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PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Advanced experimental physics

03NQMPF

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Degree programme(s)

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Physics Of Complex Systems (Fisica Dei Sistemi Complessi) - Torino/Trieste/Parigi

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 30
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 30
Tutoraggio 12
Lecturers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Gonnelli Renato Professore Ordinario FIS/01 30 0 30 12 10
Co-lectuers
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
FIS/01 6 C - Affini o integrative Attività formative affini o integrative
2020/21
The course, starting from the microscopic theoretical description of the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom in solids as well as of their interactions, describes the modern advanced experimental tools used for understanding the properties of solid-state quantum systems with a huge number of particles. Their low-temperature ordered phases, the response to external perturbations, their transport, optical and quantum properties are discussed in detail, with particular reference to the most recent research activities in the field. Some of these topics are also subject of direct experimental investigation by means of specific research-level laboratory activities carried out personally by the students, as well as to a deep data analysis by advanced analytical and numerical tools.
The course, starting from the microscopic theoretical description of the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom in solids as well as of their interactions, describes the modern advanced experimental tools used for understanding the properties of solid-state quantum systems with a huge number of particles. Their low-temperature ordered phases, the response to external perturbations, their transport, optical and quantum properties are discussed in detail, with particular reference to the most recent research activities in the field. Some of these topics are also subject of direct experimental investigation by means of specific research-level laboratory activities carried out personally by the students, as well as of a deep data analysis by advanced analytical and numerical tools. In case of persistence of online teaching even in the spring of 2021, the experimental part of the laboratory activities will be simulated through video recordings or, possibly, by instrument control and remote measurement sessions. As for the data analysis by advanced analytical and numerical tools, the ab-initio calculations of the electron and phonon properties and the preparation of the detailed final group report, everything will remain as when the teaching was onsite since these activities are carried out in an independent way by the students divided into groups. Tutoring and assistance to these activities by me and my collaborators can be provided online through video calls.
Knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms and models for describing the behavior of ions, electrons and excitations in solids, as well as of the analytical, numerical and experimental tools to handle with them. Ability to apply these tools to the study of key phenomena in condensed matter physics, such as, for example, superconductivity, conventional and quantum Hall effect, weak and strong localization, physics of 2D materials and very thin films, field-effect doping and intercalation. In my opinion this mixed approach based on the application of the theoretical models discussed in the class to the interpretation of real experiments (different every year) and the problems emerging from them is very useful both In the part dedicated to knowledge and in the one dedicated to skills of the expected learning outcomes. In fact this approach is the best platform to test the students' ability to combine different theoretical elements to draw useful conclusions in situations not yet explored and their ability to identify and solve a complex problem emerging from experimental outcomes.
Knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms and models for describing the behavior of ions, electrons and excitations in solids, as well as of the analytical, numerical and experimental tools to handle with them. Ability to apply these tools to the study of key phenomena in condensed matter physics, such as, for example, superconductivity, conventional and quantum Hall effect, weak and strong localization, physics of 2D materials and very thin films, field-effect doping and intercalation. In my opinion this mixed approach based on the application of the theoretical models discussed in the class to the interpretation of real experiments (different every year) and the problems emerging from them is very useful both In the part dedicated to knowledge and in the one dedicated to skills of the expected learning outcomes. In fact this approach is the best platform to test the students' ability to combine different theoretical elements to draw useful conclusions in situations not yet explored and their ability to identify and solve a complex problem emerging from experimental outcomes.
Basic knowledge of quantum and statistical physics, as well as of solid-state physics.
Basic knowledge of quantum and statistical physics, as well as of solid-state physics.
