|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2012/13|
Applied energy and renewable sources
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Energy Engineering - Torino
The course, offered in the first semester of the third year of the degree in Energy Engineering, aims to provide methodological tools and engineering knowledge for the analysis and evaluation of the main energy systems and industries, with particular attention to the production and the use of heat and electricity. It describes and analyzes the technological solutions, plant and system and is paid special attention to innovative solutions on rational use of primary resources and environmental compatibility.
Concerning in particular renewables, students must be able to know the principles of operation of devices and systems for converting energy supplied from renewable sources, the potential of the individual sources and the cost / benefit ratio of the same.
The course consists of lectures and exercises with computing applications and technical evaluations of different types of plants.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course students should know the main types of power plants, their structural and functional characteristics and be able to carry out the energy balances of the plant, as a whole and of the individual components.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
They will require prior knowledge of calculus, physics, chemistry, thermodynamics and heat transfer.
Here are the programs of the two parties, Energy and Renewable Energy, which will be developed in parallel.
A) GENERAL ENERGETICS
1) CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY SOURCES
2) THE ITALIAN ENERGY SYSTEM IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
2.1 Primary energy demand
2.2 Requirement of electricity
2.3 Final consumption by business segment
3) FOSSIL FUELS
3.1 The role of combustion
3.2.1 Oil refining
3.2.2 Use of petroleum products
3.3 The natural gas industry
3.3.1 The natural gas market
3.3.2 The price of natural gas
3.3.3 Use of natural gas
3.4.1 Use of coal
4.1 Characteristics of the main commercial fuels
4.2 Stoichiometry Combustion
4.2.1 Stoichiometric quantities relative to commercial fuels
4.2.2 Composition of combustion products
4.2.3 Gaseous and solid pollutants produced in the combustion
4.2.4 Analysis of combustion products
4.2.5 Control of emissions
4.2.6 Ostwald Triangle
5) HEAT GENERATORS
5.1 Classification according to the heat transfer fluid
5.2 Classification according to the fuel used
5.3 Classification according to the pressure in the combustion chamber
5.4 Classification by ranges of thermal power
5.5 Condensing boilers
5.6 Energy balance of a heat generator
5.6.1 Thermal efficiency and combustion efficiency
5.6.2 sensible heat loss to the chimney
5.6.3 latent heat loss to the chimney
5.6.4 Loss by convection and radiation (jacket loss)
5.7 Instruments and measures
5.7.1 Manometers and micromanometers
5.7.2 Measurements of volumetric flow and mass flow
5.7.3 Temperature transducers
5.7.4 Measurement of exhaust gas opacity with Bacharach pump
6) COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE GAS - STEAM
6.1 Thermodynamics and technologies
6.2 Energy and environmental benefits of cogeneration
6.3 Cogeneration technologies
6.3.1 Cogeneration with diesel engines
6.3.2 Cogeneration with steam turbines counter-pressure and bleed
6.3.3 Cogeneration with gas turbines
6.3.4 Cogeneration with combined cycle gas – steam
7) DISTRICT HEATING AND CHILLERS-HEAT PUMPS
7.1 District heating
7.2 Heating Consumption
7.3 Chillers (vapor compression) and heat pumps
7.4 Cogeneration and trigeneration
7.5 Comparison between cogeneration and heat pumps
8) OUTLINE OF FUEL CELLS
B) RENEWABLE ENERGY
1) SOLAR ENERGY
Direct, diffuse and reflected solar radiation. Availability of solar radiation on the territory.
- Description of the operating principles, performance and design characteristics of solar collectors. Calculation of solar fraction with f-chart method. Economic evaluations and energy. Outline of concentrated solar power plants (CSP).
- Photovoltaic cells, principles of operation, significant parameters and their influence on performance. Types of cells and patterns of photovoltaic systems. Assessment of yearly productivity .
2) WIND POWER
Availability of the wind resource on the Italian and European territory. Principles of operation and Betz limit. Parameters (size, number of blades and characteristic wind speed-power) of wind turbines. Power plants and wind farms, economics, environmental impact.
The geothermal resource and its availability. Operating principles and constructional features of geothermal plants. Types of systems, components and main environmental impacts of geothermal power plants.
Low enthalpy systems: ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP).
Resource: Flow duration curve, the concept of minimum vital flow (DMV). Hydraulic fall, distributed and concentrated losses and net head. Overall performance and actual power. Productivity calculation. Run-of-the-river and dam based hydroelectric plants .Pumping plants. Types and components of hydroelectric plants. Hydraulic turbines. Choice of the turbine as a function of flow rate and fall.
The resource biomass: availability on the Italian territory, application and related sectors, biofuels, solid biomass. Direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, operating principles and design characteristics of boilers and wood biomass. Notes on MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) and cogeneration technology.
Tutorials involving the analysis of the needs of electricity and heat for an industrial plant: are examined and compared, in terms of energy, different technological solutions.
Exercises on heat generators, on heat pump, on the heat exchangers present in the studied plants, etc.
Exercises on the dimensioning of installations based on renewable sources. Estimation of productivity, cost and cost-effectiveness of renewable energy sources.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
• G. Comini, G. Croce, S. Savino:Energetica generale, V Edizione, SGE Editoriali, Padova 2011
• B. Sørensen, Renewable Energy, Associated Press, 2000.
• M. Cucumo, D. Kaliakatsos, V. Martinelli, Energetica, Pitagora Editrice, Bologna 2006.
• M. Calì (Editor), Guida all’energia nella natura e nelle civiltà umane. (other authors Borchiellini R, Fracastoro G, Lanzini A, Leone P, Lucia U e Napoli R). Esculapio Editrice, 2014
• G. Toso, Fonti Rinnovabili di energia, Voll. I e II, Levrotto & Bella, 2011
• Lecture notes uploaded by the teachers.
Assessment and grading criteria
Written exam with numerical exercises and theoretical questions.
The aim is the Assessment of the basic concepts related to the use of different sources of energy, the system solutions in their economic and technical aspects, and the interaction with the environment related to the use of energy.
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2016/17