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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2017/18
01BHYMO
Excavation Engineering
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Environmental And Land Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Cardu Marilena ORARIO RICEVIMENTO AC ING-IND/28 64 16 0 30 6
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/28 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria ambientale e del territorio
Subject fundamentals
The course aims to provide basic knowledge on excavation techniques of rock and earth, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out the excavation works, the rules for setting the organization and performing such work in a technically correct and safe way. The topics canít often disregard the need to work in a natural material, changeable and often not so well known, so sometimes it can be described only qualitatively. The contents of the course are subject to continuous updates, depending on the requirements of different, and often changing, operating conditions, and therefore they are not crystallized into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, with the intention of stimulating topics of research and personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with the technical international language: part of the teaching material will therefore be in English.
Expected learning outcomes
The acquisition of technical skills to perform the excavation work in different configurations (open pit, underground, underwater stopes) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of machines and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The subject treated wants to stimulate research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on a detailed criticism of the context. It therefore intends to encourage the independence of opinion and the learning ability, encouraging the students in asking questions: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the discussion is fundamental.
Students will be then invited to write technical reports on the cases presented during the lectures, to take a reasoned decision, to estimate the orders of magnitude of the numerical values that the engineer has to reasonably manage in the main reference cases, to understand the international terminology.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
General chemistry, general physics, materialsí science and technology, as well as a basic knowledge of applied geology. English language is also recommended.
Contents
General principles of excavation works: definitions; objectives; mechanical properties and material behaviour; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; geometry of the stope; work phases.

PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data on explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; non electric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; firing line and blasting circuit calculations.
Open pit blasts. Bench blasts; single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts; delay firing.
Underground blasts. Tunnelling. Chargesí geometry and ignition sequence; powder factor and excavation cross-section; type of cuts; muck-pile geometry. Shafts and wells. Contour blasting.
Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly-rocks, dust and air blast).
Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; classification of hammers; underground drilling equipment.
Mucking: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater stopes.

PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Description of the commonly used machines. Hardness and toughness; toolsí material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanism of action and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in different situations.
Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems.

PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclical machines: weight, power and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket wheel excavators. Excavation and transportation equipment.
Underground excavations. General. Underwater excavation. Selection of the dredge. Cyclical and continuous equipment.

PART IV. Exploratory drilling. Introduction and overview. Core drilling. Diamond core drills; drill rods; core barrels (single, double, Wire Line). Drill units. Wire Line Rods. Flush pumps. Drill bits; reaming shells; casing shoes; casing tubes; flushing water recommendations. Casing tubes for overburden drilling; Percussion/Rotary rods; In-the-hole equipment accessories. Special operations.
Exploratory drilling for mining and/or geotechnical surveys. Sampling: general principles; core barrels (single, double, triple tube). Interpretation of survey results.
Assessment and grading criteria
Exam, written and oral, at the end of the course. In order to verify the achievement of learning objectives, it consists in different tests: in the written part is required to solve theoretical questions and exercises, without the aid of notes or books; it lasts 2.5 hours. A minimum score of 15 points (30 is the maximum) is necessary to access the oral exam, which consists of: a review of the written test; a discussion of the reports drawn up during the practical part (exercises); an oral investigation on specific problems.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18
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