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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Thermal and hydraulic machines

02MCIQD

A.A. 2021/22

2021/22

Thermal and hydraulic machines

The subject aims at providing the students with the basic theoretical knowledge and practical skills needed to face problems related to the performance analysis and the optimal choice of either a thermal or a hydraulic machine. Particular attention will be devoted to the analysis of the design as well as the off-design performance of machines and the power plants.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Turbo-machinery represents a strong topic in the background of a mechanical engineer and the constant attention devoted to the environmental related aspects is to be carefully considered. The subject hence aims at providing the students with the basic theoretical knowledge and with the practical skills needed to face problems related to the performance analysis and the optimal choice of either a thermal or a hydraulic device. The first part of the subject focuses on a quick review of the Thermodynamic and Fluid Mechanic principles, with specific reference to aspects that are mandatory for the analysis of fluid machines and energetic systems. Particular attention will also be devoted to the analysis of the design as well as the off-design performance of machines and to the design and off-design behavior of power plants.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

The first part of the subject focuses on a quick review of the Thermodynamic and Fluid Mechanic principles, with specific reference to aspects that are mandatory for the analysis of fluid machines and energetic systems. Through the systematic application of the thermo-fluid-dynamics principles to energy systems and their components, the module provides the students with the ability to design turbomachines, engines, fluid-power systems and engineering-plant solutions in relation to their applications.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Through the systematic application of the thermo-fluid-dynamics principles to energy systems and to their components, the module provides the students with the ability to: • design turbo-machines, engines and fluid-power systems; • design engineering-plant solutions in relation to the specific application; • tackle issues related to off-design performance; • tackle issues related to maintenance problems.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

In order to fruitfully attend the subject, the student should have previously acquired the basic knowledge of Fluid Machines theory, Thermodynamics, Thermo-kinetic, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

In order to fruitfully attend the subject, the student should have previously acquired the basic knowledge of: • Fluid Machines theory; • Thermodynamics; • Thermo-kinetic; • Applied Mechanics; • Fluid Mechanics.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Syllabus • Introduction to fluid machines. Review of the thermodynamics and fluid-dynamics applied to fluid machines. Velocity diagrams, Euler work equation. • Fundamentals of thermodynamics and chemistry of the combustion of fuel/air mixtures. • Blade cascade: velocity triangles, energy transfer in turbomachines, scaling and similitude, performance characteristics. • Steam turbine plants: single-stage impulse turbine, pressure compounding, blade shapes, velocity compounding. Steam turbine plant control. • Review on centrifugal and axial turbo-compressors: design and off-design operations. • Review on the hydraulic pumps: cavitation. Hydraulic turbines: Pelton wheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine. • Hydraulic transmission of Power: fluid couplings and torque converter. • Turbo-gas plants: control techniques. • Volumetric machines: reciprocating compressor, vane compressor, Roots. • Internal combustion engines.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Syllabus of the topic • Introduction to fluid machines. Review of the thermodynamics and fluid-dynamics applied to fluid machines. Velocity diagrams, Euler work equation. • Fundamentals of thermodynamics and chemistry of the combustion of fuel/air mixtures. • Blade cascade: velocity triangles, energy transfer in turbomachines, scaling and similitude, performance characteristics. • Steam turbine plants: single-stage impulse turbine, pressure compounding, blade shapes, velocity compounding. Steam turbine plant control. • Review on centrifugal and axial turbo-compressors: design and off-design operations. • Review on the hydraulic pumps: cavitation. Hydraulic turbines: Pelton wheel, Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine. • Turbo-gas plants: control techniques. • Volumetric machines: reciprocating compressor, vane compressor, Roots.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Thermal and hydraulic machines

The subject is made up of lectures and applied lectures. The applied lectures consist of exercises meant to further deepen the understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

The subject is structured as follows: • 70 hours of lectures, devoted to the development of the basic knowledge on the design and performance of thermal and hydraulic machines. • 30 hours of applied lectures, meant to stimulate the acquired competences and to consolidate them through the solution of exercises. These latter will allow the students to further deepen the understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures. Tutoring hours might also be foreseen depending on the arrangements of the academic year. Laboratories: lab activities will also be possibly integrated into the course structure. Still, due to logistic issues, these latter will only be offered to the students officially attending the course for the first time. Reports will be eventually required and will contribute to the exam final mark as described in the following section.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