1. The variables of experimental physics and their control: low temperatures (cryogenics), high pressures, high magnetic fields, high electric fields and electrochemical gating (surface doping). [3 hours] 2. Scattering phenomena from atomic structures for particles and radiation: elastic scattering of X-rays, electrons and neutrons. [3 hours] 3. Real-space visualization of structures (atomic or not): SEM, TEM, FIB, AFM and STM. [4 hours] 4. Inelastic scattering and determination of the phonon modes: photons in the visible range (Raman spectroscopy), X-rays and neutrons. [3 hours] 5. Summary of the electronic bandstructure of solids. Theory of the Fermi surfaces in metals. Experimental determination of the electronic bands and the Fermi surface: De Haas-van Alphen effect and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). [4 hours] 6. The ab-initio calculation of the electronic and phonon properties by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) including specific training to the use of different DFT codes. [7 hours] 7. Summary of transport properties in solids: Drude conductivity, magnetotransport and classical Hall effect, Boltzmann equation, scattering mechanisms and applications. The van der Pauw method for the measure of resistiviy and Hall effect. [3 hours] 8. Diffusive and ballistic transport: Allen theory of resistivity and spectral function of electron-phonon interaction. Summary of Fermi liquid theory. Point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy and determination of the superconducting gap. [3 hours] 9. Quantum transport and scattering phenomena: weak localization, strong (Anderson) localization, charge transport in disordered materials, Kondo effect. [3 hours] 10. Advanced experiments of Solid State Physics with the goal of a coordinated and integrated study of some metallic, semiconducting or superconducting materials in the form of polycrystals, single crystals or thin films: X-ray spectroscopy, SEM and AFM microscopy, CAFM and STM spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, resistivity as a function of temperature down to 2.6 K, point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements, etc. Many of these experiments can be performed in presence of very high applied electric fields (via electrochemical gating), adding an additional variable (the surface charge density) to the measure. [27 hours]
1. The variables of experimental physics and their control: low temperatures (cryogenics), high pressures, high magnetic fields, high electric fields and electrochemical gating (surface doping). [3 hours] 2. Scattering phenomena from atomic structures for particles and radiation: elastic scattering of X-rays, electrons and neutrons. [3 hours] 3. Real-space visualization of structures (atomic or not): SEM, TEM, FIB, AFM and STM. [4 hours] 4. Inelastic scattering and determination of the phonon modes: photons in the visible range (Raman spectroscopy), X-rays and neutrons. [3 hours] 5. Summary of the electronic bandstructure of solids. Theory of the Fermi surfaces in metals. Experimental determination of the electronic bands and the Fermi surface: De Haas-van Alphen effect and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). [4 hours] 6. The ab-initio calculation of the electronic and phonon properties by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) including specific training to the use of different DFT codes. [7 hours] 7. Summary of transport properties in solids: Drude conductivity, magnetotransport and classical Hall effect, Boltzmann equation, scattering mechanisms and applications. The van der Pauw method for the measure of resistiviy and Hall effect. [3 hours] 8. Diffusive and ballistic transport: Allen theory of resistivity and spectral function of electron-phonon interaction. Summary of Fermi liquid theory. Point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy and determination of the superconducting gap. [3 hours] 9. Quantum transport and scattering phenomena: weak localization, strong (Anderson) localization, charge transport in disordered materials, Kondo effect. [3 hours] 10. Advanced experiments of Solid State Physics with the goal of a coordinated and integrated study of some metallic, semiconducting or superconducting materials in the form of polycrystals, single crystals or thin films: X-ray spectroscopy, SEM and AFM microscopy, CAFM and STM spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, resistivity as a function of temperature down to 2.6 K, point-contact Andreev-reflection spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements, etc. Many of these experiments can be performed in presence of very high applied electric fields (via electrochemical gating), adding an additional variable (the surface charge density) to the measure. [27 hours]
The course includes lectures and classroom exercises. In addition, given the strongly experimental nature of the course, laboratory activities are provided based on advanced measurements of surface, transport and spectroscopy properties of thin films, polycrystals or single crystals of conductors, semiconductors or superconductors. In particular, experimental activities include measurements of X-ray spectroscopy, SEM and AFM microscopy, Conductive AFM and STM spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical resistivity as a function of temperature, Andreev reflection spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements, etc.. with the aim of a coordinated and integrated study over some test materials which, starting from the original sample, will arrive to determine the main variables that describe the electron and phonon systems as well as their interaction, thereby enabling a comparison with the ab-initio calculations of the same properties obtained by the DFT technique. The number of laboratory sessions will be 6 or 7 and they will be conducted by groups of 4-5 students. The preparation of a detailed final group report on the experimental measurements, their analysis and on ab-initio calculations is required. The evaluation of the group report and its subsequent individual discussion will determine the final grade of the exam.
