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Machine design

03MCHQD, 03MCHNE

A.A. 2020/21

2020/21

Machine design

Machine Design prepares engineering students to design and identify how a system consisting of fixed and moving parts – the so–called “machine” – can convert and transmit the energy in the best way to be suited for a specific application. By the end of the semester the student will be able to deal with functional requirements and design specifications, to use a variety of existing mechanical components and devices and their most appropriate domain of application, to determine the shape and size of the machine components and to predict their strength and life, to choose the materials best suited for the application, to take into account up-to-date standards or codes of practice and technological constraints, to employ some suitable analytical models and numerical tools, to deploy the whole design process, and to be able to take a responsible decision based on the best current practice.

Machine design

Machine Design prepares engineering students to design and identify how a system consisting of fixed and moving parts – the so–called “machine” – can convert and transmit the energy in the best way to be suited for a specific application. By the end of semester, the student will be able to deal with functional requirements and design specifications, to use a variety of existing mechanical components and devices and their most appropriate domain of application, to determine the shape and size of the machine components and to predict their strength and life, to choose the materials best suited for the application, to take into account up-to-date standards or codes of practice and technological constraints, to employ some suitable analytical models and numerical tools, to deploy the whole design process, and to be able to take a responsible decision based on the best current practice.

Machine design

Foreword: Machine Design engineers/analysts are typically tasked with designing structural and mechanical components of machines (bolted connections, transmissions, bearings, shafts, couplings, springs, etc.) and the assembled systems which these components are part of. At the threshold professional level the Machine Design engineers/analysts must be able to analyse an existing machine component or design modification to meet given requirements: they apply methods and use existing software according to given specifications and under the supervision of a senior engineer. At the standard professional level the Machine Design engineers/analysts must be able to produce new designs for machine components or systems to meet specified requirements: they choose the appropriate analytical or numerical methods and use them under their own responsibility. As a consequence this Subject Module aims at competences at the threshold level through the study of a selection of representative and complementary classes of problems each requiring a specific treatment (Contents 1 to 5), and introduces students to the standard level by exposure to a semester-long Technical Project where an assembled machine is examined and design alternatives are proposed and compared. In order to develop the required competences applicable to any type of mechanical structure or machine, students are required, by the end of this subject module, to show achievement of the following main points of knowledge: - know the theory, and the experimental evidence in support, which underpin the mathematical models of mechanical components - identify the critical weak points for strength, according to all possible failure mechanisms, evaluate uncertainties and apply the appropriate safety coefficients, assess whether the stresses are admissible - analyse an existing machine component to check whether it meets given requirements - identify the governing parameters in a component design, define the shape and size of machine components, know how to introduce appropriate design modifications to improve strength and life or to upgrade specifications; this may extend, in some selected cases, to propose new designs for machine components or systems while taking full responsibility to that - analyze the mechanical performance of interacting components assembled in a machine, i.e. kinematics, exchanged loads and stresses by means of analytical methods and modelling techniques, whether analytical or numerical - identify among technical solutions compatible with the state-of-art of the availble technologies a suitable architecture and/or mechanism to convert and transmit energy to be exploited in the design operation - know their theoretical background of the relevant standards, codes and regulations which are used in the field and skills: - correctly read the mechanical drawing of a machine or its subsystem, identify parts and their assembly, understand constraints taking account of mechanical and thermal stress conditions, functional requirements, material strength - be able to propose more ways to assemble components into a mechanical system to achieve the same function - be able to apply the theory and the mathematical models to component and machine designs - indentify which data are needed to a design, and where they can be found - deploy the appropriate reasoning to approve a design, and be able to take a responsible decision based on evidence - know how theoretical or numerical predictions or models can be checked with appropriate experimental tests - be able to present, in both oral and written forms, a clear and well-structured set of relevant considerations on design assumptions and results - be able to read, understand and comment technical material from books, manuals and any other source.

