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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Applied electronics

02MZGNX, 02MZGLP, 02MZGOD

A.A. 2023/24

2021/22

Applied electronics

This course is taught in English. The aim of the module is to learn to analyze and design circuits that are the base of today's electronic analog and digital systems. Building on the foundations provided by previous courses of electrical engineering, electronic devices and circuits, the operational amplifiers are first introduced and used in linear and nonlinear applications. The second topic covers linear and switching power supplies. Then we study the basic modes of operation of switching transistors and use them to analyze the structure of logic gates. The analysis of data acquisition systems completes the module.

Applied electronics

The course provides the students with the method, understanding, and competencies to analyze and design the circuits at the base of today's analog and digital electronic systems. It builds on the knowledge from previous courses, and especially electrical engineering, and electronic devices and circuits. The professionalizing knowledge acquired during this course serves both the students who decide to start working at the end of the third study year, as well as the students who decide to continue their study with a Master's degree, thus those who would extend the study of the course topics. The course is focused on practical aspects of electronic design. It introduces first the inner working of the operational amplifier and its main linear and non-linear transfer function applications. Then we study the structure and operation of linear and switching power supplies, followed by the study of the basics of transistor switching operation, and the analysis of the structure of basic logic gates. Finally, we study the basic structure, design, and issues of data acquisition systems. Experimental work is used during the course to teach how to use the laboratory instruments to check the operation, understand and fix the issues of the electronic circuits used for experimental verification of the theoretical aspects learned in class.

Applied electronics

Become familiar with analog electronics and electrical aspects of digital electronics. Design small analog systems from specifications. Design simple power supplies for electronic circuits. Design a digital circuit and the interface between it and a load. Understand the classic data acquisition systems and know how to design then from specifications.

Applied electronics

At the end of the course, the students will be familiar with analog electronics and with the electrical aspects of digital electronics, being able to: ● analyze and understand the operation of basic analog circuits; ● design small analog systems based on specifications; ● design simple power supplies for electronic circuits; ● design a digital circuit and its interface to a power load; ● understand the characteristics of classical data acquisition systems and how to dimension them based on specifications.

Applied electronics

The student must know the theory of electrical networks, their time domain frequency domain analysis, the operation in the linear region of bipolar transistors and MOS, the concept of bias and small signal. He/she also needs to know the basic concepts of signal theory and feedback. As for the experimental exercises, the student should have gained some familiarity in using laboratory equipment (oscilloscope, power supply, signal generator).

Applied electronics

The students must know electrical network theory, their analysis in the time and frequency domains, the operation in the linear region of the bipolar and MOS transistors, the concept of biasing and small-signal operation, and have basic notions of signal theory and feedback. Laboratory experiments require familiarity with the operation and use of laboratory instruments: oscilloscope, power supply, signal generator.

Applied electronics

Operational amplifiers (4 CFU) - structure of operational amplifiers with BJT and MOS: current mirror, differential stage, power stage. Power amplifiers with discrete components - Parasitic parameters of operational amplifiers, frequency response, stability - Linear circuits: amplifier, adder, instrumentation amplifier - Active filters: first order, second order, higher order; switched capacitor filter - Non-linear circuits: logarithmic amplifier, ideal diode - Threshold comparators, waveform generators, VCO - Sinusoidal oscillators: the Wien bridge, phase shift oscillator, three-point ' Power supplies (1,5 CFU) - Traditional structure with dissipative controller - Switching regulator Logic gates and switching circuits (2 CFU) - Bipolar and MOS switching transistors, switches, transmission gates, CMOS gates - Static and dynamic parameters of logic families, open drain and tri-state outputs, Schmitt trigger inputs - Interfacing with loads and optical isolation - And-Or-Invert ports, dynamic logic - Basic sequential circuits (latches, flip-flops, counter); dynamic behavior Data Acquisition Systems (1 CFU) - Elements of sampling theory, quantization; D / A converter (potentiometric, weighted resistors, R-2R ladder); A / D converter (flash, successive approximation, tracking); Sample & Hold (integrating)

