Servizi per la didattica
PORTALE DELLA DIDATTICA

Motor vehicle design

04LNLLI, 04LNLLN

A.A. 2021/22

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Dell'Autoveicolo (Automotive Engineering) - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Dell'Autoveicolo - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Lezioni 54
Esercitazioni in aula 12
Esercitazioni in laboratorio 14
Tutoraggio 15
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Tonoli Andrea Professore Ordinario ING-IND/14 54 6 0 0 5
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/14 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria meccanica
2021/22
The module aims at providing the basic engineering knowledge for the main vehicle subsystems and how they influence the vehicle performances. Tyres and wheels, suspension, brake and steering systems are analysed to understand their functions, the most common structure and construction, and how to model their behaviour. The module also has the goal of giving the students the instruments to compute vehicle performance in terms of speed, acceleration fuel consumption and handling.
A vehicle is a complex system whose behavior is the result of the interaction between its components like wheels, powertrain, chassis, suspensions, commands. Understanding how the different subsystems influence the behaviour in terms of fuel consumption, performance, and handling is essential for an automotive engineer. Even if the task of the automotive engineer can be focused on a specific aspect or a part, the understanding of the system level effects is essential to optimise the design. The aim of the course is to provide the system level knowledge of the the vehicle behaviour. Components such as tyres and wheels, suspensions, brake and steering systems are analysed to understand their functions, their structure and construction, and how to model their behaviour. The knowledge of the subsystem components allows then to compute vehicle performance in terms of speed, acceleration fuel consumption, stability and handling.
The student is expected to learn the functionality, and the main characteristics of the vehicle subsystems such as tyres, brakes, suspensions, steering, powertrain (conventional, hybrid, electric). Ability to analyse and simulate the main performances of a motor vehicle in straight running and in handling, stability, fuel consumption.
At the end of the course the student will be able to: - Analyse and understand the tire construction, longitudinal, lateral and combined behavior, rolling resistance. - Understand the main conventional, hybrid and electric powertrain architectures - Know the characteristics in terms of torque capability and efficiency of the internal combustion engine and electric motors. - Analyse by means of models the vehicle longitudinal performances in terms of max speed, max road grade, max acceleration, time to reach a given speed. - Determine the most suitable transmission ratios. - Evaluate the fuel consumption for a given driving cycle. - Analyse and understand the brake system architecture and components. - Evaluate the front-rear brake split and brake torque requirements. - Model and predict the vertical dynamic behavior of the suspensions by means of simplified approaches such as the quarter car model. - Know the construction types and characteristics of suspension shock absorbers. - Analyse and understand the steering system kinematics and components - Analyse and understand suspension system elasto-kinematics and construction - Model and predict the vehicle performances during steady state cornering. - Understand under and over-steering behavior and the parameters that affect the vehicle stability.
Prerequisite for understanding the contents of this module are: Technical drawing, Mathematical analysis I e II, Physics, Geometry, Applied Mechanics. Additionally, Automotive evolution is suggested to gain a broader insight in the topic.
Prerequisite for understanding the contents of this module are: - understanding technical drawings (from Engineering drawing), - knowledge of kinematic system analysis (from Applied Mechanics) - knowledge of equilibrium analysis in quasi static and dynamic conditions (from Applied Mechanics) - knowledge of vibration analysis (from Applied Mechanics) - knowledge of dynamics of lumped parameter mechanical systems (from Applied Mechanics) - knowledge of structural analysis (from Fundamentals of strength of materials)
1. Introduction: aims and contents of the module, suggested textbooks and exam procedure. 2. Reference frames for the vehicle and the tires. 3. Forces and moments acting on a vehicle, tire-road contact forces, aerodynamic forces and moments 4. Longitudinal performance of the vehicle, distribution of ground loads and load transfer, power required for motion, available power, choice of the gear ratios, maximum performance (speed, acceleration, gradeability); fuel consumption, braking and distribution of the braking power on the wheels. 5. Lateral performance of the vehicle. Kinematic steering and basic handling models. Vehicle lateral stability. Under and oversteering behaviour, influence of the cross wind. 6. Vehicle subsystems. Functional analysis and construction details of the most common vehicle subsystems such as: -suspensions and their elasto-kinematic behaviour. Dampers and shock absorbers. -steering system and its kinematic behaviour. -braking system, brake types, brake circuit, power brake, system level understanding of ABS, and ESP systems.
