Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems

03OFTLI, 03OFTLN

A.A. 2022/23

2022/23

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

This course addresses the fundamentals of electronic systems, with emphasis on applications relevant to the automotive area.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

The course, divided into two parts, aims to provide: - The main concepts about analysis of electrical and magnetic circuit with particular attention to aspects of DC and low frequency; - Methodological bases for understanding the operating principles and key operational concepts of electromechanical equipment and in general a rational, proper and safe use of electrical equipment; - The operating principles and tools to evaluate the performance of the main electrical machinery, in view of their application in industrial processes

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

This course covers the fundamentals of electronic systems. Following a top-down approach from the system level to the device level, the main tools for analyzing modules for analog and digital electronics are presented with emphasis on applications relevant to the automotive area.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Fundamentals of Electrical Systems refers to the modelling of electrical phenomena, using the theory of lumped parameters circuits. However, exploiting physical analogies, it is possible to use models and methods of this Subject in to study other physical theories (stationary and unstationary thermal conduction problems, hydraulic problems, etc). Because of the creation of transversal skills, this Subject is included in several Engineering curricula. Fundamentals of Electrical Systems aims at providing the capability of modelling electrical phenomena in a rigorous way, introducing the method for describing connections of electrical elements and circuits. The main tools to solve electrical circuits will be developed to handle direct current and alternating current circuits. Particular attention will be given to real world applications, especially operating at industrial frequency

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Analysis of amplifiers and their frequency behaviour. Circuits with operational amplifiers. Basic knowledge about logic technologies and families. Design of basic digital combinatorial and sequential circuits. Properties and design of data acquisition systems.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Knowledge of methods to perform circuit analysis in electrical engineering. Knowledge of the principles of main electro-mechanical equipment and electrical machinery used in industrial Knowledge of criteria for use and application fields of the electrical machinery. Ability to analyze electrical circuits operating under steady currents Ability to analyze and evaluate the performance of electric machines Ability to make the choice of the appropriate electrical equipment to be included in mechanical systems.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

On successful completion of this course, students will be able to analyze the frequency behaviour of circuits with operational amplifiers, understand the key concepts of digital combinatorial and sequential circuits, and design data acquisition systems.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

At the end of the Course, Students will acquire the following skills: * ability to recognise the main electrical components and interconnections * knowledge of methods to perform circuit analysis in electrical engineering. * ability to analyse electrical circuits operating in DC * ability to analyse electrical circuits operating in transient conditions * ability to analyse electrical circuits operating in AC

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Linear algebra, differential calculus, complex arithmetic.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Knowledge of ordinary differential equations, complex numbers and basic concepts of electromagnetism

