizione, CLUT, Torino, 2014. Astolfi A., Corrado V., Applicazioni di Illuminazione e Acustica, CELID, Torino, 2012. Stefanutti L., “Manuale degli impianti di climatizzazione”, ISBN 978-88-481-1884-2, Editore Tecniche Nuove, 2007. DETAIL, Institut für internationale Architektur Dokumentation GmbH THE PLAN - Architecture & Technologies in Detail ARKETIPO MAGAZINE Herzog, T., Krippner , R., Lang, W., (2005), Atlante delle facciate, UTET, Torino. Supplementary teaching and reference material: ASHRAE, “Handbook of Fundamentals”, editore ASHRAE, 2005. AICARR, “Manuale d’ausilio alla progettazione: Miniguida AICARR (III Edizione)”, ISBN: 978-88-95620-56-5, MILANO: AICARR, 2010. Capozzoli A., Corrado V., Gorrino A., Soma P., “Atlante nazionale dei ponti termici”, Edilclima, 2011 http://tu1403.eu/wp-content/uploads/Vol-3-2_for-web-Open-Access_9789463661119.pdf https://mostapharoudsari.gitbooks.io/ladybug-primer/content/text/categories/0_Ladybug.html https://docs.ladybug.tools/honeybee-primer/components The basic bibliography will be integrated during classroom lectures according to the specific topics covered.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto individuale; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Individual essay; Group project;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Individual essay; Group project;
The exam will be conducted through a summary discussion of the individual and group project path, documented by graphical elaborations, digital models and short illustrative writings, supported by the exposition of the various materials, including intermediate ones, produced by the student during the atelier and a discussion of the contents of the bibliography provided during the semester. The assessment will take into account the following aspects, evaluated on the basis of the final and intermediate papers produced, individual and group, discussed during the final interview: - Ability to use a parametric design approach in its broaded sense - Conscious critical use of algorithmic design tools - Ability to interpret the design program - Ability to communicate the design conception path and the final design proposal. The exam will consist of the presentation of the project developed through the course, with a discussion on the specific topics of each disciplines, and the discussion of the individual work. The final mark of the module is obtained from the mark of the final exam and from the marks of the single disciplines, developed during the course. The final mark is obtained as the weighted average evaluation of single disciplines concerning the final exam and the individual works, in 30/30.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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