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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Algorithms and Programming

02OGDLM

A.A. 2018/19

Course Language

English

Course degree

1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Computer Engineering - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 60
Esercitazioni in aula 40
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 20
Tutoraggio 40
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Quer Stefano Professore Associato ING-INF/05 60 0 0 20 9
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-INF/05 12 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria informatica
2018/19
The course allows the student to acquire adequate knowledge and skills in algorithms, data structures and their implementation in C to solve complex problems. The student should gradually evolve from more analytic to more design-oriented skills. Algorithmic solutions to “classical” problems are introduced, together with their theoretical foundations, and the implementations in C language. Advanced aspects of C are considered, like pointers, dynamic memory allocation, modularity and Abstract Data Type implementation. The student has the opportunity to analyze practical examples, describing solutions to complex problems, and the related algorithmic paradigms. Knowledge and programming skills are applied during lab sessions.
The course is held at the first semester of the third year. The course allows the student to acquire adequate knowledge and skills in algorithms, data structures and their implementation in C to solve complex problems. The student should gradually evolve from more analytic to more design-oriented skills. Algorithmic solutions to “classical” problems are introduced, together with their theoretical foundations, and the implementations in C language. Advanced aspects of C are considered, like pointers, dynamic memory allocation, modularity and Abstract Data Type implementation. The student has the opportunity to analyze practical examples, describing solutions to complex problems, and the related algorithmic paradigms. Knowledge and programming skills are applied during lab sessions.
• Knowledge of techniques for memory allocation and use of pointers. • Programming skills in C language, using pointers and dynamic data structures. • Knowledge of basic complexity analysis. • Knowledge of sorting algorithms. • Ability to evaluate algorithm complexity and improve efficiency in terms of execution time and/or memory use. • Knowledge of complex data structures and ADTs (linked lists, queues, stacks, heaps, trees, hash tables and graphs) and related algorithms. • Knowledge of simple strategies for modular programming in C. • Knowledge of recursive and greedy problem-solving paradigms. • Skills in problem solving, based on design of data structures and algorithms. • Skills in recursive programming techniques. • Skills to exploit tools for program development.
At the end of the course the student will be able to: - Dynamically allocate memory, using pointers and dynamic data structures in C language - Evaluate algorithm complexity and improve efficiency in terms of execution time and/or memory allocation - Write standard algorithms to solve basic problems such as sorting, searching, etc. - Manipulate complex data structures, such as linked lists, stacks, queues, heaps, trees, hash tables and graphs - Write modular programs in C language adopting several programming paradigms such as recursive programming, greedy approaches, dynamic programming and memorization - Exploit tools for program development and problem solving, based on design of data structures and algorithms.
Due to the incremental nature of the course with respect to the first year class “Computer Science”, there are several strict prerequisites in terms of programming skills and programming language knowledge, with particular emphasis on the following topics: • Elementary computer systems architecture (Von Neumann model). • Syntax of C, basic data types and constructs. • Basic programming skills in C, using conditional and iterative constructs, scalar and aggregate data, standard I/O, text files and functions. • Skills in elementary (algorithmic) problem solving.
Due to the incremental nature of the course with respect to the first year class “Computer Science”, there are several strict prerequisites in terms of programming skills and programming language knowledge, with particular emphasis on the following topics: • Elementary computer systems architecture (Von Neumann model). • Syntax of C, basic data types and constructs. • Basic programming skills in C, using conditional and iterative constructs, scalar and aggregate data, standard I/O, text files and functions. • Skills in elementary (algorithmic) problem solving.
• Review of basic language construct and basic problem solving (12h) • Algorithm analysis (3h) o Asymptotic worst-case complexity analysis o O, ,  notations o Recurrence equations • Sorting algorithms (6h) o Iterative sorting (bubble sort, selection sort, insertion sort, shell sort, counting sort) o Recursive sorting (mergesort, quicksort, heapsort) • Static and dynamic data structures and their implementation in C (13h) o Data representation in memory and runtime memory management o Pointers (or references to objects) o Static, on stack and dynamic memory allocation o Linked structures o Strategies for data structure selection • Modularity and modular implementation of algorithms and data structures (10h) o The implementation-interface-client model o Implementation in C of programs with multiple source and header files o Basic use of development and debug tools, like make, gdb, cvs • Recursion and recursive programs (10h) o The notion of recursion o Mathematical recursive functions o Simple recursive procedures o Backtrack and implementation of recursion • Discrete mathematics (2h) o Sets, relations, functions o Lists, graphs and trees • Abstract objects, collections of objects and ADTs (8h) o Modular examples of composed structures, like arrays of lists and multilists o Linked lists, stacks, FIFO queues, generalized queues, priority queues, heaps • Algorithmic paradigms (6h) o Divide and conquer o Greedy • Problem solving (14h) o Analysis and definition of strategies for data structures and algorithms o Search and optimization problems o Techniques to explore the state space based on combinatorics • Data structures for symbol tables (4h) o Binary search trees o Hash tables • Graph theory (12h) o Graph representation o Depth-first and breadth-first search and their applications o Shortest paths o Minimum spanning trees.
