|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2017/18|
Green chemical processing and materials
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Design And Visual Communication - Torino
As defined in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) established by the United Nations in 1983, "Sustainable development (sustainability) responds to the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept of sustainable development has its limitations; not absolute limits, but imposed in the use of environmental resources by the present state of technological and social organization and the capacity of the biosphere to absorb the effects of human activities. A process in which the use of resources, the direction of investments, the trajectory of technological progress and institutional changes all contribute to increasing the possibilities for responding to the needs of humanity; not only for today but also for the future, giving priority to the needs of the poor of the world."
Chemistry, intended as the science of matter and its transformations, plays a central role in this passage and acts as a bridge between physics, the science of materials and human sciences. The course introduces the designer to a more aware level of sensitisation of environmental problems and of sustainability of the productive processes and the materials implied in these, proposing a scientific and technological reference cultural background from which the designer can infer versatile tools to approach the environmental problem.
What is proposed here is a course organised as a culture course on the matter, in its various divisions (atoms, molecules, extended phases) and aimed at creating a link between the microscopic and macroscopic worlds to supply the bases for a comprehension of the matter itself and of the phenomena on which technologies and processes are based, in a viewpoint of global sustainability.
It lasts for six months and is held in the 1st year, 1st teaching period.
Expected learning outcomes
Awareness of the problems of (eco)sustainability of the main processes of production/transformation of the materials used. Ability to dialogue with other technical-scientific cultures for the selection of processes/products that are more suitable in view of a design able to unite creativity, innovation and reduction of environmental impact.
The skills that we intend to provide also aim at transmitting understanding of the design process to the scale of the product. We highlight the ability that the student must acquire to face up to a wide range of problems, of design and process, aimed at defining a good, correct and expressive product, through the knowledge and skills listed here below:
- Knowledge of the field of materials;
- Ability to make decisions in the awareness of one’s own role and responsibilities;
- Ability to collect, analyse and interpret information from the context elaborating them independently;
- Ability to manage time and resources;
- Ability to reflect on the ethical, social and cultural themes linked to them;
- Ability to interact with the various cultures, disciplinary areas and professionalisms that design connects;
- Ability to work in mono- and multi-disciplinary teams;
- Ability to present one’s work in public in Italian and English;
- Opening to innovation, interest for the multidisciplinarity and for the continual updating of one’s own knowledge.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basic knowledge of mathematics and physics.
INTRODUCTORY PART TO BASIC CHEMISTRY:
Systems, environment, universe, matter and energy, transformations, elements and composites, homogeneous and heterogeneous mixes. Concept of phase, separation methods. Transformations from energy.
Ponderal laws on chemistry, atomic weight. Methods of representation of the molecular structures. The mass of formula units, isotopes. Chemical transformations. The conservation of mass. Atoms. Atomic structure. The planetary atom model. Bohr’s atom. The undulatory nature of particles. The uncertainty principle, the undulatory description of the electron in the atom, electronic density and the form of orbitals. The three main quantic numbers. The spin of the electron and the fourth quantic number.
The exclusion principle (W.Pauli). The electronic configurations of the elements. Hund’s rule. The electronic configurations of ions. Electronic structure and periods/groups periodic table, the periodic character of atomic properties.
Atomic ray, ionic ray, potential of ionisation and metallic character; electronic affinity. Characteristics and properties of metals, non-metals and metalloids.
The chemical bonds: pure and polar covalent, electronegativity; ionic bond. Polarity of bond and dipolar moments, lengths and corners of bond. Binary ionic composites. Energy of bond and Enthalpy
Model of localised electrons, structures of Lewis, rule of octet and exceptions (dative bond), resonance (hybrids). Intermolecular forces, dipolar-dipolar force, hydrogen bond, London dispersion forces. The properties of gases, the kinetic model, pressure, density.
Laws of gases: Boyle’s law (isotherm), Charles’ law (isobar), isochore law, Avogradro’s principle.
Properties of ideal gases. Absolute temperature. The distribution of Maxwell in molecular speeds.
Energy, heat and enthalpy, transfer of energy under the form of heat, eso and endothermic processes.
Thermal ability and specific heat the thermal report: enthalpy. Vapourisation fusion and sublimation the curves of heating
Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibriums. The principle of Le Chatelier. The movement of equilibrium.
Effects of variation of concentration, pressure and temperature
The dissociation of water. Definition of pH and pOH. Acids and weak bases.
Solubility and processes of solubility. Constant of solubility.
• Introduction to sustainability:
- definition of sustainability
- biotechnological industry
- products& technologies
- design of processes and reactions
• The concept of eco design
• An example of application: Biofuels
MATERIALS AND THEIR DISPOSAL
• Introduction to environmental impact of some materials
• Bioplastics: introduction to the knowledge of plastics
• Bioplastics: definition and methods of recycling of plastic materials
• Electrical appliances
• Inert waste from demolition and construction
• The car and disposal of individual components
• Sustainability in the food industry sector
• Metals: their impact on the environment and the legislative aspects
• A controversial type of energy: nuclear
The activities that make up the Course are divided into lessons and classroom exercises. Five CFU will be given as lessons and 1 CFU for the exercises
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Summary of the topics dealt with, copies of the powerpoint slides used during the lessons and other documents are available on the teaching portal.
Some reference texts:
- Malucelli G., Penazzi N., Elementi di Chimica per l'Ingegneria, Ed. Levrotto&Bella, Turin 2006
- Mazza D., Fondamenti di Chimica, Ed. Esculapio, Bologna 2009
- Manotti A.M., Tiripicchio A., Fondamenti di Chimica, Ed. Ambrosiana, Milan 2006
- Delmastro A., Mazza D., Ronchetti S., Quiz di Chimica risolti e commentati, Ed. Esculapio, Bologna 2009
- Calligaro L., Mantovani A., Fondamenti di Chimica per l'Ingegneria, Ed. Libreria Cortina Padua 2001
- Schiavello M., Palmisano L., Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES, Naples 2006
Texts for consultation and further study
- Atkins P., Jones L., Chimica Generale, Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna 2005
- Silvestroni P., Fondamenti di Chimica, Ed. Masson, Milan 1996
Other reading will be recommended during the course and added to the teaching portal.
Assessment and grading criteria
Course attendance is a condition to be able to positively develop the activities included. The level of learning will be monitored in an ongoing way; the ongoing results will go towards the final judgement (expressed with a single grade), based on the presentation and discussion of a written and graphic exam and an interview.
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2016/17