The course includes lectures and classroom exercises. In addition, given the strongly experimental nature of the course, laboratory activities are provided based on advanced measurements of surface, transport and spectroscopy properties of thin films, polycrystals or single crystals of conductors, semiconductors or superconductors. In particular, experimental activities include measurements of X-ray spectroscopy, SEM and AFM microscopy, Conductive AFM and STM spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrical resistivity as a function of temperature, Andreev reflection spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements, etc.. with the aim of a coordinated and integrated study over some test materials which, starting from the original sample, will arrive to determine the main variables that describe the electron and phonon systems as well as their interaction, thereby enabling a comparison with the ab-initio calculations of the same properties obtained by the DFT technique. The number of laboratory sessions will be 6 or 7 and they will be conducted by groups of 4-5 students. As already said in the section "Course description", if online teaching will still be mandatory in the spring of 2021, the experimental part of the laboratory activities will be simulated through video recordings or, possibly, by instrument control and remote measurement sessions. The preparation of a detailed final group report on the experimental measurements, their analysis and on ab-initio calculations is required. The evaluation of the group report and its subsequent individual discussion will determine the final grade of the exam.
Besides slides and written material provided by the course holder, the following books are also suggested readings: - N. Ashcroft, and N. Mermin, Solid-State Physics, Harcourt College Publisher, 1976 - H. Ibach and H. Lüth, Solid-State Physics, Springer, 4th edition, 2009 - U. Mizutani, Introduction to the electron theory of metals, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004 - G.K. White and P.J. Meeson, Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics, Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon, 2002 - F. Pobell, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, Springer, 1996 - Charge Transport in Disordered Solids with Applications in Electronics, Edited by Sergei Baranovski, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006 - Conductor–Insulator Quantum Phase Transitions, Edited by Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Nandini Trivedi, James M. Valles, Jr., Oxford University Press, 2012
Besides slides and written material provided by the course holder, the following books are also suggested readings: - N. Ashcroft, and N. Mermin, Solid-State Physics, Harcourt College Publisher, 1976 - H. Ibach and H. Lüth, Solid-State Physics, Springer, 4th edition, 2009 - U. Mizutani, Introduction to the electron theory of metals, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004 - G.K. White and P.J. Meeson, Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics, Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon, 2002 - F. Pobell, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, Springer, 1996 - Charge Transport in Disordered Solids with Applications in Electronics, Edited by Sergei Baranovski, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006 - Conductor–Insulator Quantum Phase Transitions, Edited by Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Nandini Trivedi, James M. Valles, Jr., Oxford University Press, 2012
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
... The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;
The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion (online) of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion (online) of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria; Elaborato scritto prodotto in gruppo;
The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion (online or onsite) of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam; Group essay;
The exam consists in the presentation of a written group report on the results of the measurements, their analysis and the comparison with the results of ab-initio DFT calculations, as well as in the individual discussion (online or onsite) of the experimental and theoretical aspects related to lab activities and data analysis. In particular, the evaluation of the group report will be (partially) based on the quality of the experimental and theoretical results but, more importantly, on the demonstration of the group to have acquired team-work and problem-solving skills, as well as on the group capability to propose original solutions for the analysis and the interpretation of the results. In the individual discussion every component of the group will be asked to describe in detail her/his contribution to the group report and the original solutions she/he proposed for the data analysis. Finally a question on the program of the course discussed in class and having relevance to the work done in the report will be proposed to every component of the group. The report evaluation, the individual discussion and the answer to the individual question concur with equal weights in determining the final grade of the exam.
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