1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Elettronica - Torino 1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Electronic And Communications Engineering (Ingegneria Elettronica E Delle Comunicazioni) - Torino 1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Fisica - Torino
This course is taught in English.
The aim of the module is to learn to analyze and design circuits that are the base of today's electronic analog and digital systems. Building on the foundations provided by previous courses of electrical engineering, electronic devices and circuits, the operational amplifiers are first introduced and used in linear and nonlinear applications. The second topic covers linear and switching power supplies. Then we study the basic modes of operation of switching transistors and use them to analyze the structure of logic gates. The analysis of data acquisition systems completes the module.
The course provides the method, understanding, and competencies needed to analyze and design the circuits at the base of today's analog and digital electronic systems. The professionalizing knowledge acquired during this course serves both those who will start their professional activity and those who will continue as students, extending the study of this course topics.
The course builds on the knowledge from previous studies, especially in electrical engineering, and electronic devices and circuits. The course focuses mainly on practical aspects of electronic design, including:
● main functional blocks and the inner working of operational amplifiers;
● main limits of operational amplifier operation (static, dynamic, frequency behavior, power dissipation);
● main applications using operational amplifiers with linear and non-linear transfer functions;
● basics of transistor switching operation;
● structure and operation of linear and switching power supplies;
● structure, behavior, and performance of various logic gate implementations;
● basic structure, design, and issues of data acquisition systems.
The theoretical study is complemented by:
● exercises that help deepen the understanding of the theory;
● design examples that introduce typical engineering approaches and rationale of decisions made while implementing electronics circuits based on specifications;
● hands-on laboratory experiments that teach how to use laboratory instruments to check and troubleshoot the operation of electronic circuits used for experimental verification of theoretical aspects learned in class.
Become familiar with analog electronics and electrical aspects of digital electronics.
Design small analog systems from specifications.
Design simple power supplies for electronic circuits.
Design a digital circuit and the interface between it and a load.
Understand the classic data acquisition systems and know how to design then from specifications.
At the end of the course, the students will be familiar with analog electronics and with the electrical aspects of digital electronics, being able to:
● analyze and understand the operation of basic analog circuits;
● design small analog systems based on specifications;
● design simple power supplies for electronic circuits;
● design a digital circuit and its interface to a power load;
● understand the characteristics of classical data acquisition systems and how to dimension them based on specifications.
The student must know the theory of electrical networks, their time domain frequency domain analysis, the operation in the linear region of bipolar transistors and MOS, the concept of bias and small signal. He/she also needs to know the basic concepts of signal theory and feedback. As for the experimental exercises, the student should have gained some familiarity in using laboratory equipment (oscilloscope, power supply, signal generator).
The students must know electrical network theory, their analysis in the time and frequency domains, the operation in the linear region of the bipolar and MOS transistors, the concept of biasing and small-signal operation, and have basic notions of signal theory and feedback.
Laboratory experiments require familiarity with the operation and use of laboratory instruments: oscilloscope, power supply, and signal generator.