Machine design

Foreword: Machine Design engineers/analysts are typically asked to perform the design of structures, mechanical components of machines (bolted connections, power transmissions, bearings, shafts, couplings, springs, etc.) and of assembled systems. At basic professional level, machine designers and engineers must be able to analyse an existing machine component and to modify the design to meet some given requirements. They are used to apply methods and tools (even software) under the supervision of a senior engineer. At standard professional level, machine designers and engineers must be able to produce new designs of machine components and systems, to meet specified requirements. They use suitable analytical or numerical methods and are responsible for product liability. As a consequence, this module deals with a selection of representative and complementary classes of design problems. Each topic requires a specific development (see Contents 1 to 5). Students are asked to develop a semester-long Technical Project. It consists of a typical test case of mechanical design, which is analyzed. Some design solutions are proposed and compared. To develop useful competences applicable to any kind of mechanical structure or machine, students are required, by the end of this module, to achieve the following targets of knowledge: - to know the theory and the experimental approaches, which underpin the mathematical models of mechanical components; - to identify the critical weak points for strength, predicting several failure mechanisms; - to evaluate uncertainties and to apply appropriate safety coefficients against collapse; - to analyse a machine component and check whether it meets the standards' requirements; - to identify the main design parameters of a component, to define the shape and size of machine elements; - to modify a mechanical design, to improve the system strength and to increase its life or to upgrade specifications; - to predict the performance of components assembled into a machine, by investigating their kinematics, loading conditions and stresses, through analytical and numerical methods - to identify among several technical solutions those compatible with the available technologies and a suitable layout to convert energy and transmit power; - to know some typical and theoretical background defined by technical standards; - to interpretate mechanical drawings of machine and systems, by identifying parts and components; - to impose suitable constraints, to bear mechanical and thermal stresses; - to propose suitable assemblies of machine elements to satisfy requirements; - to apply mathematical models to component and machine design; - to identify and set relevant data needed to design mechanical systems; - to approve a design and be able to take responsible decision based on evidence; - to validate theoretical or numerical models through some experimental tests; - to present, in oral and written formats, a clear and well-structured set of remarks describing the design targets, assumptions and results; - to read, understand and analyze technical literature, including handbooks, notes and standards.

Machine design

Attendance of this module requires fluent spoken and written English as a necessary pre-requisite: all lectures and tutorials, and all study material will be in English. Standard mathematics for engineers is sufficient. It is assumed that students taking this subject-module already have knowledge and understanding of the strength of materials principles; in detail, they know and use strain and stress tensors and their principal properties, preferably in matrix notation, their graphical representation through Mohr circles, the two and three dimensional behaviour of elastic materials, the constant force design criteria of brittle and ductile materials (maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress or Tresca, maximum distortion energy or Von Mises). Moreover they master the mechanics of forces and the dynamic of rigid bodies; as to deformable bodies, they master bar and beam problems for tension, bending and torsion, and know ensuing the cross section stress distribution. It would be an advantage if students would have a prior knowledge of basic machine design elements, technical drawing and elements of mechanical machining technologies.

Machine design

The attendance of this module requires fluent spoken and written English, as a requisite. Lectures, tutorials and didactic material are provided in English. Standard mathematics for engineers is sufficient. It is assumed that students have a good knowledge of strength of material. Particularly, students must know and use the strain and stress tensors and their properties, the Mohr circles, the elastic properties of materials, the damage criteria of brittle and ductile materials (maximum normal stress, maximum shear stress or Tresca, maximum distortion energy or Von Mises). Moreover, students must master the mechanics of forces and the dynamics of rigid bodies, the theory of deformable bodies, the behaviour of bars and beams, under tension, bending and torsion. It would be an advantage if students would have a preliminary background of machine elements, technical drawing and elements and of mechanical technologies.