References • M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, “Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics”, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons. • S.L. Dixon, C.A. Hall, “Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery”, 6th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier. • Lecture Slides • S.A. Korpela, “Principles of Turbomachinery”, Wiley & Sons. • Applied lectures reference book - C. Dongiovanni, D. Misul, “Exercises on Thermal and Hydraulic Machines”, CLUT Eds, Torino. Required material Mollier diagram for steam (“Diagramma entalpico per il vapor d’acqua”), CLUT Eds. To be procured by the student. Saturation lines tables for steam.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

References • M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, “Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics”, 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons. • S.L. Dixon, C.A. Hall, “Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery”, 6th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Elsevier. • Lecture Slides • S.A. Korpela, “Principles of Turbomachinery”, Wiley & Sons. • Applied lectures reference book - C. Dongiovanni, D. Misul, “Exercises on Thermal and Hydraulic Machines”, CLUT Eds, Torino. Required material Mollier diagram for steam (“Diagramma entalpico per il vapor d’acqua”), CLUT Eds. To be procured by the student. Saturation lines tables for steam.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The exam is made up of a written test and of an oral test. The final mark is the average of the marks achieved for the written and the oral parts. Written test (duration: 2 h 30 min) The written test aims at evaluating the students’ competences in terms of formula application and problem solving. The student is asked to solve 2 exercises featuring a difficulty level similar to that of the exercises proposed during the applied lectures. Each exercise sums up for 15 points out of 30. During the written test, the student are only allowed to use a scientific calculator, the steam Mollier chart, the saturation tables and a formulary, to be written on a A4 paper and to be prepared by the students. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones or any other electronic device is strictly forbidden. Should any candidate use any un-authorized electronic devices (regardless if it is switched on or off, online or offline), he/she will be immediately withdrawn from the exam. The paper sheets for the exam will be provided by the teacher. Each sheet has to be returned at the scheduled hand-in time or at the exam withdrawal. The candidate can withdraw from the written test at any time up to the hand-in time. In this case, the exam failure will not be registered. Once the written test has been corrected, the exam will be registered with either a positive or negative result. Any candidate who is not satisfied with the written test result can ask to be failed before the oral start. Oral test The oral test aims at verifying on a deeper basis the acquired theoretical and practical oriented knowledge. During the oral exam, the students will be required to prove his/her knowledge on the subject basics (definitions, demonstrations, equations) as well as to be able to deal with problems derived from practical applications. The oral test is mandatory and will deal with the topics dealt with within the lectures. The oral test can be accessed only provided that a minimum score of 12/30 is achieved in the written test. A failure in the oral test will lead to the exam failure.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Exam: Written test; Compulsory oral exam;