Applied electronics

Operational amplifiers (4 CFU) ● Structure of operational amplifiers with bipolar and MOS transistors: current mirror, differential stage, power stage ● Parasitic parameters of the operational amplifiers, frequency response, stability ● Linear circuits: amplifier, adder, instrumentation amplifier ● Power amplifiers with discrete components ● Active filters: first order, second order, higher-order; switched-capacitor filters ● Non-linear circuits: logarithmic amplifiers, ideal diodes ● Threshold comparators, waveform generators, voltage-controlled oscillators ● Sinusoidal oscillators: Wien bridge, phase shift, three-point Power supplies (1.2 CFU) ● Traditional structures with dissipative regulators ● Structures based on switching regulators Logic gates and switching circuits (2 CFU) ● Bipolar and MOS switching transistors, switches, transmission gates, CMOS gates ● Static and dynamic parameters, logic families, open drain and three-state outputs, Schmitt trigger inputs ● Power load interfaces and optical isolation ● And-Or-Invert gates, dynamic logic ● Basic sequential circuits: latches, flip-flops, counters; dynamic behavior Data acquisition systems (1 CFU) ● Review of sampling theory, quantization ● digital-to-analog converter: potentiometric, weighted resistances, ladder network ● analog-to-digital converter: flash, successive approximations, tracking ● Sample-and-hold (integrator)

Applied electronics

Applied electronics

Applied electronics

The course includes 8 two hours (1,5 CFU) experimental laboratory exercises to be performed at the LED. The labs are organized in groups of three or four students. For each lab group must prepare reports that are evaluated by the instructor and constitute part of final examination mark. 1. Operational amplifier characteristics; 2. Active filter; 3. Instrumentation amplifier; 4. Triangular wave generator; 5. Dissipative voltage regulator; 6. Switching converter; 7. Characteristics of logic gates; 8. D / A converter

Applied electronics

The course is delivered using classroom or remote lectures and exercises (8.2 CFU), and laboratory exercises (1.8 CFU). There will be 6 experimental laboratory activities carried out in groups of four students in the LED labs — if the labs can be used at full capacity. If lab access is limited, only one student per group will have access to LED labs at a time, rotating, to allow all students to practice. If the LED labs cannot be accessed at all, then the practical experiments will be converted into simulations to be carried out remotely, as much as possible. After each laboratory, each group must prepare one group report and upload it within one week in the Elaborati tab of the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/. The reports will be graded based on the completion of the assignment, the quality of the measurements, graphics, and images, and the quality and thoroughness of the presentation of the work, and the discussion of the results. The average of the lab marks contributes 20 % of the final exam grade (see the “Assessment and grading criteria” Section). The main lab topics are:     1. Operational amplifier characteristics     2. Instrumentation amplifier characterization     3. Active filter design     4. Triangular and square wave generator     5. Switching power converters     6. Digital-to-analog converter

Applied electronics

Several lecture notes in Italian covering almost the entire contents of the module are available on the official Politecnico website, where it is also possible to download the specs of the experimental exercises. For further details and discussions the recommended text is: Sedra / Smith, "Microelectronic Circuits", 5th ed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514252-7

Applied electronics

Lecture notes covering all the course topics are available on the course portal, together with instructions and materials for the laboratory experiments, and exercises (including solutions). For in-depth information and discussion on the course topics are recommended the following textbooks: ● Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith, “Microelectronic Circuits”, 7th ed., Oxford University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0199339143. ● Franco, Sergio. Design With Operational Amplifiers And Analog Integrated Circuits. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015. ● Storey, Neil. Electronics: A Systems Approach. 4th ed. Harlow, England ; New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2009.

Applied electronics

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;

Applied electronics

The examination consists in a written exercise (time available: 30') which followed by an oral test (two questions). The written exercise is corrected at the beginning of the oral test. No textbooks or notes are allowed during the written exam. The mark obtained in the written exercise and oral test accounts for 80% of the final examination mark. The remaining 20% derives from the average of the evaluations of the reports of experimental exercises. This average is calculated on the best six reports of each student. If the student has made less than six reports, the missing reports are mediated by the value 0 / 30.

Applied electronics

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Group essay;