Operational amplifiers (4 CFU)
- structure of operational amplifiers with BJT and MOS: current mirror, differential stage, power stage. Power amplifiers with discrete components
- Parasitic parameters of operational amplifiers, frequency response, stability
- Linear circuits: amplifier, adder, instrumentation amplifier
- Active filters: first order, second order, higher order; switched capacitor filter
- Non-linear circuits: logarithmic amplifier, ideal diode
- Threshold comparators, waveform generators, VCO
- Sinusoidal oscillators: the Wien bridge, phase shift oscillator, three-point
Power supplies (1,5 CFU)
- Traditional structure with dissipative controller
- Switching regulator
Logic gates and switching circuits (2 CFU)
- Bipolar and MOS switching transistors, switches, transmission gates, CMOS gates
- Static and dynamic parameters of logic families, open drain and tri-state outputs, Schmitt trigger inputs
- Interfacing with loads and optical isolation
- And-Or-Invert ports, dynamic logic
- Basic sequential circuits (latches, flip-flops, counter); dynamic behavior
Data Acquisition Systems (1 CFU)
- Elements of sampling theory, quantization; D / A converter (potentiometric, weighted resistors, R-2R ladder); A / D converter (flash, successive approximation, tracking); Sample & Hold (integrating)
Operational amplifiers (4 CFU)
● Structure of operational amplifiers with bipolar and MOS transistors: current mirror, differential stage, power stage
● Parasitic parameters of the operational amplifiers, frequency response, stability
● Linear circuits: amplifier, adder, instrumentation amplifier
● Power amplifiers with discrete components
● Active filters: first order, second order, higher-order; switched-capacitor filters
● Non-linear circuits: logarithmic amplifiers, ideal diodes
● Threshold comparators, waveform generators, voltage-controlled oscillators
● Sinusoidal oscillators: Wien bridge, phase shift, three-point
Power supplies (1.2 CFU)
● Traditional structures with dissipative regulators
● Structures based on switching regulators
Logic gates and switching circuits (2 CFU)
● Bipolar and MOS switching transistors, switches, transmission gates, CMOS gates
● Static and dynamic parameters, logic families, open drain and three-state outputs, Schmitt trigger inputs
● Power load interfaces and optical isolation
● And-Or-Invert gates, dynamic logic
● Basic sequential circuits: latches, flip-flops, counters; dynamic behavior
Data acquisition systems (1 CFU)
● Review of sampling theory, quantization
● digital-to-analog converter: potentiometric, weighted resistances, ladder network
● analog-to-digital converter: flash, successive approximations, tracking
● Sample-and-hold (integrator)
The course includes 8 two hours (1,5 CFU) experimental laboratory exercises to be performed at the LED. The labs are organized in groups of three or four students. For each lab group must prepare reports that are evaluated by the instructor and constitute part of final examination mark.
1. Operational amplifier characteristics;
2. Active filter;
3. Instrumentation amplifier;
4. Triangular wave generator;
5. Dissipative voltage regulator;
6. Switching converter;
7. Characteristics of logic gates;
8. D / A converter
The course is delivered through classroom lectures and exercises (8.2 CFU), and experimental laboratory work (1.8 CFU).
Six experimental laboratory activities are scheduled throughout the course, in the LED laboratories. The laboratory activity must be carried out in groups of a maximum of four students who must collaborate during all phases to help improve teamwork and collaboration skills.
Each laboratory work consists of two parts: design and experimentation. At least one week before each laboratory, the students will receive the objectives of the experimental work and will be required to deliver a written report describing the laboratory experiments that will reach the required objectives. Then, shortly before the laboratory session, the students will receive the detailed description of the laboratory work, which they shall use to perform the practical experiments and write the final report. Both reports (pre- and post-experiments) are graded to make the laboratory mark. They must be jointly prepared by the students of each group and uploaded within the respective deadlines in the Elaborati tab of the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/. The reports will be graded based on:
● the completion of the assignment;
● the quality of the preparatory and experimental work;
● the quality and thoroughness of the presentation of the work;
● the discussion of the results.
The average of the laboratory marks contributes 20 % to the final exam grade (see the “Assessment and grading criteria” Section).
The topics of the laboratory assignments are:
1. Operational amplifier characteristics, covering the operation of the main blocks of operational amplifiers, as well as their limits;
2. Instrumentation amplifier characterization, covering linear operation applications of operational amplifiers, as well as their limits;
3. Active filter design, covering frequency behavior of operational amplifier circuits and the effect of component tolerances;
4. Triangular and square wave generator, covering non-linear applications of operational amplifiers and limits;
5. Asynchronous counter, covering electrical behavior of logic gates and switching transistors;
6. Digital-to-analog converter, covering data acquisition systems and associated issues.
Several lecture notes in Italian covering almost the entire contents of the module are available on the official Politecnico website, where it is also possible to download the specs of the experimental exercises. For further details and discussions the recommended text is: Sedra / Smith, "Microelectronic Circuits", 5th ed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514252-7
Lecture notes covering all the course topics are available on the course portal, together with instructions and materials for the laboratory experiments, and exercises (including solutions).
For in-depth information and discussion on the course topics are recommended the following textbooks:
● Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits”, 7th ed., Oxford University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0199339143.