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The exam is made up of a written test and of an oral test. The final mark is the average of the marks achieved for the written and the oral parts. Written test (duration: 2 h 30 min) The written test aims at evaluating the students’ competences in terms of formula application and problem solving. The student is asked to solve 2 exercises featuring a difficulty level similar to that of the exercises proposed during the applied lectures. Each exercise sums up for 15 points out of 30. During the written test, the student are only allowed to use a scientific calculator, the steam Mollier chart, the saturation tables and a formulary, to be written on a A4 paper and to be prepared by the students. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones or any other electronic device is strictly forbidden. Should any candidate use any un-authorized electronic devices (regardless if it is switched on or off, online or offline), he/she will be immediately withdrawn from the exam. The paper sheets for the exam will be provided by the teacher. Each sheet has to be returned at the scheduled hand-in time or at the exam withdrawal. The candidate can withdraw from the written test at any time up to the hand-in time. In this case, the exam failure will not be registered. Once the written test has been corrected, the exam will be registered with either a positive or negative result. Any candidate who is not satisfied with the written test result can ask to be failed before the oral start. Oral test The oral test aims at verifying on a deeper basis the acquired theoretical and practical oriented knowledge. During the oral exam, the students will be required to prove his/her knowledge on the subject basics (definitions, demonstrations, equations) as well as to be able to deal with problems derived from practical applications. The oral test is mandatory and will deal with the topics dealt with within the lectures. The oral test can be accessed only provided that a minimum score of 12/30 is achieved in the written test. A failure in the oral test will lead to the exam failure. The exam outcome might possibly increase up to 4 marks if all of the followings apply: • the student has successfully passed the written and the oral test; • the student is attending the course for the first time in his academic career (no prior attendance); • the student has attended the above-mentioned lab activities and handed in the required reports within the due dates.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Modalità di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Remote exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The written exam will be supported by the Exam platform integrated in the Portale della Didattica, with the support of the Respondus Lockdown Browser. The exam will be made up of a written part and eventually by an oral part, the latter being at the sole discretion of the exam board (see Oral exam section). Written test (duration 1 hours and 50 minutes) The written exam is formally made up by two parts: • the first part is made up by 10 multiple choice questions. The questions refer to the topics dealt with within the theory of the course and a few might require the solution of short numerical problems. More than one answer might be correct and the scores of the answers are organized so that: the full score (3 points) is achieved provided that all of the correct answers are selected; a nil score is achieved provided that no answer is selected; a -3 penalty is gained provided that all of the wrong answers are selected (miscellaneous can turn out provided that a mix of the wrong and correct answers are selected). The maximum score of the first part is 30/30 • the second part is made up by two numerical exercises related to the course program (maximum score 30/30) As far as the exercises are concerned, students will be requested to: • insert the solution in the text box (sequence of results) without formulas nor intermediate results. The results should carry the quantity they refer to as well as the corresponding units. • write the fair copy of the detailed solution in A4 paper sheets, make sure to write clearly and indicate the full name and student number on each sheet. • use the procedure functionality to take a picture of each paper through the webcam and attach them to the test. Such pictures will be used as countercheck of the high-resolution files that will be hence uploaded on the web portal (see next item). • at the end of the exam, within a limit time of 10 minutes, upload a high-resolution scan of each face of the exam in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page The uploaded file will be the one document that will be corrected and assessed for. The high-resolution scan must be consistent with the countercheck that has been uploaded during the quiz. The following files will NOT be considered and the exam will be automatically considered as FAILED: • solutions whose results are different from those written in the text box during the quiz; • files not consistent with the countercheck (e.g., with additional and/or different text); • files uploaded beyond the 10 minutes’ limit time from the exam end; • files sent via email, through shared folders or any other means different from the upload in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page. The exam will be failed for an overall mark below 18/30 or provided that the outcome of either the first or the second part falls below 12/30. The final exam mark will be a weighted average between the outcome of the first and the second part. Students are supposed to solely use a calculator, the Mollier diagram, the saturation table, paper for the exam solution as well as a formula sheet in A4 format to be procured by the students themselves. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones, earphones, headphones or any other electronic device other than the PC is strictly forbidden. The student can withdraw from the exam once a minimum time corresponding to the 80% of the exam duration has elapsed and the exam will not be considered. Once the exam is handed in, the outcome will be formally registered regardless of a positive (pass) or negative (failure) mark Oral exam The oral exam is at the sole discretion of the exam board. The board will select the students that are supposed to sit the exam depending on the outcome of the written part as well as on the Lockdown Browser feedbacks and REGARDLESS of the mark. If so, the final mark will be a weighted average between the outcomes of the written part and of the oral test.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Exam: Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Remote exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The written exam will be supported by the Exam platform integrated in the Portale della Didattica, with the support of the Respondus Lockdown Browser. The exam will be made up of a written part and eventually by an oral part, the latter being at the sole discretion of the exam board (see Oral exam section). Written test (duration 1 hours and 50 minutes) The written exam is formally made up by two parts: • the first part is made up by 10 multiple choice questions. The questions refer to the topics dealt with within the theory of the course and a few might require the solution of short numerical problems. More than one answer might be correct and the scores of the answers are organized so that: the full score (3 points) is achieved provided that all of the correct answers are selected; a nil score is achieved provided that no answer is selected; a -3 penalty is gained provided that all of the wrong answers are selected (miscellaneous can turn out provided that a mix of the wrong and correct answers are selected). The maximum score of the first part is 30/30 • the second part is made up by two numerical exercises related to the course program (maximum score 30/30) As far as the exercises are concerned, students will be requested to: • insert the solution in the text box (sequence of results) without formulas nor intermediate results. The results should carry the quantity they refer to as well as the corresponding units. • write the fair copy of the detailed solution in A4 paper sheets, make sure to write clearly and indicate the full name and student number on each sheet. • use the procedure functionality to take a picture of each paper through the webcam and attach them to the test. Such pictures will be used as countercheck of the high-resolution files that will be hence uploaded on the web portal (see next item). • at the end of the exam, within a limit time of 10 minutes, upload a high-resolution scan of each face of the exam in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page The uploaded file will be the one document that will be corrected and assessed for. The high-resolution scan must be consistent with the countercheck that has been uploaded during the quiz. The following files will NOT be considered and the exam will be automatically considered as FAILED: • solutions whose results are different from those written in the text box during the quiz; • files not consistent with the countercheck (e.g., with additional and/or different text); • files uploaded beyond the 10 minutes’ limit time from the exam end; • files sent via email, through shared folders or any other means different from the upload in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page. The exam will be failed for an overall mark below 18/30 or provided that the outcome of either the first or the second part falls below 12/30. The final exam mark will be a weighted average between the outcome of the first and the second part. Students are supposed to solely use a calculator, the Mollier diagram, the saturation table, paper for the exam solution as well as a formula sheet in A4 format to be procured by the students themselves. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones, earphones, headphones or any other electronic device other than the PC is strictly forbidden. The student can withdraw from the exam once a minimum time corresponding to the 80% of the exam duration has elapsed and the exam will not be considered. Once the exam is handed in, the outcome will be formally registered regardless of a positive (pass) or negative (failure) mark Oral exam The oral exam is at the sole discretion of the exam board. The board will select the students that are supposed to sit the exam depending on the outcome of the written part as well as on the Lockdown Browser feedbacks and REGARDLESS of the mark. If so, the final mark will be a weighted average between the outcomes of the written part and of the oral test. During the oral exam, the student will be required to prove his/her knowledge on the subject basics (definitions, demonstrations, equations) as well as to be able to deal with problems derived from practical applications. The oral test is mandatory and will deal with the topics dealt with within the lectures.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Thermal and hydraulic machines

