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Smart electricity systems

04RUKNC

A.A. 2023/24

Course Language

Inglese

Course degree

Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Ingegneria Elettrica - Torino

Course structure
Teaching Hours
Teachers
Teacher Status SSD h.Les h.Ex h.Lab h.Tut Years teaching
Teaching assistant
Espandi

Context
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/33
ING-INF/03
6
2
B - Caratterizzanti
C - Affini o integrative
Ingegneria elettrica
Attività formative affini o integrative
2022/23
The course belongs to the “e-mobility and smart grids” track and presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, under the on-going transition towards growing utilisation of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. This requires a systematic view on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important “smart functions” in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc. The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations. Part of the course provides a general overview of the main communication technologies that are needed to support smart grids. This part of the course starts with an introduction to communication networks: elements, architectures and functions. Then, the communication needs of various segments of an electrical network are presented and possible communication technologies that can satisfy the requirements are discussed with their pros and cons. The protocol IEC 61850 for substation automation is then described and discussed. All the aspects included in the course are integrated in order to enhance the possibility of understanding the innovation in progress in the power and energy area, and the relations of the electrical sector with other energy and communication systems. This kind of knowledge opens wide possibilities of employment in energy companies, energy service providers, industries, public administrations, universities and research centres.
The course belongs to the “e-mobility and smart grids” track and presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, under the on-going transition towards growing utilisation of electricity in many applications. The concept of “smartness” in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other energy systems for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability. This requires a systematic view on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids). A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important smart functions in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., network operators, prosumers, aggregators, etc. The impact of the distributed energy resources in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations. Part of the course provides a general overview of the main communication technologies that are needed to support smart grids. This part of the course starts with an introduction to communication networks: elements, architectures and functions. Then, the communication needs of various segments of an electrical network are presented and possible communication technologies that can satisfy the requirements are discussed with their pros and cons. The protocol IEC 61850 for substation automation is then described and discussed. All the aspects included in the course are integrated to enhance the possibility of understanding the innovation in progress in the power and energy area, and the relations of the electrical sector with other energy and communication systems. This kind of knowledge opens wide possibilities of employment in energy companies, energy service providers, industries, public administrations, universities, and research centres.
The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems, including communication technologies in support to these innovative systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include the ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications, and the ability to interpret and tackle the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.
The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems, including communication technologies in support to these innovative systems. The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include the ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications, and the ability to interpret and tackle the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.
The preliminary knowledge needed for this course include matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).
The preliminary knowledge needed for this course include matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).
PART 1 (30 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER) Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). Black box analysis. The Energy Hub matrix model. Impact of the combined production on smart grids. The role of the environment. Local and global emissions. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. Probabilistic models of generations and loads. Adequacy of the generation to cover the demand. Adequacy indicators. Distributed energy resources (DER). Limits to the DER diffusion. Island operation of a portion of the distribution network. Microgrids. Storage applications in the smart grid area. Power vs. energy. Drivers to storage development. Parameters of the storage systems. Objectives of the use of storage in the electrical systems. Storage in the Energy Hub model. Standards on storage. Connection schemes. Power-to-X. Storage systems for primary and secondary frequency regulation. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Active and passive users. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. Notes on the Standards CEI 0-16 and CEI 0-21. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems. Capability limits of the generators with transformer-based or converter-based interfaces. Capability curves with storage. Voltage control with distributed generation. Objective function and constraints for voltage control. Fault ride-through capability curves and limits for low voltage and medium voltage systems. Notes on the protection system with voltage and frequency relays. Electrical load representations. Load duration curves. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles. Demand Side Management principles. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time. Demand response (DR). Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Costs and benefits for DR. DR baseline. DR performance metrics. Notes on demand flexibility and on the new generation of smart meters. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Framework for studying the grid integration of electric vehicles. Operation and planning aspects. Optimization of the smart grid operation with storage systems and EVs. PART 2 (20 hours): Introduction to general concepts of communication networks. Types of channels and resource sharing. Layered architectures and protocols. Internet protocol stack. Communication technologies in support to smart grids. Communication network in the substation. IEC 61850: naming and formats. Ethernet. Goose. TCP/IP protocol stack for client-server communications. PART 3 (30 hours): This part first introduces the emerging scenarios of smart electricity architectures both in the transmission and distribution grids. The discussion will be more focused on the new paradigms and accompanied key technologies into the power systems that enable their smartness, such as the advanced metering infrastructures, smart functions, big data applications, block chain technologies, and the prosumer communities. In addition to those key enablers, the smart grid architecture model (SGAM) will be discussed for a basic understanding of how to design a smart grid with involved aspects and technologies and the interoperability with other systems. A self-sustainable prosumer community will be used as a possible scenario to introduce the regulation design and possible controls over a large number of autonomous prosumers by nudging their behaviors with interdisciplinary perspectives.