Applied electronics

The final exam checks the acquisition of the following skills: ● knowledge and understanding of the listed course topics; ● the ability to apply theory and calculations to problem-solving; ● laboratory practical knowledge and technical report writing. On the course portal will be made available exercises, some with solutions, to help to prepare for the exam. The exercises will be available in the course slides and notes, as separate documents in the Materiale tab of the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/ or on the platform used for the online exams. The final exam is written and can last up to 2 hours and 30 minutes. It consists of 4 problems and 9 quizzes from any of the listed course topics. Each of the problems require applying the theory with calculations and are valued to a maximum total of 16 points. Each quiz has a question with four predefined answers, of which only one is correct. Correct answers receive 1 point each, while wrong answers receive 0 points. The quizzes can total at most 9 points. During the whole exam duration, it is forbidden to check any source of information (course notes, books, phones, colleagues or other persons, headsets, PC, etc.). Only non-programmable calculators are allowed. The laboratory reports can give up to 1 point each. The grading evaluates the quality of the experimental setup, of the measurements, of the results, and of discussion, as well as the presence and involvement in the experiments. The laboratory grades are calculated on the best 5 reports for each student. If there are not enough reports available, the missing ones will be graded 0 points. The maximum final grade is 30 points. It is made up to 25 points by the written exam and up to 5 points by the laboratory grade. To pass the exam, the grade of the written exam must be at least 60 % (15 points), and the final grade, including the laboratory marks, must be at least 18 points. The laboratory grade remains valid for final exams in any subsequent academic years. A student can reject a passing exam grade only once. The next passing grade of a student is final. Oral examination can be requested by the students to attempt to improve the exam grade, but only if they received at least 60 % at the written exam (15 points or more). The oral examination consists of up to 4 theoretical questions or simple problems to solve and discussions of related topics, aiming to ascertain the acquisition of the same skills as the written exam. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, using positive marks for good answers and negative marks for the wrong answers, including the answers to the discussions. The marks are then averaged and multiplied by 3/4 to obtain an oral exam mark of ±3 points. This is algebraically added to the grade of the written exam. The total should be at least 15 points, otherwise the exam is failed. To pass the exam, the sum between these points and the laboratory points must be at least 18. Additional oral examination can also be requested by the professor whenever it is necessary to ascertain the knowledge shown in the written exam (e.g., when there are fraud suspicions). The structure of this oral exam is the same as for the one requested by the student. But in this case, the grade of the oral exam can only decrease the final exam grade by any amount of points or leave it unchanged, as follows. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, then averaged. The maximum possible grade from the oral exam is scaled to the grade obtained by the student in the written exam. The difference between the oral exam grade and the maximum oral exam grade, scaled as above, then is subtracted from the grade of the written exam.

Applied electronics

Modalità di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus); Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;

Applied electronics

The exam is targeted both to evaluate the theoretical knowledge of the sunject and the capability to apply that knowledge to the solution of practical problems. Therefore the examination consists in an oral test (three questions which may be theoretical ones or solution of simple exercises) and the final marking is the sum of the score obtained in each question No textbooks or notes are allowed during the written exam. A computer with a webcam, loadspeakers and a good internet connection are required. The student must be visible during the whole duration of the exam.

Applied electronics

Exam: Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus); Group project;

Applied electronics

The final exam checks the acquisition of the following skills: ● knowledge and understanding of the listed course topics; ● the ability to apply theory and calculations to problem-solving; ● laboratory practical knowledge and technical report writing. On the course portal will be made available exercises, some with solutions, to help to prepare for the exam. The exercises will be available in the course slides and notes, as separate documents in the Materiale tab of the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/ or on the platform used for the online exams. In the latter case, some of the exercises will be structured and formatted as an online exam to help to get familiar with the platform features, controls, and navigation. The online final exam is written using the Lockdown Browser and the Respondus proctoring. The students should provide a computer with a webcam, loudspeakers, and a good internet connection. The whole student face and hands must be always visible during the exam. The written online final exam can last up to 2 hours and 30 minutes. It consists of 4 problems and 9 quizzes from any of the listed course topics. The problems require applying the theory with calculations and are valued to a maximum total of 16 points. Each quiz has a question with four predefined answers, of which only one is correct. Correct answers receive 1 point each, while wrong answers receive 0 points. The quizzes can total at most 9 points. During the whole exam duration, it is forbidden to check any source of information (course notes, books, phones, colleagues or other persons, headsets, PC, etc.). Only non-programmable calculators are allowed. The laboratory reports can give up to 1 point each. The grading evaluates the quality of the experimental setup, of the measurements, of the results, and of discussion, as well as the involvement in the experiments. The laboratory grades are calculated on the best 5 reports for each student. If there are not enough reports available, the missing ones will be graded 0 points. The maximum final grade is 30 points. It is made up to 25 points by the written exam and up to 5 points by the laboratory grade. To pass the exam, the grade of the written exam must be at least 60 % (15 points), and the final grade, including the laboratory marks, must be at least 18 points. The laboratory grade remains valid for final exams in any subsequent academic years. A student can reject a passing exam grade only once. The next passing grade of a student is final. Oral examination can be requested by the students to attempt to improve the exam grade, but only if they received at least 60 % at the written exam (15 points or more). The oral examination consists of up to 4 theoretical questions or simple problems to solve and discussions of related topics, aiming to ascertain the acquisition of the same skills as the written exam. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, using positive marks for good answers and negative marks for the wrong answers, including the answers to the discussions. The marks are then averaged and multiplied by 3/4 to obtain an oral exam mark of ±3 points. This is algebraically added to the grade of the written exam. The total should be at least 15 points, otherwise the exam is failed. To pass the exam, the sum between these points and the laboratory points must be at least 18. Additional oral examination can also be requested by the professor whenever it is necessary to ascertain the knowledge shown in the written exam (e.g., when there are fraud suspicions). The structure of this oral exam is the same as for the one requested by the student. But in this case, the grade of the oral exam can only decrease the final exam grade by any amount of points or leave it unchanged, as follows. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, then averaged. The maximum possible grade from the oral exam is scaled to the grade obtained by the student in the written exam. The difference between the oral exam grade and the maximum oral exam grade, scaled as above, then is subtracted from the grade of the written exam.