‘Blended’ exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The remote written exam will be supported by the Exam platform integrated in the Portale della Didattica, with the support of the Respondus Lockdown Browser. The exam will be made up of a written part and eventually by an oral part, the latter being at the sole discretion of the exam board (see Oral exam section). Written test (duration 1 hours and 50 minutes) The written exam is made up by two parts: • the first part is made up by 10 multiple choice questions. The questions refer to the topics dealt with within the theory of the course and a few might require the solution of short numerical problems. More than one answer might be correct and the scores of the answers are organized so that: the full score (3 points) is achieved provided that all of the correct answers are selected; a nil score is achieved provided that no answer is selected; a -3 penalty is gained provided that all of the wrong answers are selected (miscellaneous can turn out provided that a mix of the wrong and correct answers are selected). The maximum score of the first part is 30/30 • the second part is made up by two numerical exercises related to the course program (maximum score 30/30) As far as the exercises on the Exam platform are concerned, students will be requested to: • insert the solution in the text box (sequence of results) without formulas nor intermediate results. The results should carry the quantity they refer to as well as the corresponding units. • write the fair copy of the detailed solution in A4 paper sheets, make sure to write clearly and indicate the full name and student number on each sheet. • use the procedure functionality to take a picture of each paper through the webcam and attach them to the test. Such pictures will be used as countercheck of the high-resolution files that will be hence uploaded on the web portal (see next item). • at the end of the exam, within a limit time of 10 minutes, upload a high-resolution scan of each face of the exam in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page The uploaded file will be the one document that will be corrected and assessed for. The high-resolution scan must be consistent with the countercheck that has been uploaded during the quiz. The following files will NOT be considered and the exam will be automatically considered as FAILED: • solutions whose results are different from those written in the text box during the quiz; • files not consistent with the countercheck (e.g., with additional and/or different text); • files uploaded beyond the 10 minutes’ limit time from the exam end; • files sent via email, through shared folders or any other means different from the upload in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page. The exam will be failed for an overall mark below 18/30 or provided that the outcome of either the first or the second part falls below 12/30. The final exam mark will be a weighted average between the outcome of the first and the second part. Students are supposed to solely use a calculator, the Mollier diagram, the saturation table, paper for the exam solution as well as a formula sheet in A4 format to be procured by the students themselves. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones, earphones, headphones or any other electronic device other than the PC for the remote exam is strictly forbidden. The student can withdraw from the exam once a minimum time corresponding to the 80% of the exam duration has elapsed and the exam will not be considered. Once the exam is handed in, the outcome will be formally registered regardless of a positive (pass) or negative (failure) mark Oral exam The oral exam is at the sole discretion of the exam board. The board will select the students that are supposed to sit the exam depending on the outcome of the written part as well as on the Lockdown Browser feedbacks and REGARDLESS of the mark. If so, the final mark will be a weighted average between the outcomes of the written part and of the oral test.