● Franco, Sergio. Design With Operational Amplifiers And Analog Integrated Circuits. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.
● Storey, Neil. Electronics: A Systems Approach. 4th ed. Harlow, England ; New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.
Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Group essay;
The examination consists in a written exercise (time available: 30') which followed by an oral test (two questions). The written exercise is corrected at the beginning of the oral test.
No textbooks or notes are allowed during the written exam. The mark obtained in the written exercise and oral test accounts for 80% of the final examination mark. The remaining 20% derives from the average of the evaluations of the reports of experimental exercises. This average is calculated on the best six reports of each student. If the student has made less than six reports, the missing reports are mediated by the value 0 / 30.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Group essay;
The final exam checks the acquisition of the following skills:
● knowledge and understanding of the listed course topics;
● the ability to apply theory and calculations to problem-solving;
● laboratory practical knowledge and technical report writing.
On the course portal will be available exercises and past exams, to help test the knowledge and understanding of the course material during the learning, and for the preparation of the exam. The exercises will be available in the course slides and notes, as separate documents uploaded on the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/, or uploaded on the “exercise” e-learning platform.
The final exam is written and can last up to 2 hours and 30 minutes. It consists of 4 problems and 8 quizzes from any of the listed course topics.
The problems test the student's knowledge and understanding of the topics taught during the course (in lectures, exercises, and laboratory activities). Specifically, they test the student's ability to select, combine, and apply, including calculations and engineering decisions, the broader theoretical knowledge to solving simple and often practical problems similar to those typically encountered during electronic circuit and system design. The 4 problems are evaluated to a maximum total of 22 points.
The quizzes test both the knowledge and the depth of the understanding of all course topics. Each quiz is composed of one question and four predefined answers. Although only one answer is correct, all are designed to seem plausibly correct unless the student has a thorough understanding of the course topics. Quizzes with correct answers are marked 1 point each, while those with wrong answers are awarded 0 points.
During the exam cannot be checked external sources of information (course slides, notes, books, phones, other persons, headsets, PC, etc.). Non-programmable pocket calculators are allowed.
The maximum exam grade is 30. The grade must be at least 60 % (18 points) to pass, regardless of the laboratory grade.
For each laboratory session, each group of students who participates is required to deliver two reports: one report that defines the experimental activities to reach the laboratory objectives, and one report on the actual experimental work. Both reports are graded and have equal weights. The grading evaluates the connection between the course topics and the experimental work, the coherence between the experimental setup and the design objectives, the use of the proper methodology, instruments, and settings, and the thoroughness and quality of the measurements, presentation, and discussion (from assignment objectives to conclusions), as well as the personal involvement. The final laboratory grade is the average of the best 5 report grades for each student. If there are not enough reports available, the missing ones will be graded 0 points. The maximum laboratory grade is 10 and remains valid indefinitely.
The maximum final grade is 30 points. The exam grade contributes up to 25 points, while the laboratory grade contributes up to 5 points, as follows: final = exam · (25 / 30) + lab · (5 / 10).
A student can reject a passing grade only once. The next passing grade of a student is the final.
The students obtaining at least 60 % of the points at the exam (18 points before scaling to include the laboratory mark), can request an oral examination to attempt to improve the exam grade. The oral examination consists of up to 4 theoretical questions or simple problems to solve, and discussions of related topics aiming to ascertain the acquisition of the same skills as the written exam. Each topic of the oral exam is marked separately, with positive marks for good answers and negative marks for the wrong, including the answers during the discussion. All marks are averaged to obtain the oral exam mark, within a maximum of ±3 points, which is then algebraically added to the grade of the written exam. If the total is at least 60 % of the maximum 30 points (at least 18 points), the exam is passed with the resulting grade. Below 60 %, the exam is failed. A total above 30.5 points adds the “cum laude” honor to the maximum exam grade of 30 points.
Additional oral examination after the exam can be also requested by the professor to ascertain the knowledge shown in the exam. The structure and grading of this oral exam are the same as the one requested by the student. But in this case, the oral exam grade can only decrease the final exam grade by any amount of negative points, or leave the exam grade unchanged, according to the formula: final = exam / 2 · (oral / 3 + 1).
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.