Applied electronics

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Applied electronics

The exam is targeted both to evaluate the theoretical knowledge of the subject and the capability to apply that knowledge to the solution of practical problems. Therefore the examination consists in an oral test (three questions which may be theoretical ones or solution of simple exercises) and the final marking is the sum of the score obtained in each question. No textbooks or notes are allowed during the written exam. A computer with a webcam, loadspeakers and a good internet connection are required. The student must be visible during the whole duration of the exam. If the exam is taken on site the modality will remain the same and the questions and the answers will asked and given in presence,

Applied electronics

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Group essay; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Applied electronics

The final exam checks the acquisition of the following skills: ● knowledge and understanding of the listed course topics; ● the ability to apply theory and calculations to problem-solving; ● laboratory practical knowledge and technical report writing. On the course portal will be made available exercises, some with solutions, to help to prepare for the exam. The exercises will be available in the course slides and notes, as separate documents in the Materiale tab of the course portal on http://didattica.polito.it/ or on the platform used for the online exams. In the latter case, some of the exercises will be structured and formatted as an online exam to help to get familiar with the platform features, controls, and navigation. The blended final exam is written, both in the classroom and remotely, the latter using the Lockdown Browser and Respondus proctoring. The remote students should provide a computer with a webcam, loudspeakers, and a good internet connection. The whole student face and hands must be always visible during the exam. The blended final exam can last up to 2 hours and 30 minutes. It consists of 4 problems and 9 quizzes from any of the listed course topics. The problems require applying the theory with calculations and are valued to a maximum total of 16 points. Each quiz has a question with four predefined answers, of which only one is correct. Correct answers receive 1 point each, while wrong answers receive 0 points. The quizzes can total at most 9 points. During the whole exam duration, it is forbidden to check any source of information (course notes, books, phones, colleagues or other persons, headsets, PC, etc.). Only non-programmable calculators are allowed. The laboratory reports can give up to 1 point each. The grading evaluates the quality of the experimental setup, of the measurements, of the results, and of discussion, as well as the presence and involvement in the experiments. The laboratory grades are calculated on the best 5 reports for each student. If there are not enough reports available, the missing ones will be graded 0 points. The maximum final grade is 30 points. It is made up to 25 points by the written exam and up to 5 points by the laboratory grade. To pass the exam, the grade of the written exam must be at least 60 % (15 points), and the final grade, including the laboratory marks, must be at least 18 points. The laboratory grade remains valid for final exams in any subsequent academic years. A student can reject a passing exam grade only once. The next passing grade of a student is final. Oral examination can be requested by the students to attempt to improve the exam grade, but only if they received at least 60 % at the written exam (15 points or more). The oral examination consists of up to 4 theoretical questions or simple problems to solve and discussions of related topics, aiming to ascertain the acquisition of the same skills as the written exam. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, using positive marks for good answers and negative marks for the wrong answers, including the answers to the discussions. The marks are then averaged and multiplied by 3/4 to obtain an oral exam mark of ±3 points. This is algebraically added to the grade of the written exam. The total should be at least 15 points, otherwise the exam is failed. To pass the exam, the sum between these points and the laboratory points must be at least 18. Additional oral examination can also be requested by the professor whenever it is necessary to ascertain the knowledge shown in the written exam (e.g., when there are fraud suspicions). The structure of this oral exam is the same as for the one requested by the student. But in this case, the grade of the oral exam can only decrease the final exam grade by any amount of points or leave it unchanged, as follows. Each topic of the oral exam is graded separately, then averaged. The maximum possible grade from the oral exam is scaled to the grade obtained by the student in the written exam. The difference between the oral exam grade and the maximum oral exam grade, scaled as above, then is subtracted from the grade of the written exam. Oral examinations can be either onsite presence or online.

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