• Review of basic language construct and basic problem solving (12h) • Algorithm analysis (3h) o Asymptotic worst-case complexity analysis o O, theta, omega notations o Recurrence equations • Sorting algorithms (6h) o Iterative sorting (bubble sort, selection sort, insertion sort, shell sort, counting sort) o Recursive sorting (mergesort, quicksort, heapsort) • Static and dynamic data structures and their implementation in C (13h) o Data representation in memory and runtime memory management o Pointers (or references to objects) o Static, on stack and dynamic memory allocation o Linked structures o Strategies for data structure selection • Modularity and modular implementation of algorithms and data structures (10h) o The implementation-interface-client model o Implementation in C of programs with multiple source and header files o Basic use of development and debug tools, like make, gdb, cvs • Recursion and recursive programs (10h) o The notion of recursion o Mathematical recursive functions o Simple recursive procedures o Backtrack and implementation of recursion • Abstract objects, collections of objects and ADTs (8h) o Modular examples of composed structures, like arrays of lists and multilists o Linked lists, stacks, FIFO queues, generalized queues, priority queues, heaps • Algorithmic paradigms (8h) o Divide and conquer • Problem solving (14h) o Analysis and definition of strategies for data structures and algorithms o Search and optimization problems o Techniques to explore the state space based on combinatorics • Data structures for symbol tables (4h) o Binary search trees o Hash tables • Graph theory (12h) o Graph representation o Depth-first and breadth-first search and their applications o Shortest paths o Minimum spanning trees.
Lectures (80h) include practice lessons. Lectures and practice are extended with 20 additional hours in laboratory to consolidate what the student has learned. Selected lab sessions may be ranked and contribute a bonus (maximum 2/30).
The class can be divided into theory lectures, practice lessons and laboratories. There is no formal distinction between theory and practice as almost all course topics involve theory and practice aspects developed during the classroom lessons by the teacher. Lectures (80h) include practice lessons. Lectures and practice are extended with 20 additional hours in laboratory to consolidate what the student has learned. Laboratories allow students to solve problems (writing, compiling and debugging C language programs on a personal computer) and applying all theory and practice aspects analyzed during the classroom lessons.
Handouts and slides used during the classroom lessons are available on the teacher or course WEB site. The World Wide Web is also an excellent source of material for almost all topics introduced in the class (see Wikipedia, for example). Among the printed material, during the class, we make explicit usage of the following books: • T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, “Introduction to Algorithms”, McGraw-Hill. • R. Sedgewick, “Algorithms in C, Parts 1-4: Fundamentals, Data Structures, Sorting, Searching” Addison-Wesley Professional. • R. Sedgewick, “Algorithms in C, Part 5: Graph Algorithms”, Addison-Wesley Professional. • B. W. Kernighan, D. M. Ritchie, “The C Programming Language”, Prentice Hall, second edition. • P. Deitel, H. Deitel, “C: how to program”, Prentice Hall, eight edition.
Handouts and slides used during the classroom lessons are available on the teacher or course WEB site. The World Wide Web is also an excellent source of material for almost all topics introduced in the class (see Wikipedia, for example). Among the printed material, during the class, we make explicit usage of the following books: • T. H. Cormen, C. E. Leiserson, R. L. Rivest, C. Stein, “Introduction to Algorithms”, McGraw-Hill. • S. Quer, "Advanced Programming and Problem-Solving Strategies in C. Part II: Algorithms and Data Structures", 2nd Edition, 2018, CLUT • S. Quer, "Advanced Programming and Problem-Solving Strategies in C. Part IV: Exam-Based Problems", 2nd eEdition, 2018, CLUT Other sources are the followings: • R. Sedgewick, “Algorithms in C, Parts 1-4: Fundamentals, Data Structures, Sorting, Searching” Addison-Wesley Professional. • R. Sedgewick, “Algorithms in C, Part 5: Graph Algorithms”, Addison-Wesley Professional. • B. W. Kernighan, D. M. Ritchie, “The C Programming Language”, Prentice Hall, second edition. • P. Deitel, H. Deitel, “C: how to program”, Prentice Hall, eight edition.
Modalità di esame: prova scritta; prova orale facoltativa;
The exam consists in: • A written part (maximum duration 2h30) • An oral exam. The written part includes: • Exercises/questions on theoretical aspects to check the acquired knowledge. Maximum 12 points. Maximum duration 50 minutes. • A programming part to check the acquired abilities. Maximum duration 1h40. Available in two alternative modes: • Design and development of a program in C to solve a problem, the emphasis being on problem-solving and design skills (max 18 points). • Guided development of the solution to a problem, with less emphasis on design and problem-solving skills and more on the ability to use advanced C features (pointers, dynamic allocation, recursion) and on the knowledge of basic data structures and algorithms (max 12 points). Both modes require the same approach to the subject. Material available during the written part: • A C manual (e.g., Kernighan & Ritchie, Deitel & Deitel, or similar). • Header files for standard functions/ADTs unless explicitly forbidden. • No other books, notes, transparencies, etc. • No electronic communication tools (cell