PART 1 (30 hours): Representation of the energy loads. Load duration curves. Deterministic and probabilistic models of generations and loads. Macro-categories of users. Active and reactive power profiles for electrical loads. Adequacy of the generation and transmission systems. Adequacy of the generation system. Adequacy of the generation and transmission system. Distributed energy resources (DER). Combined production (cogeneration and multi-generation). The Energy Hub model: matrix representations. Multi-energy system modelling and profitability analysis for providing grid services. Concepts of flexibility. Flexibility in multi-energy systems. The role of the environment. Emission factor model. Emission balances. Indices of emission reduction. General concepts and aspects of the DER diffusion. Distributed Generation (DG) and grid connection. Islands and microgrids. Evolution of rulemaking and standards. Capability limits of the generators. Grid connection of DG. Voltage-related aspects. Frequency-related aspects. Protection against DG disconnection. Demand Side Management. Demand response (DR). DR baselines and performance. Incentive-based and price-based DR programmes. Distributed storage (DS). Electrical storage systems. Main parameters and models. Standards on storage. Electrical storage for power and energy applications in the energy hub model. Main storage technologies for different objectives. Grid integration of electric vehicles: Vehicle to Grid and Grid to Vehicle. Distribution System Analysis. Matrix-based distribution network representation. Power flow calculations. Uncertainty in DER applications. PART 2 (20 hours): Introduction to general concepts of communication networks. Types of channels and resource sharing. Layered architectures and protocols. Internet protocol stack. Communication technologies in support to smart grids. Communication network in the substation. IEC 61850: naming and formats. Ethernet. Goose. TCP/IP protocol stack for client-server communications. PART 3 (30 hours): This part first introduces the emerging scenarios of smart electricity architectures both in the transmission and distribution grids. The discussion will be more focused on the new paradigms and accompanied key technologies into the power systems that enable their smartness, such as the advanced metering infrastructures, smart functions, big data applications, block chain technologies, and the prosumer communities. In addition to those key enablers, the smart grid architecture model (SGAM) will be discussed for a basic understanding of how to design a smart grid with involved aspects and technologies and the interoperability with other systems. A self-sustainable prosumer community will be used as a possible scenario to introduce the regulation design and possible controls over a large number of autonomous prosumers by nudging their behaviors with interdisciplinary perspectives. Digitalization technologies, such as blockchain will be discussed to enable the automatic negotiations process for prosumers for their bilateral trading for energy. Besides the theoretic discussions, practical works will be scheduled to help the understanding of the emerging features in the smart electricity systems and their applications as well.
The student may withdraw from the exam before starting the second question. If the exam is continued, the Commission will provide the indication about the passed/not passed exam at the end of the exam, with the score in case of passed exam. A positive final score cannot be refused.
The student may withdraw from the exam before starting the second question. If the exam is continued, the Commission will provide the indication about the passed/not passed exam at the end of the exam, with the score in case of passed exam. A positive final score cannot be refused.
The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples assisted by the computer, in particular concerning scenario studies on the impact of the distributed generation in the distribution system, analysis of a distributed generation mix with various scenarios of diffusion of the local generation, and integration of distributed energy resources in the distribution networks.
The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples assisted by the computer, in particular concerning power flow calculations for distribution systems, scenario studies on the impact of the distributed generation in the distribution system, analysis of a distributed generation mix with various scenarios of diffusion of the local generation, and integration of distributed energy resources in the distribution networks.
The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: - Giorgio Graditi and Marialaura Di Somma (editors), ‘Distributed Energy Resources in Local Integrated Energy Systems’, Elsevier, 2021. - Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. - D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), ‘Distributed Generation’, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.
The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal. There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course. Reference books: - Giorgio Graditi and Marialaura Di Somma (editors), ‘Distributed Energy Resources in Local Integrated Energy Systems’, Elsevier, 2021. - Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000. - D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), ‘Distributed Generation’, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.
Modalità di esame: Prova orale obbligatoria;
Exam: Compulsory oral exam;
Gli studenti e le studentesse con disabilità o con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA), oltre alla segnalazione tramite procedura informatizzata, sono invitati a comunicare anche direttamente al/la docente titolare dell'insegnamento, con un preavviso non inferiore ad una settimana dall'avvio della sessione d'esame, gli strumenti compensativi concordati con l'Unità Special Needs, al fine di permettere al/la docente la declinazione più idonea in riferimento alla specifica tipologia di esame.
Exam: Compulsory oral exam;
The exam consists of an oral colloquium. The rationale for this type of exam is that verifying the awareness reached by the students on system-related concepts requires elaborating wider (oral) responses. No course material nor communications with persons outside the Commission are allowed during the exam. The oral colloquium includes at least one question for each part of the course, with the possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The final score refers to the knowledge and ability level reached on the different topics of the course programme. The exam is passed if all the minimum objectives indicated in the section "Expected learning outcomes" are reached. Failure in reaching one or more of the minimum objectives determines the non-passed exam evaluation. If the responses given by the student are particularly effective to reach 30/30, the Commission may invite the student to respond to a further challenging question, to get the “cum laude” score in case of effective response to that question as well (otherwise the score will remain 30/30). The student may withdraw from the exam before starting the second question.
In addition to the message sent by the online system, students with disabilities or Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) are invited to directly inform the professor in charge of the course about the special arrangements for the exam that have been agreed with the Special Needs Unit. The professor has to be informed at least one week before the beginning of the examination session in order to provide students with the most suitable arrangements for each specific type of exam.
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