1. Introduction: aims and contents of the module, suggested textbooks and exam procedure. 2. Forces and moments acting on a vehicle, tire-road contact forces, aerodynamic forces and moments (1CFU) 3. Longitudinal performance of the vehicle, distribution of ground loads and load transfer, power required for motion, available power, choice of the gear ratios, maximum performance (speed, acceleration, gradeability); fuel consumption. (1CFU) 4. Braking and distribution of the braking power on the wheels; braking system, brake types, brake circuit, power brake, ABS, and ESP systems (1CFU). 5. Vertical dynamics, quarter car model response and response indexes such as comfort index and road holding. Dampers configurations and characteristics. (1CFU) 6. Suspension kinematics. Instant centres, roll centre, camber gain, anti-dive, anti-squat features, force distribution. (1CFU) 7. Suspension configurations: Double wishbones, McPherson, multi link, trailing and semi-trailing arm, twisted beam axle, rigid axle suspensions. (1CFU) 8. Lateral performance of the vehicle. Kinematic steering and basic handling models. Vehicle lateral stability. Under and oversteering behaviour, influence of the cross wind (2CFU).
The course is strictly integrated with student projects that deal with the design and construction of vehicle prototypes such as team Squadra Corse that each year designs and built a single seater electric car to participate to the European Formula Student events. Integrated means that: - the course gives an important background to the team members - the data and design material produced by the team is used as part of the examples during the lessons to illustrate the course topics.
The course is strictly integrated with student projects that deal with the design and construction of vehicle prototypes such as team Squadra Corse that each year designs and built a single seater electric car to participate to the European Formula Student events. Integrated means that: - the course gives an important background to the team members - the data and design material produced by the team is used as part of the examples during the lessons to illustrate the course topics.
The course is organised as follows Lessons in classroom: 54 hours Exercises: The exercises are organised in 3 projects about the following topics: tire behaviour, longitudinal dynamics, brake split analysis, suspension kinematics. The projects are carried on in teams of typically 3-4 students each. All teams attend 12 hours in classroom to have a general explanation and then 14 hours in LAIB to perform the numerical analyses required by the four projects.
The course is organised as follows Lessons in classroom: 54 hours Exercises: 26 hours The exercises are organised in 3 projects about the following topics: tire behaviour, longitudinal dynamics, brake split analysis, suspension kinematics. The projects are carried on in teams of typically 3-4 students each. All teams attend 12 hours in classroom to have a general explanation and then 14 hours in LAIB to perform the numerical analyses required by the four projects. The exercise work will be documented by the students by means of one report that will be evaluated and contribute to the final score. In a.y. 2021/22 the lessons and exercises will be held in presence. Virtual classroom will be made available at the same time, video-recorded, and made available on Portale della Didattica.
The recommended reference text is: G. Genta, L. Morello, The automotive Chassis, Springer, 2008 Useful sources for further closer examinations: Milliken W. F., Milliken D. L., Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, SAE International. Genta G., Motor vehicle mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 2004 Reimpell J., Stoll H., Betzler J.; The Automotive Chassis, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001 Naunheimer, H., Bertsche, B., Ryborz, J., Novak, W.; Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.
The documentation for preparing the exam will be made available by means of the teaching portal in the form of presentations. The same presentations will be the base for the explanation during the lessons. Useful sources for additional insight can be found in the following books: G. Genta, L. Morello, The automotive Chassis, Springer, 2008 Milliken W. F., Milliken D. L., Race Car Vehicle Dynamics, SAE International. Genta G., Motor vehicle mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore, 2004 Reimpell J., Stoll H., Betzler J.; The Automotive Chassis, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001 Naunheimer, H., Bertsche, B., Ryborz, J., Novak, W.; Automotive Transmissions, Springer, 2011.