phones, tablets, laptops, etc.). Each student must: • Make a copy of the program at the end of the written part (using carbon copy paper, cell phones, cameras, etc.). • Verify the correctness of the program. • Upload on the course webpage within 3 working days: a report (max 3 pages) describing the solution (data structures, algorithm, etc.) and a copy of the working program, showing the changes with respect to the version handed in for ranking. In case the above material is not uploaded, the written exam will not be ranked. Students whose mark in the written part is larger or equal to 15/30 are entitled to sit for the oral exam. The oral examination checks the capacity of the student to explain his/her design choices, to use correct technical terms, and to describe algorithms. It consists in: • Questions on all the topics of the course, the goal being to rank the grade of theoretical knowledge. • Programs in C to evaluate skills related to the implementation and manipulation of data structures by means of advanced C programming constructs and to the implementation of variants of standard algorithms. • Questions on uploaded laboratory exercises. The final mark integrates partial results (laboratory assignments when applicable, written part, and oral exam) and is not a mere average or sum of those parts.
Exam: written test; optional oral exam;
The examination includes two separate parts: - A written test - An oral evaluation. The written test comprehends two parts: • Exercises/questions on theoretical aspects to check the acquired knowledge. • A programming part to check the acquired abilities and programming skills. The theory section: • Consists of open questions or exercises on theory topics. • Amounts up to 12 points on the final mark. • Has a minimum threshold of 6 points out of 12. • Has to be delivered after 50-60 minutes from the beginning of the written test. The programming section (100-120 minutes) is available in two different flavor: • A complete design and development of a program in C to solve a problem, the emphasis being on problem-solving and design skills. This standard programming part has a maximum value of 18 points and a minimum threshold of 9 points. It implies the design of a "standard" "complex" C program to check the candidate knowledge of the C language syntax, data structures, algorithms, and program designing (problem-solving) ability. • A guided development of the solution to a problem, with less emphasis on design and problem-solving skills and more on the ability to use advanced C features (pointers, dynamic allocation, recursion) and on the knowledge of basic data structures and algorithms. This simplified programming part has a maximum value of 12 points and a minimum threshold of 6 points. It is usually made-up by three "shorter" "partial" C programs. Those exercises are aimed to check the knowledge of the candidate in terms of C language syntax, data structures, and algorithms but they are less demanding from the designing. i.e., problem-solving, point of view than the "standard" part. The two parts can be selected by the candidate in alternative (mixing is not allowed). Both modes require the same approach to the subject. The theory and programming written tests have to be taken during the same session. No books or notes are allowed during the examination. Laptop, cellular phones, etc. are forbidden. After the written test, all students have some days to correct their program (programs) and check-it (them) out to carry out an auto-evaluation. If the student finally decides to take the exam, he/she has to deliver the final working (complete and debugged version of the) program (programs) to the teacher, following the written rules specified during the class. More specifically, each student must: • Make a copy of the program at the end of the written part (using carbon copy paper or a camera). • Verify the correctness of the program. • Upload on the course web page within 3 working days: a report (max 3 pages) describing the solution (data structures, algorithm, etc.) and a copy of the working program, showing the changes with respect to the version handed in for ranking. In case the above material is not uploaded, the written exam will not be ranked. Notice that, to take the exam, it is mandatory to deliver a working program (more working programs if the simplified version of the programming part has been selected), even if the evaluation is made on the written text delivered during the test and not on the program written at home. To be able to implement at home the program developed during the written test, students are invited to take with them a photo camera (or a cell-phone with camera) or some copy-paper. The oral examination is the final part of the exam. Students that failed the written test, i.e., have a mark smaller than 15/30, are invited not to take the oral examination and to re-take the entire exam during the next examination session. Students with a written test mark larger than 15/30 and smaller than 18/30 must take the oral examination to pass the exam. For all other students the oral examination is optional. This means that, from the one hand, those students have the discretion to ask for the oral examination to improve their final mark but, on the other one, that the teacher has the right to demand an oral examination to any student he may have evaluation doubts on. Notice, however, that the oral examination (in all cases) can adjust the written mark in both the positive and the negative direction, such that the final mark will range from fail to 30 with honor. The oral examination checks the capacity of the student to explain his/her design choices, to use correct technical terms, and to describe algorithms. It consists in: • Questions on all the topics of the course, the goal being to rank the grade of theoretical knowledge. • Programs in C to evaluate skills related to the implementation and manipulation of data structures by means of advanced C programming constructs and to the implementation of variants of standard algorithms. • Questions on uploaded laboratory exercises.


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