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Physical chemistry of dispersed systems

03RWSMZ

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Dei Materiali - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 40
Esercitazioni in aula 20
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Vanni Marco Professore Ordinario ING-IND/23 40 20 0 0 6
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/23 6 C - Affini o integrative AttivitÓ formative affini o integrative
Valutazione CPD 2021/22
2021/22
The course is an introduction to the physical chemistry of finely dispersed systems. These systems are largely adopted in process engineering (environmental remediation, formulation chemistry, synthesis of pigments and catalysts) as well as in the production of different kinds of materials (biomaterials, ceramics, polymers and soft matter). The transformations in the dispersed state are strongly influenced by the high surface energy of the system and their study needs a peculiar approach, capable of linking information from the microscopic structure of the interface and the macroscopic global properties of the dispersion. The course begins with the macroscopic description of the interface provided by surface mechanics and thermodynamics, and subsequently moves towards the aspects related to the smallest scales: surface forces, charge separation and structure of interfaces. Finally, the modes of evolution of a disperse phase are examined and population balance method is introduced, as a tool to predict the dynamics of a disperse system.
The course is an introduction to the physical chemistry of finely dispersed systems. These systems are largely adopted in the production of different kinds of materials (biomaterials, ceramics, polymers and soft matter) as well as in process engineering (environmental remediation, formulation chemistry, synthesis of pigments and catalysts). The transformations in the dispersed state are strongly influenced by the high surface energy of the system and their study needs a peculiar approach, capable of linking information from the microscopic structure of the interface and the macroscopic global properties of the dispersion. The course begins with the macroscopic description of the interface provided by surface mechanics and thermodynamics, and subsequently moves towards the aspects related to the smallest scales, that is, surface forces, charge separation and structure of interfaces. Finally, the modes of change of a disperse phase are examined in order to predict quantitatively the dynamics of such systems.
The aim of the course is to provide students with the basic knowledge necessary to understand the main phenomena occurring in heterogeneous finely dispersed systems, and to quantitatively predict and control their dynamics. In particular, at the end of the course the student should know the main evolution mechanisms of a dispersion and be able to select proper methods to control or modify the size distribution and the morphology of a disperse phase.
The aim of the course is to provide students with the basic knowledge necessary to understand the main phenomena occurring in heterogeneous finely dispersed systems, and to quantitatively predict and control their dynamics. In particular, at the end of the course the student should know the main change mechanisms of a dispersion and be able to select proper methods to control or modify the size distribution and the morphology of a disperse phase.
Students should have a good knowledge of the fundamentals of chemistry, physics, thermodynamics, mathematics and numerical methods.
Students should have a good knowledge of the fundamentals of chemistry, physics, thermodynamics, mathematics.
1: Mechanics and thermodynamics of interfaces (15 h) Surface and interfacial tension, Young-Laplace equation, capillary rise, contact angle; surface tension and stress in solids; Kelvin equation and capillary condensation; dynamic effects on surface tension and contact angle. 2. Structure of the solid-liquid interface and electrical double layer (15 h) Mechanisms of surface charge generation; ion distribution and charge distribution; Z potential and electrokinetic phenomena 3: Surface forces in dispersed systems (10 h) Van der Waals forces; Electrical double layer interaction; Electrostatic stabilisation of colloidal dispersions and DLVO theory; Steric stabilisation; Structural forces; Capillary forces. 4. Evolution of a disperse system (20 h) Aggregation-coalescence: kinetics and mechanisms (Brownian, shear flow, turbulent, inertia); Nucleation: primary homogeneous and heterogeneous, secondary; growth and dissolution; Introduction to the population balance approach: characterisation of a population of particles; prediction of the dynamics by the balance equation.
1: Mechanics and thermodynamics of interfaces (15 h) Surface and interfacial tension, Young-Laplace equation, capillary rise, contact angle and Young's equation; surface tension and stress in solids; Kelvin equation and effect of interfacial curvature on saturation vapor pressure and solubility; dynamic effects on surface tension and contact angle. 2. Structure of the solid-liquid interface and electrical double layer (15 h) Mechanisms of surface charge generation; ion distribution and charge distribution; Z potential and electrokinetic phenomena 3: Surface forces in dispersed systems (10 h) Van der Waals forces; Electrical double layer interaction; Electrostatic stabilisation of colloidal dispersions and DLVO theory; Steric stabilisation; Structural forces; Capillary forces. 4. Evolution of a disperse system (20 h) Supersaturation as driving force for primary change processes; Nucleation: classical theory of homogeneous nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation; Growth and dissolution; Aggregation-coalescence: kinetics and mechanisms (Brownian, shear flow, turbulent, inertia).