Modalità di esame: Test informatizzato in laboratorio; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Exam: Computer lab-based test; Group project;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Computer lab-based test; Group project;
The exam requires the student to know the following topics - Tire construction, longitudinal, lateral and combined behavior, rolling resistance. - Powertrain architectures - Brake system architecture and components - Steering system kinematics and components - Suspension system kinematics and construction - Dampers characteristics and construction - Model and predict the vehicle performances and fuel consumption due to factors such as mass distribution, tire behavior, powertrain characteristics. - Decide the most suitable transmission ratios. - Determine the front-rear brake split and torque requirements of the brake system. - Model and predict the vertical dynamic behavior of the suspensions by means of simplified approaches such as the quarter car model. - Model and predict the vehicle performances during steady state cornering. Understand under and over-steering behavior and the parameters that affect the vehicle stability. Exam rules and procedure Written part: written exam on the Exam Platform and Respondus interface performed in LAIB, including 30 multiple choice questions and 8 numerical exercises. Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the exercise lessons. The time to complete the written exam is 2 hours. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator, pen and paper or the calculator available in Respondus interface. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks is not allowed. The exercise reports are compulsory. The reports are discussed orally with the team and evaluated with up to 3 marks. The discussion can take place at before or during the exam session. The evaluation is based on the completeness and quality of the report and the critical knowledge of its contents and the adopted methodologies. Oral: Optional oral examinations is possible just for scores of the written exam higher or equal to 25/30 or in cases left to the teacher's decision, such as an unclear result of the written. The oral examination consists in a number of at least three questions covering the course program for a further assessment of the expected learning outcomes. The student will be asked to answer giving priority to quantitative arguments, graphical representations, and analytical reasoning. Scoring: The total exam score is composed by the evaluation of the written exam, the exercise reports and an optional oral as follows Written exam The written exam is composed of multiple choice questions, numerical exercises, and exercise reports 30 m.c.questions Correct answer: + 1 point No answer: 0 points Wrong answer: - 1/2 points 8 numerical exercises Correct answer: +2 points No or wrong answer: 0 points The exercise reports prepared during the semester are evaluated with a score from 0 to 3 points that are added to the score of the multiple-choice questions and the numerical exercises (after rescaling). The exercise reports have to be uploaded in pdf form in the “elaborati” section of the Portale della Didattica by the date of the exam. Score of written exam=(score of multiple choice + score of numerical exercise)*32/46 + score of exercise reports. The optional oral exam can lead to increase or to reduce the score of the written exam. The exam is overcome successfully for scores higher than 18/30. The scores of the written exam are uploaded on Portale della Didattica within one week from the written exam.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo; Elaborato progettuale in gruppo;
Learning outcomes
Exam: Optional oral exam; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform; Group project;
The exam requires the student to know the following topics - Tire construction, longitudinal, lateral and combined behavior, rolling resistance. - Powertrain architectures - Brake system architecture and components - Steering system kinematics and components - Suspension system kinematics and construction - Dampers characteristics and construction - Model and predict the vehicle performances and fuel consumption due to factors such as mass distribution, tire behavior, powertrain characteristics. - Decide the most suitable transmission ratios. - Determine the front-rear brake split and torque requirements of the brake system. - Model and predict the vertical dynamic behavior of the suspensions by means of simplified approaches such as the quarter car model. - Model and predict the vehicle performances during steady state cornering. Understand under and over-steering behavior and the parameters that affect the vehicle stability. Exam rules and procedure The Motor Vehicle Design exam consists of an online written based on the Exam Platform and Respondus interface, it includes 30 multiple choice questions and 8 numerical exercises. Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the exercise lessons. The time to complete the written exam is 2 hours. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator, pen and paper or the calculator available in Respondus interface. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks is not allowed. The exercise reports are compulsory. The reports are discussed orally (in remote or in presence) with the team and evaluated with up to 3 marks. The discussion can take place at before or during the exam session. The evaluation is based on the completeness and quality of the report and the critical knowledge of its contents and the adopted methodologies. Oral examination is possible just for scores of the written exam higher or equal to 25/30 or in cases left to the teacher's decision, such as an unclear result of the written. The oral examination (in remote) consists in a number of at least three questions covering the course program for a further assessment of the expected learning outcomes. The student will be asked to answer giving priority to quantitative arguments, graphical representations, and analytical reasoning. Scoring: The total exam score is composed by the evaluation of the written exam, the exercise reports and an optional oral as follows Written exam The written exam is composed of multiple choice questions, numerical exercises, and exercise reports 30 m.c.questions Correct answer: + 1 point No answer: 0 points Wrong answer: - 1/2 points 8 numerical exercises Correct answer: +2 points No or wrong answer: 0 points The exercise reports prepared during the semester are evaluated with a score from 0 to 3 points that are added to the score of the multiple-choice questions and the numerical exercises (after rescaling). The exercise reports have to be uploaded in pdf form in the “elaborati” section of the Portale della Didattica by the date of the exam. Score of written exam=(score of multiple choice + score of numerical exercise)*32/46 + score of exercise reports. The optional oral exam can lead to increase or to reduce the score of the written exam. The exam is overcome successfully for scores higher than 18/30. The scores of the written exam are uploaded on Portale della Didattica within one week from the written exam.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale facoltativa; Elaborato scritto individuale; Prova scritta tramite PC con l'utilizzo della piattaforma di ateneo;