Thermal and hydraulic machines

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Thermal and hydraulic machines

‘Blended’ exam rules The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory. The remote written exam will be supported by the Exam platform integrated in the Portale della Didattica, with the support of the Respondus Lockdown Browser. The exam will be made up of a written part and eventually by an oral part, the latter being at the sole discretion of the exam board (see Oral exam section). Written test (duration 1 hours and 50 minutes) The written exam is made up by two parts: • the first part is made up by 10 multiple choice questions. The questions refer to the topics dealt with within the theory of the course and a few might require the solution of short numerical problems. More than one answer might be correct and the scores of the answers are organized so that: the full score (3 points) is achieved provided that all of the correct answers are selected; a nil score is achieved provided that no answer is selected; a -3 penalty is gained provided that all of the wrong answers are selected (miscellaneous can turn out provided that a mix of the wrong and correct answers are selected). The maximum score of the first part is 30/30 • the second part is made up by two numerical exercises related to the course program (maximum score 30/30) As far as the exercises on the Exam platform are concerned, students will be requested to: • insert the solution in the text box (sequence of results) without formulas nor intermediate results. The results should carry the quantity they refer to as well as the corresponding units. • write the fair copy of the detailed solution in A4 paper sheets, make sure to write clearly and indicate the full name and student number on each sheet. • use the procedure functionality to take a picture of each paper through the webcam and attach them to the test. Such pictures will be used as countercheck of the high-resolution files that will be hence uploaded on the web portal (see next item). • at the end of the exam, within a limit time of 10 minutes, upload a high-resolution scan of each face of the exam in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page The uploaded file will be the one document that will be corrected and assessed for. The high-resolution scan must be consistent with the countercheck that has been uploaded during the quiz. The following files will NOT be considered and the exam will be automatically considered as FAILED: • solutions whose results are different from those written in the text box during the quiz; • files not consistent with the countercheck (e.g., with additional and/or different text); • files uploaded beyond the 10 minutes’ limit time from the exam end; • files sent via email, through shared folders or any other means different from the upload in the ‘Elaborati’ section of the course page. The exam will be failed for an overall mark below 18/30 or provided that the outcome of either the first or the second part falls below 12/30. The final exam mark will be a weighted average between the outcome of the first and the second part. Students are supposed to solely use a calculator, the Mollier diagram, the saturation table, paper for the exam solution as well as a formula sheet in A4 format to be procured by the students themselves. The use of notebooks, smart phones, cell phones, earphones, headphones or any other electronic device other than the PC for the remote exam is strictly forbidden. The student can withdraw from the exam once a minimum time corresponding to the 80% of the exam duration has elapsed and the exam will not be considered. Once the exam is handed in, the outcome will be formally registered regardless of a positive (pass) or negative (failure) mark. Oral exam The oral exam is at the sole discretion of the exam board. The board will select the students that are supposed to sit the exam depending on the outcome of the written part as well as on the Lockdown Browser feedbacks and REGARDLESS of the mark. If so, the final mark will be a weighted average between the outcomes of the written part and of the oral test. During the oral exam, the student will be required to prove his/her knowledge on the subject basics (definitions, demonstrations, equations) as well as to be able to deal with problems derived from practical applications. The oral test is mandatory and will deal with the topics dealt with within the lectures.

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