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Mathematical analysis (differential and integral calculus); complex arithmetic; theory of linear electrical networks: time domain and frequency domain analysis.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Knowledge of linear algebra, ordinary differential equations, complex numbers and basic concepts of electromagnetic (electrostatic field, current field, magnetic field, quasi static fields)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Operational amplifiers, filtering and amplifying circuits. Circuits for digital applications: combinational and sequential circuits, memories, and programmable devices. Principles of analog to digital and digital to analog conversion.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lectures PART I: PRELIMINARIES (6h) Basic definitions (2h) • models • electrical engineering and lumped circuit models: hypotheses • electrical components and terminals, two-terminal components • current e ammeter • voltage and voltmeter • passive and active sign convention • electrical power (wattmeter) and energy, passivity Topology (1h) • operative definitions: node, branch, loop, mesh, graph • Kirchhoff’s current law (surface, node) • Kirchhoff’s voltage law (closed path, mesh) Two-terminal components and constitutive equations (2h) • constitutive equations • classifications: control type, linearity, time invariance • passive elements 1. resistor (resistance, conductance), short circuit, open circuit, ideal switch 2. electric energy and capacitor 3. magnetic energy and inductor • active elements 1. voltage generator 2. current generator Solution of the fundamental problem of circuit theory (1h) • definition • linearly independent equations: KCL, KVL constitutive equations • method of sparse tableau • adynamic networks (algebraic equations), dynamic (differential equations), order of a network PART II: ADYNAMIC CIRCUITS (8h) Special methods for the solution of electrical circuits (8h) • equivalence principle • series and parallel connection 1. definitions 2. series of resistors and voltage division 3. parallel of resistors and current division 4. examples 5. series of generators 6. parallel of generators • star and delta connection • superposition principle (proof) • Millman’s theorem (proof) • Thevenin’s equivalent circuit (proof) • Norton’s equivalent circuit (proof) • Tellegen’s theorem • Maximum power transfer PARTE III: DYNAMIC CIRCUITS (16h) Transient analysis (4h) • constitutive equations of capacitor and inductor • series and parallel connection of capacitors and inductors • solutions of differential equations with constant coefficients: outline 1. associated homogeneous equations 2. particular solution 3. initial conditions • first order differential equations 1. free and forced evolution 2. transient and permanent evolution • RC circuit • RL circuit • Solution of first order circuits with constant inputs (Thevenin, Norton) • switches Sinusoidal steady state (8h) • (summary of complex number algebra) • sinusoidal waveforms • phasor of a sinusoidal waveform • properties of phasors • topological and constitutive equations in phasor domain • impedance, admittance and generalized Ohm’s law • generalization of principles and theorems in phasor domain • maximum power transfer in AC • phasor diagram • frequency response • power in sinusoidal steady state 1. instantaneous power 2. real and reactive power 3. complex and apparent power • Boucherot’s law • power factor correction of inductive single-phase loads • non sinusoidal periodic regime Three-phase circuits (4h) • origin • definition: balanced and unbalanced three phase circuits, line (line-to-line) phase (line-to-neutral) voltages • star and delta connected loads • series and parallel connection of loads • single phase equivalent circuit • power • power factor correction: star and delta connection of capacitors • connection of single-phase loads to three-phase circuits • suitability of three-phase systems 1. cost effectiveness 2. constant instantaneous power Practice lessons Practice # 1 KVL and KCL Constitutive equations General solution of electric circuits Practice # 2 Evaluation of equivalent resistances Solution of circuits by using voltage and current division Practice # 3 Use of superposition principle Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits Millman’s theorem Practice # 4 Transient analysis Practice # 5 Sinusoidal steady state analysis of circuits in phasor domain Practice # 6 Sinusoidal steady state: method of power balance Practice # 7 Analysis of three-phase circuits Electrical Machines Lectures Introduction (1 h) • Ampere law. Magnetic flux. Lenz and Lorentz laws. Fundamental laws. Materials (3 h) • Soft and hard magnetic materials. Iron losses. • Conductors and insulators. Magnetic circuits (3 h) • Electromagnet. Magnetic reluctance. • Permanent magnets. • Circuits with permanent magnets. Thermal aspects (2 h) • Simplified thermal model. Thermal transients. • Types of services. Transformer (9 h) • Realization aspects. Ideal transformer: working principle. • Real transformer. • Equivalent circuit • Equivalent circuit under sinusoidal supply. Vector diagram. • Equivalent circuit parameters: no load and short circuit tests • Voltage drop. Efficiency • Parallel. • Three phase transformer Asynchronous machine (8 h) • Rotating magnetic field • Realization aspects. Wounded rotor and cage rotor • Working principle. Comparison with transformer • Energetic balance. • Mechanical characteristic. • Determination of parameters. • Losses and efficiency • Speed regulation DC machine (8 h) • Realization aspects. Rotor • Working principle. Torque and emf generation • Machine equations • Equivalent circuit • Separately excited machine. Mechanical characteristic • Speed regulation • Series excited machine. Mechanical characteristic. Commutation. Practice lessons Magnetic circuits (2 h) Numeric examples Thermal aspects (2 h) Numerical evaluation of the temperature in the machines. Transformer (5 h) Determination of parameters of the equivalent circuit Operation with load connected Three phase transformer Asyncronous machine (6 h) Determination of parameters. Determination of parameters and working conditions DC machine (4 h) Evaluation of torque and power in separately excited machines Evaluation of torque and power in series excited machines