Expected learning outcomes. The aim of the course is to provide the basic engineering knowledge for the main vehicle subsystems and how they influence the vehicle performances. This requires the student to know the main characteristics of the following vehicle subsystems: - Tire construction, longitudinal, lateral and combined behavior, rolling resistance. - Powertrain architecture and main performance and fuel consumption characteristics - Brake system architecture and components - Steering system kinematics and components - Suspension system elasto-kinematics and construction The course has also the goal of giving the students the instruments to compute vehicle performance in terms of speed, acceleration fuel consumption and handling. This requires the student the capability to: - Model and predict the vehicle performances and fuel consumption due to factors such as mass distribution, tire behavior, powertrain characteristics. - Decide the most suitable transmission ratios. - Determine the front-rear brake split and torque requirements of the brake system. - Model and predict the vertical dynamic behavior of the suspensions by means of simplified approaches such as the quarter car model. - Model and predict the vehicle performances during steady state cornering. Understand under and over-steering behavior and the parameters that affect the vehicle stability. Exam rules and procedure The Motor Vehicle Design exam consists of 30 multiple choice questions and 8 numerical exercises. Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the exercise lessons. The time to complete the exam is 2 hours. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator, pen and paper or the calculator available in Respondus interface. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks is not allowed. Scoring: The total exam score is composed by the evaluation of the written exam, the exercise reports and an optional oral as follows Written exam The written exam is composed of multiple choice questions, numerical exercises, and exercise reports 30 m.c.questions Correct answer: + 1 point No answer: 0 points Wrong answer: - 1/2 points 8 numerical exercises Correct answer: +2 points No or wrong answer: 0 points The total score of the multiple-choice questions and the numerical exercises is rescaled linearly to 32/30. The four exercise reports prepared during the semester are evaluated with a score from 0 to 3 points that are added to the score of the multiple-choice questions and the numerical exercises (after rescaling). The exercise reports have to be uploaded in pdf form on the “elaborati” section of the Portale della Didattica at least one week before the written exam. Score of written exam=(score of multiple choice + score of numerical exercise)*32/46 + score of exercise reports. The exam is overcome successfully for scores higher than 18/30. The scores are uploaded on Portale della Didattica within a week from the written exam.
Exam: Optional oral exam; Individual essay; Computer-based written test using the PoliTo platform;
The exam requires the student to know the following topics - Tire construction, longitudinal, lateral and combined behavior, rolling resistance. - Powertrain architectures - Brake system architecture and components - Steering system kinematics and components - Suspension system kinematics and construction - Dampers characteristics and construction - Model and predict the vehicle performances and fuel consumption due to factors such as mass distribution, tire behavior, powertrain characteristics. - Decide the most suitable transmission ratios. - Determine the front-rear brake split and torque requirements of the brake system. - Model and predict the vertical dynamic behavior of the suspensions by means of simplified approaches such as the quarter car model. - Model and predict the vehicle performances during steady state cornering. Understand under and over-steering behavior and the parameters that affect the vehicle stability. Exam rules and procedure The Motor Vehicle Design exam consists of an online written based on the Exam Platform and Respondus interface, it includes 30 multiple choice questions and 8 numerical exercises. Each multiple-choice question has just one correct answer. The numerical exercises require to solve a numerical problem similar to those shown during the exercise lessons. The time to complete the written exam is 2 hours. During the exam it is possible to use just a simple scientific calculator, pen and paper or the calculator available in Respondus interface. Exchange information among students is not permitted by any means. Use of multimedia devices such as cell phone, tablet, pc, smart watch is not allowed. Use of any written material such as notes, textbooks is not allowed. The exercise reports are compulsory. The reports are discussed orally (in remote or in presence) with the team and evaluated with up to 3 marks. The discussion can take place at before or during the exam session. The evaluation is based on the completeness and quality of the report and the critical knowledge of its contents and the adopted methodologies. Oral examination is possible just for scores of the written exam higher or equal to 25/30 or in cases left to the teacher's decision, such as an unclear result of the written. The oral examination (in presence or in remote) consists in a number of at least three questions covering the course program for a further assessment of the expected learning outcomes. The student will be asked to answer giving priority to quantitative arguments, graphical representations, and analytical reasoning. Scoring: The total exam score is composed by the evaluation of the written exam, the exercise reports and an optional oral as follows Written exam The written exam is composed of multiple choice questions, numerical exercises, and exercise reports 30 m.c.questions Correct answer: + 1 point No answer: 0 points Wrong answer: - 1/2 points 8 numerical exercises Correct answer: +2 points No or wrong answer: 0 points The exercise reports prepared during the semester are evaluated with a score from 0 to 3 points that are added to the score of the multiple-choice questions and the numerical exercises (after rescaling). The exercise reports have to be uploaded in pdf form in the “elaborati” section of the Portale della Didattica by the date of the exam. Score of written exam=(score of multiple choice + score of numerical exercise)*32/46 + score of exercise reports. The optional oral exam can lead to increase or to reduce the score of the written exam. The exam is overcome successfully for scores higher than 18/30. The scores of the written exam are uploaded on Portale della Didattica within one week from the written exam.
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