Machine design

1 – The design process: methods, goals, activities. Needs, requirements, constraints, innovation targets. Tools and examples of design of systems and machines. Outlines of related standards. Concept, synthesis, verification and validation. Safety and reliability. Functional, operational and architectural requirements. Role of standards, best practices and modelling activity in design. Example of deployment of the whole design process (3 hrs., lecture; application to the subject of the Technical Project, 1.5 hrs. tutorials) 2 – Fundamentals of machine design: Review of applied criteria for static strength of isotropic materials (reading material provided; tutorial 3 hrs) 3 – Design against failure: fatigue and fracture (lectures 9 hrs, tutorials 9 hrs): - Overview of fatigue problems (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Stress-life fatigue: basic material properties, specimen testing and specimen fatigue (ref. to FKM standards) - Stress-life fatigue: component fatigue, finite and infinite life (ref. to FKM standards) - Stress-life fatigue: thermal effects and thermomechanical fatigue behaviour, relation with creep and other effects - Crack propagation: linear fracture mechanics, basics, applications, Paris law - Tutorials: use of the main fatigue diagrams; application of FKM standards; notch effect; application to the Technical project; fracture mechanics: computation of crack propagation and path. 4 – Design of assemblies: supports and bearings (lectures 9 hrs, tutorials 9 hrs): - Contact mechanics and damage (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Rolling bearings: static loading, fatigue conditions - Design of bearing assemblies, main solutions for bearing arrangements - Tutorials: application of Hertz theory on a selection of contact cases; angular contact bearings, preload diagram; load-life rating of the bearings for the Technical Project; bearing assemblies and related problems 5 – Design of power transmission: gears (lectures 9 hrs, tutorials 10 hrs): - Summary of motion transmission, tooth shape (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Spur and helical gears with parallel axes: kinematics, geometry, forces - Cutting techniques and profile displacement - Criteria for strength assessment of gears: fatigue, hertz contact, wear, scuffing - Tutorials: geometry and kinematics of gears, spur gears profile shift, design of the gears of the Technical Project 6 – Design of joining systems: bolted connections (lectures 6 hrs, tutorials 6 hrs): - Threaded fasteners and connections (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Prestressed single bolt connections (non gasketed) - Refinements and special problems - Elements of gasketed bolted connections - Tutorial: selection of overview exercises - Tutorials: application to a hydraulic piston or to a tie-rod connection 7 – Advanced topics: overview of some widely-used technologies based on the electromechanical energy conversion and multiphysics modelling in designing systems and machines. Adaptive systems. Role of the product scale. Special, functional and new materials. Examples and current applications. (Seminar lecture 1,5 hrs.) 8 – Seminars, visits, unplanned teaching and student support (lectures 2 hrs, tutorials 3 hrs).

Machine design

1 – The design process: methods, goals, activities. Needs, requirements, constraints, innovation targets. Tools and examples of design of systems and machines. Outlines of related standards. Concept, synthesis, verification and validation. Safety and reliability. Functional, operational and architectural requirements. Role of standards, best practices and modelling activity in design. Example of deployment of the whole design process. Application to the subject of the Technical Project proposed as a test case for learning. 2 – Fundamentals of machine design: review of applied criteria for static strength of isotropic materials (reading material provided and tutorials) 3 – Design against failure: fatigue and fracture: - Overview of fatigue problems (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Stress-life fatigue: basic material properties and testing on specimen (FKM standards) - Stress-life fatigue: component fatigue, finite and infinite life (FKM standards) - Stress-life fatigue: thermal effects and thermomechanical fatigue, creep and other effects - Crack propagation: linear fracture mechanics, basics, applications, Paris' law - Tutorials: use of the main fatigue diagrams; application of FKM standards; notch effect; application to the Technical project; fracture mechanics: computation of crack propagation and path. 4 – Design of assemblies: supports and bearings: - Contact mechanics and damage (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Rolling bearings: static loading, fatigue conditions - Design of bearing assemblies, main solutions for bearing arrangements - Tutorials: application of Hertz theory on a selection of contact cases; angular contact bearings, preload diagram; load-life rating of the bearings for the Technical Project; bearing assemblies and related problems 5 – Design of power transmission: gears: - Summary of motion transmission, tooth shape (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Spur and helical gears with parallel axes: kinematics, geometry, forces - Cutting techniques and profile displacement - Criteria for strength assessment of gears: fatigue, hertz contact, wear, scuffing - Tutorials: geometry and kinematics of gears, spur gears profile shifting, design of gears of the Technical Project 6 – Design of joining systems: bolted connections: - Threaded fasteners and connections (reading and self instruction, material provided) - Prestressed single bolt connections (without gaskets) - Refinements and special problems - Elements of gasketed bolted connections - Tutorial: selection of overview exercises - Tutorials: application to a hydraulic piston or to a tie-rod connection 7 – Seminars and visits, in collaboration with Companies.