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

- Functional block decomposition of complex systems; frequency and time domain representation of signals, analog and digital signals. - Amplifier configurations and main parameters. - Bode plot and dynamic behavior of circuits in time and frequency domain. - Operational amplifiers and negative feedback: inverting and non-inverting stages, and other circuits with operational amplifiers. - Real operational amplifiers. - Principles of analog to digital and digital to analog conversion. - The CMOS inverter. - Digital systems: combinational and sequential circuits, interfacing, dynamical properties. - Digital circuits implementing arithmetic functions. - Registers and counters.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Lectures PART I: PRELIMINARIES Basic definitions models electrical engineering and lumped circuit models: hypotheses electrical components and terminals, two-terminal components current e ammeter voltage and voltmeter passive and active sign convention electrical power (wattmeter) and energy, passivity Topology operative definitions: node, branch, loop, mesh, graph Kirchhoffs current law (surface, node) Kirchhoffs voltage law (closed path, mesh) Two-terminal components and constitutive equations constitutive equations classifications: control type, linearity, time invariance passive elements 1. resistor (resistance, conductance), short circuit, open circuit, ideal switch 2. electric energy and capacitor 3. magnetic energy and inductor active elements 1. voltage generator 2. current generator Solution of the fundamental problem of circuit theory definition linearly independent equations: KCL, KVL constitutive equations method of sparse tableau adynamic networks (algebraic equations), dynamic (differential equations), order of a network PART II: ADYNAMIC CIRCUITS Special methods for the solution of electrical circuits equivalence principle series and parallel connection 1. definitions 2. series of resistors and voltage division 3. parallel of resistors and current division 4. examples 5. series of generators 6. parallel of generators star and delta connection superposition principle (proof) Millmans theorem (proof) Thevenins equivalent circuit (proof) Nortons equivalent circuit (proof) Tellegens theorem Maximum power transfer Circuits with controlled generators PARTE III: DYNAMIC CIRCUITS Transient analysis constitutive equations of capacitor and inductor series and parallel connection of capacitors and inductors solutions of differential equations with constant coefficients: outline 1. associated homogeneous equations 2. particular solution 3. initial conditions first order differential equations 1. free and forced evolution 2. transient and permanent evolution RC circuit RL circuit Solution of first order circuits with constant inputs (Thevenin, Norton) switches Sinusoidal steady state (summary of complex number algebra) sinusoidal waveforms phasor of a sinusoidal waveform properties of phasors topological and constitutive equations in phasor domain impedance, admittance and generalized Ohms law generalization of principles and theorems in phasor domain maximum power transfer in AC phasor diagram frequency response power in sinusoidal steady state 1. instantaneous power 2. real and reactive power 3. complex and apparent power Boucherots law power factor correction of inductive single-phase loads non sinusoidal periodic regime Practice lessons Practice # 1 KVL and KCL Constitutive equations General solution of electric circuits Evaluation of equivalent resistances Solution of circuits by using voltage and current division Practice # 2 Use of superposition principle Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits Millmans theorem Practice # 3 Solution of circuits with controlled generators Practice # 4 Transient analysis Practice # 5 Sinusoidal steady state analysis of circuits in phasor domain Practice # 6 Sinusoidal steady state: method of power balance

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

- Theory Lessons - Classroom training aimed at solving problems inherent to the subjects treated in the lessons.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Introduction to Electrical Engineering The lectures are given in the traditional mode by using the blackboard. Practice lessons consist in the numerical solution of exercises proposed by the lecturer. Electrical machines The lectures will be held with the use of powerpoint slides previously transferred to the students. Practice lessons will consist in the solution of numerical exercises.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

General organization: 26 hours of lectures and 14 hours of classroom training aimed at solving problems inherent to the subjects treated in the lessons.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Theory lectures (30.5h) are given in the traditional mode writing all steps by hand on the whiteboard. Practice lessons (two groups, 10.5h) consist in the numerical solution of exercises proposed by the lecturer.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

- Lecture notes of the course available online - Reference book: R. Jaeger, “Microelectronic Circuit Design, ” McGraw-Hill

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Introduction to Electrical Engineering * Canova, Gruosso, "Introduction to Electrical Circuits", Progetto Leonardo, 2008 * Giorgio Rizzoni, "Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering", 6/e, McGraw-Hill, 2016 Note: I recommend to take your own notes during class hours and metabolize the subject using the textbooks and slides as learning aids. Electrical machines • Ned Mohan, "Electric machines and drives: a first course", Wiley, 2012 • Slides of the course, available on the Portale della Didattica website. • Exercises to be solved in the classroom.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

- Lecture notes and examples of worked problems available on the course website - Supplemental material: R. Jaeger, “Microelectronic Circuit Design, ” McGraw-Hill

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

* C.K. Alexander, M.N.O. Sadiku, Fundamentals of Electric Circuits, 6/e, 2017 * G. Rizzoni, Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering, 6/e, McGraw-Hill, 2016 * J.A. Svoboda, R.C. Dorf, Introduction to Electric Circuits, 9/e, Wiley, 2013 Handouts of the lessons and video recordings are available on the course webpage. Note: I recommend to take your own notes during class hours and metabolize the subject using the textbooks and slides as learning aids.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Modalità di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

The two modules have a common exam made of two parts. The written exam consists in the solution of four exercises, two each module, in approximately two hours. Topics of the exercises are: analysis of circuits in steady state (DC and AC), transients, single and three phase circuits, magnetic circuits, evaluation of the working conditions of transformers, asynchronous and DC machines. It is possible to use a scientific calculator and the official formula sheet uploaded on the course website. Candidates with positive scores (≥ 18/30, with a minimum of 8 in each of the 2 subjects) have access to the mandatory oral examination, consisting in the discussion of the exercises, and in theoretical questions on the main subjects of the course. A collection of past exams with solutions is available on the course website.

Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Electronic systems)

Description The exam includes a written test and an optional oral test. The oral test can be requested according to the rules described below. The written exam will be given at the scheduled date and time, as communicated to students and will consist of two parts: Fundamentals of Electrical Systems and Fundamentals of Electronic Systems. Each part has a maximum score of 16 points. Each part has * 8 multiple-choice or numerical quizzes for a total of 8 points. If correct, a multiple-choice question is awarded 1 point, an incorrect answer results in 0.25 penalty points. Numerical quizzes are considered correct (1 point) if the numerical value falls within a 5% numerical tolerance (unless otherwise stated). * A problem with multiple questions: 8 total points. The problem is a classical exercise to be solved with paper and pen. Duration The duration of each module is 50 minutes, for a total of 100 minutes. For Students with special needs, the duration of each module is 65 minutes, for a total of 130 minutes. Permissible and non-permissible aids During the exam it is possible to use * a scientific calculator * pen, pencil, drafting instruments * The exam is a “closed book” examination: books and formula sheets are not admitted. * Everything that is not officially allowed, must be considered as a non-permissible aid. Cheating is a serious academic offense. Students discovered engaging in such behavior during the exam shall earn a failing grade and their case shall be reported to the Academic authorities for further disciplinary actions. Grading The final score is obtained summing up the results of the two parts. The exam is failed if any of the following is verified * total score (Fundamentals of Electrical Systems and Fundamentals of Electronic Systems) lower than 16 points * partial score (Fundamentals of Electrical Systems or Fundamentals of Electronic Systems) lower than 7 points The total score of the two parts will be limited to 30 points in case of higher score. Oral Exam Candidates with a positive total score have access to the optional oral examination that consists of a one or two questions related to the course program of both modules. In this case, the final score is the mean value of the written and oral exam. To access the written and oral exam, it is necessary to independently apply through the official registration website. The oral exam is * mandatory for students with a non sufficient total score (16 or 17 points) * mandatory in case of doubts regarding the written exam. In these cases the Students will be informed a few days after the written test * upon request of the Students

Fundamentals of electrical and electronic systems (Fundamentals of electrical)

Description The exam includes a written test and an optional oral test. The oral test can be requested according to the rules described below. The written exam will be given at the scheduled date and time, as communicated to students and will consist of two parts: Fundamentals of Electrical Systems and Fundamentals of Electronic Systems. Each part has a maximum score of 16 points. Each part has * 8 multiple-choice or numerical quizzes for a total of 8 points. If correct, a multiple-choice question is awarded 1 point, an incorrect answer results in 0.25 penalty points. Numerical quizzes are considered correct (1 point) if the numerical value falls within a 5% numerical tolerance (unless otherwise stated). * A problem with multiple questions: 8 total points. The problem is a classical exercise to be solved with paper and pen Duration The duration of each module is 50 minutes, for a total of 100 minutes. For Students with special needs, the duration of each module is 65 minutes, for a total of 130 minutes. Permissible and non-permissible aids During the exam it is possible to use: * a scientific calculator * pen, pencil, drafting instruments * The exam is a closed book examination: books and formula sheets are not admitted. * Everything that is not officially allowed, must be considered as a non-permissible aid. Cheating is a serious academic offense. Students discovered engaging in such behavior during the exam shall earn a failing grade and their case shall be reported to the Academic authorities for further disciplinary actions. Grading The final score is obtained summing up the results of the two parts. The exam is failed if any of the following is verified * total score (Fundamentals of Electrical Systems and Fundamentals of Electronic Systems) lower than 16 points * partial score (Fundamentals of Electrical Systems or Fundamentals of Electronic Systems) lower than 7 points The total score of the two parts will be limited to 30 points in case of higher score. Oral Exam Candidates with a positive total score have access to the optional oral examination that consists of a one or two questions related to the course program of both modules. In this case, the final score is the mean value of the written and oral exam. To access the written and oral exam, it is necessary to independently apply through the official registration website. The oral exam is * mandatory for students with a non sufficient total score (16 or 17 points) * mandatory in case of doubts regarding the written exam. In these cases the Students will be informed a few days after the written test * upon request of the Students

In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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