The course is organized in lectures and practical sessions devoted to the solution of simple problems.
The course is organized in lectures and practical sessions devoted to the solution of simple problems.
Some reference books are listed below. The teachers will suggest the proper bibliography. H.J. Butt, K. Graf, M. Kappl, Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces, Wiley-VCH. J.C. Berg, An Introduction to Interfaces and Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience, World Scientific. P.C. Hiemenz, R. Rajagopalan, Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, CRC Press. J.W. Mullin, Crystallization, Butterworth.
Handouts for some aspects of the course are available on the portal. The suggested textbook for the remaining part of the program is J.C. Berg, An Introduction to Interfaces and Colloids: The Bridge to Nanoscience, World Scientific. Other suggested references: H.J. Butt, K. Graf, M. Kappl, Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces, Wiley-VCH. P.C. Hiemenz, R. Rajagopalan, Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, CRC Press. J.W. Mullin, Crystallization, Butterworth.
ModalitÓ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa;
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;
The exam is aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of the subjects listed in the course syllabus and the ability to apply the theory and related calculation methods to practical applications. The written part of the test lasts approximately two hours. It contains short theoretical questions, to ascertain the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject, and simple numerical problems to verify the ability to quantitatively predict the response of a system. No notes, handouts or books may be kept or consulted during the test. The result of the exam is communicated on the teaching portal, together with the date on which the students can view the test and give the optional oral exam. After the written test, the exam can be concluded (in this case the maximum grade is 27/30) or it can be continued with an additional oral exam, which aims at evaluating in depth the comprehension of the subject and the ability to apply the theoretical results.
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilitÓ o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'UnitÓ Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione pi¨ idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam;
The exam is aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of the subjects listed in the course syllabus and the ability to apply the theory and related calculation methods to practical applications. The written part of the test lasts approximately two hours. It contains short theoretical questions, to ascertain the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject, and simple numerical problems to verify the ability to quantitatively predict the response of a system. No notes, handouts or books may be kept or consulted during the test. The result of the exam is communicated on the teaching portal, together with the date on which the students can view the test and give the optional oral exam. After the written test, the exam can be concluded (in this case the maximum grade is 27/30) or it can be continued with an additional oral exam, which aims at evaluating in depth the comprehension of the subject and the ability to apply the theoretical results.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
ModalitÓ di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
The exam is aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of the subjects listed in the course syllabus and the ability to apply the theory and related calculation methods to practical applications. The written part of the test lasts approximately two hours. It contains short theoretical questions, to ascertain the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject, and simple numerical problems to verify the ability to quantitatively predict the response of a system. No notes, handouts or books may be kept or consulted during the test. The result of the exam is communicated on the teaching portal, together with the date on which the students can view the test and give the optional oral exam. After the written test, the exam can be concluded (in this case the maximum grade is 27/30) or it can be continued with an additional oral exam, which aims at evaluating in depth the comprehension of the subject and the ability to apply the theoretical results.
Exam: Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
The exam is aimed at ascertaining the knowledge of the subjects listed in the course syllabus and the ability to apply the theory and related calculation methods to practical applications. The written part of the test lasts approximately two hours. It contains short theoretical questions, to ascertain the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject, and simple numerical problems to verify the ability to quantitatively predict the response of a system. No notes, handouts or books may be kept or consulted during the test. The result of the exam is communicated on the teaching portal, together with the date on which the students can view the test and give the optional oral exam. After the written test, the exam can be concluded (in this case the maximum grade is 27/30) or it can be continued with an additional oral exam, which aims at evaluating in depth the comprehension of the subject and the ability to apply the theoretical results.
ModalitÓ di esame: Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
The examination consists of a 1.5-hour written test (taken in classroom or remotely) followed by an optional oral test (also either in classroom or remotely). Rules and criteria are fully similar to those of the online exam.
Exam: Written test; Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
The examination consists of a 1.5-hour written test (taken in classroom or remotely) followed by an optional oral test (also either in classroom or remotely). Rules and criteria are fully similar to those of the online exam.
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