Machine design

Machine design

Machine design

Credits 8, 81 classroom hours (40.5 lecture hours, 40.5 tutorial hours). The total study load for this subject is 200 to 240 total hours, i.e., 25 to 30 hours per credit. This includes classroom hours, self study, completion of tutorials at home and reporting. Class hours are equally shared between theoretical lectures and application tutorials, in order to achieve a balance between knowledge and skills. The subject is organised to allow students to progress incrementally in the development of their knowledge and skills under expert supervision. All lecture materials will be made available on the subject unit website before the class activity. Students are urged to download or print them so to have them at hand to take notes. Lectures on a section of the material will be followed by specific tutorials, where students are required to apply knowledge to working context problems. The tutor will provide organised materials and frames for solutions. However, the students will solve the proposed tasks themselves in small groups (max 3 students) Moreover, there will be a semester-long project, the so – called “Technical project”: in order to enhance problem solving capabilities, encourage independent thinking and develop professional reporting skills. For each task, each group of students will produce a final report. The set of all reports will be examined during the final exam. Students are asked to work cooperatively in a small group. The tutor will assist the groups during the tutorial class hours, supporting students in their learning progression and clarifying their doubts. Attendance to both lectures AND tutorials is strongly recommended, this being vital to achieve the expected learning outcomes. The teacher and the tutor are available weekly during the teaching period in order to meet students for consultation; please contact them by e-mail. Tutorials may benefit from using EXCEL or MATLAB. Writing reports with editing software is not required. although a clear and professional presentation is strictly required. Drawing tools (pencil, compass, scale rulers...) are necessary.

Machine design

This module provides 8 credits, corresponding to 80 hours (40 lectures, 40 tutorials). The study load for this subject is 200 to 240 hours, including classes, personal study, completion of tutorials at home and reporting activity. Classes are equally shared between lectures and tutorials, to allow students learning by doing, by applying theoretical concepts to some simple examples, exercises and test cases. This module is organised to allow students to gradually develop their knowledge and skills, under the experts' supervision. All the lecture and tutorials material is available on website. Students can download and print all the shared material in advance, to add notes during classes. Each section of lectures is followed by some specific tutorials. Students are required to apply knowledge to some practical problems, to master the theoretical issues. Each tutor provides organised materials and frames for solving the proposed exercises. Students are required to solve the proposed tasks themselves, organized in small groups (max 3 students) The semester-long project, i.e. the so–called “Technical project”, is aimed to enhance the problem solving capabilities of students, and to encourage their independent thinking and to develop professional reporting skills. For each task, each group of students produces a final report. The set of all reports will be examined during the final exam. Students are asked to work cooperatively in a small Group of three persons. The tutors assist the groups during the tutorials, supporting students in their learning progression and clarifying their doubts. Attendance to both lectures and tutorials is strongly recommended. This is essential to achieve the expected learning outcomes. The teacher and the tutors are available weekly, during the teaching semester, to meet (drectly or remotely) students for consultation. Please contact them by e-mail. Tutorials may benefit from using EXCEL or MATLAB tools. Writing reports with editing software is not required. although a clear and professional presentation is strictly required. Drawing tools (pencil, compass, scale rulers...) are necessary.

Machine design

Lectures: the subject is fully treated in the slides provided by the teacher. Reference textbooks of international standing are suggested (some herein at the end). Some additional slides cover several topics belonging the required background of students (mainly fundamentals of strength of materials and of machine design) Tutorials: texts of problems, datasheets of materials, extracts or abstracts of standards and handbooks will be provided by the tutor. All lecture materials will be made available on the subject website before the lecture. Students should either download or print the files before the lecture and use the copy to facilitate taking notes. Selection of references (just suggested readings): • P.R.N. Childs, Mechanical design engineering handbook, Elsevier, 2014. • R.C. Juvinall, K.M. Marshek, Fundamentals of machine component design, John Wiley & Sons, 2011 • R. Budynas, Shigley’s mechanical engineering design, McGraw Hill, 2014. • R.Stephens,A.Fatemi,R.Stephens,H.Fuchs, Metal fatigue in engineering, Wiley,2000. • N. Recho, Fracture mechanics and crack growth, ISTE Wiley, 2012. • S.S.Manson, Fatigue and durability of metals at high temperatures,ASM, 2009. • V.Popov, Contact mechanics and friction, Springer, 2010. • F.Litvin, Gear geometry and applied theory, Cambridge University Press, 2004. • T. Harris, M. Kotzaias, Rolling bearing analysis – Essential concepts of bearing technology, CRC,2006. • J. Bickford, Introduction to the design and behavior of bolted joints, CRC Press, 2007 • J.E.Carryer, Introduction to mechatronic design, Pearson, 2010. Assessment and grading criteria

Machine design

Lectures: the subject is fully treated in the slides provided by the teacher and in some additional materials uploaded on website. Reference textbooks are suggested (some are herein proposed, at the end). Some additional slides cover several topics belonging the required background of students (fundamentals of strength of materials and of machine drawing and design, taught in the bachelor of science) Tutorials: texts of problems, datasheets of materials, extracts or abstracts of standards and handbooks are provided by the tutors. All lecture materials are available on the website since the beginning of the teaching semester. Students should either download or print the files, before the lecture and use the copy to take some notes. Selection of references (just suggested readings): • P.R.N. Childs, Mechanical design engineering handbook, Elsevier, 2014. • R.C. Juvinall, K.M. Marshek, Fundamentals of machine component design, John Wiley & Sons, 2011 • R. Budynas, Shigley’s mechanical engineering design, McGraw Hill, 2014. • R.Stephens,A.Fatemi,R.Stephens,H.Fuchs, Metal fatigue in engineering, Wiley,2000. • N. Recho, Fracture mechanics and crack growth, ISTE Wiley, 2012. • S.S.Manson, Fatigue and durability of metals at high temperatures,ASM, 2009. • V.Popov, Contact mechanics and friction, Springer, 2010. • F.Litvin, Gear geometry and applied theory, Cambridge University Press, 2004. • T. Harris, M. Kotzaias, Rolling bearing analysis – Essential concepts of bearing technology, CRC,2006. • J. Bickford, Introduction to the design and behavior of bolted joints, CRC Press, 2007 • J.E.Carryer, Introduction to mechatronic design, Pearson, 2010. • E. Brusa, Mechatronics: Principles, Technologies and Application, Nova Science, 2015. • E. Brusa, Meccatronica strutturale, CET, 2016 (in Italian). • E. Brusa, A. Calà, D. Ferretto, Systems Engineering and its application to industrial product development, Springer, 2018.

Machine design

Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Machine design

In case of limitations applied to the access in presence to the exam, following rules will be applied. a) Written session (day 1 of exam): 75 minutes long (effective time left to answer), managed through the PoliTo exam platform (EXAM + RESPUNDUS), and composed by: • 20 questions on the contents of lectures (theory slides), in substitution of the two open questions foreseen by the rules of this course, with multiple choice answers, to be selected among three proposed solutions. The content of questions is the same of what is usually proposed in the written test performed in presence. In this case, of remote connection, the presence of multiple-choice answers helps the student in providing an answer having to choose among three possible choices. The typical items of longer questions, usually introduced in the written test, are here distributed over a lager number of multiple-choice questions. Scoring rule is: A. right answer : 1 points B. no answer : 0 points C. wrong answer : -0.5 points MAX POINTS THAT CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 20 points • 3 numerical problems, in substitution of one long exercise foreseen by the rules, each one requiring two numerical results. Scoring rule is: A. correct result (within a tolerance of 5% right value) : 2 points B. omitted or wrong result : 0 points. MAX POINTS THAT CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE NUMERICAL PROBLEMS 12 points The total score will provide the grade of the written test (points=grade). It must be noticed that scoring, as it is conceived, allows the student to reach up to 32 points. Nevertheless, the written test result will be limited to 30/30 in case of score higher than 30. To attend the oral exam, students must score a minimum of 18/30 (evantually after approximation of numerical result) in the written session, but in this case, there is no requirement of minimum score for each question/exercise. b) Oral session (day 2 of exam), performed through the Virtual Classroom platform, or similar, and composed by: • a technical interview (theory), being focused on the contents of theory, explained within the slides shared during the course. The aim is checking the ability of each student to deal responsibly with a mechanical design problem, by identifying an appropriate application of the acquired knowledge; • a discussion, together with the tutors (tutorials and technical report); for this activity the student is required to submit the full set of tutorial reports by email the day prior to the oral exam; the tutor will investigate the personal achievement of skills through some questions about the content of the reports. The maximum grade that can be achieved in the oral exam is 30/30. If all previous actions are performed and the result is positive, the final score will corresponds to the average of grades achieved in the written and oral exams, respectively.

Machine design

Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Machine design

Achieved learning outcomes will be assessed by means of a final exam. This is based on an analytical assessment of student achievement of the “expected learning outcomes” described above. CASE 1: REGULAR SITUATION (The exam is done in presence, without restrictions) In regular conditions, not affected by restrictions induced by the health emergency due to pandemia, which recently occurred, the examination is composed by two main sections: a) Written test (day 1): -) a test, 2 hours long, with closed books, is composed by three questions. Two are related to the theoretical issues of lectures and verify the knowledge of theory; one problem completes this test to assess the problem solving skills of students. Each question scores up to 8 marks. To attend the oral exam, the student must score in the written test a minimum of 12 marks, and a minimum of 4 (50%) marks for each question. The maximum score provided by the written test is 24. b) Oral test (day 2): -) a review of written test, to show the student grading criteria and to receive any student's appeal, supported by appropriate explanations (no score for this step); -) a technical conversation with the lecturer, to verify the student's ability to deal responsibly with a mechanical design problem, by identifying an appropriate application of the acquired knowledge (up to 4 marks) -) a discussion with one tutor, to whom the student will submit the full set of tutorial reports. The tutor will investigate the effective personal achievement of skills and know how, based on contents of reports (up to 4 marks) The final score is composed by the score of written test, added to the score of the two interviews performed during the oral test. The maximum score is 30/30. in case of exceeding result, the teachers will assign the "cum laude". CASE 2: EXAM PERFORMED UNDER RESTRICTIONS DUE TO PANDEMIC OUTBREAK (ALL ONLINE) In case of restrictions applied to access to the university for the exam, following rules will be applied. a) Written test (day 1): - 75 minutes long (effective time left to answer), managed through the PoliTo exam platform (EXAM + RESPONDUS), composed by: • 20 questions on the contents of lectures (theory slides, in substitution of the two open questions foreseen by the rules of this course), with multiple choice answers, to be selected among three proposed solutions. The content of questions is the same of what is usually proposed in the written test performed in presence. In this case, of remote connection, the presence of multiple-choice answers helps the student in providing an answer, choosing among three sentences already written. Score is assigned as follows: A. right answer : 1 mark B. no answer : 0 marks C. wrong answer : - 0.5 marks (negative, marks are subtracted) This section of written test allows scoring max 20 marks • 3 numerical problems, in substitution of one long exercise foreseen by the rules of this course, each one requiring two numerical results, for a total of six numerical results to be written inside the forms. Scoring in this section is assigned as follows: A. correct result (within a tolerance of 5% right value) : 2 marks B. omitted or wrong result : 0 marks. This section allows scoring up to max 12 marks. The total score of the written test is simply the addition of scores of section with 20 questions and of section with 3 problems. It can be noticed that scoring allows the student to reach up to 32 marks. Nevertheless, the written test result will be limited to 30/30, in case of score higher than 30 marks. To attend the oral exam, students must score a minimum of 18/30 (evantually after approximation of numerical result) in the written test, but in this case, there is no requirement of minimum score for each question/exercise. b) Oral session (day 2): - it will be performed through the Virtual Classroom platform, or similar, and composed by: • a technical interview (theory), being focused on the contents of theory, explained within the slides shared during the course. The aim is checking the ability of each student to deal responsibly with a mechanical design problem, by identifying an appropriate application of the acquired knowledge; • a discussion, together with the tutors (tutorials and technical report); for this activity the student is required to submit the full set of tutorial reports by email the day prior to the oral exam; the tutor will investigate the personal achievement of skills through some questions about the content of the reports. This oral test actually corresponds to the oral test performed in regular conditions, without restrictions. It is just performed online and remotely. The main difference is scoring. Both the teacher and the tutor will assign a score expressed in /30 to the technical interview ans the discussion of technical report, respectively. The average between the two scores will define the score of oral test. The maximum grade that can be achieved in the oral exam is 30/30. The final score, once that all previous actions have been performed, will correspond to the average of grades achieved in the written test and in oral test, respectively.

Machine design

Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta a risposta aperta o chiusa tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo Exam integrata con strumenti di proctoring (Respondus);

Machine design

In case of blended exam, the written test will be performed by remote access on line as in case of online exam, while the oral test will be performed with the same rules of the oral test in online test, but students who could access will perform the oral test onsite, those who could not will perform the oral test by remote access in virtual classroom.

Machine design

Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Computer-based written test with open-ended questions or multiple-choice questions using the Exam platform and proctoring tools (Respondus);

Machine design

CASE 3: EXAM PERFORMED UNDER RESTRICTIONS DUE TO PANDEMIC OUTBREAK (BLENDED) In case of blended exam: - the written test will be performed by remote access, on line, as in the above Case 2 (online exam) for all the candidate students; maximun score 30 marks - the oral test will be performed with the same rules of the oral test of above Case 2 (online exam), but: -- students who could access will perform the oral test onsite, -- those who could not access will perform the oral test remotely, in virtual classroom; maximum score 30 marks. The final score is the average between the score of written and oral tests, respectively.

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