Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2012/13
Biomedical Transport Phenomena/Biomechanics
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Biomedical Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Bignardi Cristina ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 ING-IND/34 45 0 15 0 11
Ciardelli Gianluca ORARIO RICEVIMENTO PO ING-IND/34 50 10 0 0 8
SSD CFU Activities Area context
B - Caratterizzanti
B - Caratterizzanti
Ingegneria biomedica
Ingegneria biomedica
Subject fundamentals
The course consists of two modules.

Chemical Bioengineering
The course is held in the 3rd year of the Bachelor degree in Biomedical Engineering with the final aim of providing students with the required knowledge of the physico-chemical fundamentals which regulate biological systems, with special attention to the molecular design of life, energy transformation and conservation, biomolecule synthesis and their recent application in clinical analysis and diagnostics. In addition, the course provides students with useful knowledge for the design of materials and devices for application in the biomedical field at the nano-, micro- and macro-scale.

Mechanical Bioengineering
The course aims at providing students with an overview of the application fields of biomechanics and to give them the basic knowledge for the design of biomechanical systems.
The student, at the end of the course, will have skills and abilities that enable him to work in the ambit of the health care structures, as regards in particular the selection and use of joint prostheses and of bone fractures synthesis devices, and in the ambit of biomedical industries involved in mechanical design and manufacture of prostheses and aids.
Expected learning outcomes
Expected learning outcomes

Chemical Bioengineering
At the end of the course, the student will have acquired the basic knowledge of the main phenomena which regulate living system "functionality", in order to handle the molecular concepts which imply them, thus reaching the solid physico-chemical and biochemical background which is required to understand biomaterialsí science and technology, bio-nanosciences and bio-nanotechnology. In detail, the student will have acquired:
- Knowledge of the structure and function of organic compounds (classified according to their reactivity and functional groups), and biomolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, oligo-and polysaccharides, lipids);
- Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate evolution, genetics and biotechnology;
- Knowledge and understanding of metabolic processes (catabolism and anabolism) and their mechanism of control;
- Knowledge and understanding of the operating principles of biomolecular machines;
- Capability to apply the acquired knowledge and understanding to biomaterialsí science and technology, bio-nanosciences and bio-nanotechnologies;
- Knowledge of the fundamentals which regulate biological system functionality in order to design innovative technological solutions to be implemented in biomedical devices for application in the repair of damaged tissues/organs and pathologies treatment.

Mechanical Bioengineering
Knowledge relating to the specificity of the mechanical properties of biological materials, in particular bone.
Knowledge concerning the historical evolution of joint prostheses and upper and lower limb prostheses design.
Knowledge relating to the main areas of application of biomechanics.
Student will learn to face a mechanical problem regarding a biological system, combining knowledge acquired in the engineering ambit with those acquired in the biological ambit.
This teaching helps to develop student independent opinion concerning the selection and use in particular of joint prostheses, devices for traumatology and prosthetics for amputees.
This teaching helps to improve communication skills through the preparation of technical reports regarding the proposed laboratories.
This teaching helps to provide students with the tools required to update both in scientific and in commercial field in relation to prosthetic and orthotic devices in the field of biomechanics.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Chemical Bioengineering
Basic knowledge of (i) general and inorganic chemistry (chemical bonds, periodic system, metallic and non-metallic behaviour), (ii) chemical equilibria (definition of enthalpy, entropy, free energy of reaction, equilibrium constants, dissociation constants, acid-base equilibria, chemical potential, activity), (iii) reaction kinetics (reaction rate and reaction order, catalysis

Mechanical Bioengineering
Basic knowledge of musculoskeletal system anatomy and physiology and of the mechanical behavior of materials.
Chemical Bioengineering
- Introduction: biochemistry and the evolution of genetics, biochemical evolution
- Organic compounds and their functional groups: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes. Alcohols, alkyl halides, ethers and epoxides. Aromatic Compounds. Aldehydes and ketones. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Enolates and enamines.
- Reactions in organic chemistry: reactions of substitution, addition, elimination.
- General properties of polymers: definition, thermoplastic and thermoindurent polymers, molecular weight, thermal properties (amorphous, semicrystalline polymers)
- Protein structure and function: protein function in humans. Composition, chemical and electrical properties. Primary structure, superior levels of structuring. Protein folding and stability. Protein exploration. Structural and fibrous proteins. Relation between structure and function. Enzymes, catalytic and regulation strategies
- Structure and function of other biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids
- Membrane channels and pumps
- The synthesis of the molecules of Life: DNA: structural components of nucleic acids. DNA structure and sequence, DNA rep0lication, DNA recombination and repair. RNA: composition and structure, RNA mechanisms of transcription. The synthesis of proteins.
-Systems that produce and use energy: Metabolism: concepts, aims, signal translation pathways. Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen. Citric Acid cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation.
-The response to environmental changes: Sensor systems. The immune system (antibodies, antigens, immune response). Chemical basis of molecular motors (Myosin, actin and movement, kynesin and dynein, the movement of bacteria)
- Analysis of scientific literature

Mechanical Bioengineering
Mechanical properties of biological materials: bone, cartilage, muscle tissue.
Biomechanics of joints and their prosthetic replacement: hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, elbow.
Biomechanics of the spine and intervertebral disc prosthesis.
Orthopedic corsets.
Prosthesis for amputees of the lower and upper limb.
Biomechanics in the field of urology: interventions on the bladder, penile prostheses.
Dental implants and prostheses.
Biomechanics of impact trauma, characteristics of dummies used in automotive crash tests.
A short account of Human Factors.
Delivery modes
Chemical Bioengineering
The course is organized in a series of lectures (about 75% of the course) and practice exercises (about 25% of the course) that will be held in the classroom solving numeric problems concerning course topics. No laboratories are foreseen. Extra-curricular tutoring will be organized to elucidate studentsí doubts and solve other exercises in addition to those examined during the planned practice exercises.

Mechanical Bioengineering
They are planned teams laboratories, in part on experimental training benches and a tutorial at a LAIB on a bibliographical study, with a total commitment of about 12 hours for each student. About these laboratories it is required the preparation of a report.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Chemical Bioengineering
Books used for teaching:
J. M. Berg, J. L. Tymoczko, L Stryer Biochimica V ed. Zanichelli;
D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, Introduzione alla Biochimica di Lehninger III ed. Zanichelli;
D. Voet, J.G. Voet, C.W. Pratt, Fondamenti di Biochimica, Zanichelli

Slides and tutorials provided by the teacher and available through the website.

Further material:
"DNA Technology and Biotechnology" CD Neo/Sci.
Selected scientific papers

Mechanical Bioengineering
Notes provided by the teacher. Copies of the slides shown during the lessons.
Assessment and grading criteria
Chemical Bioengineering
The final exam will consist of a written test containing 11 questions (some of them are general, some of them multiple choice, some are numerical exercises) for a total of 33 points (a specific number of points is allocated to each question and the max. number of points per question will be written near each question and equitably split among the sub-questions, if not clearly stated). The sum of the points obtained during the tests will be approximated to the nearest integer to define the final mark. If the sum of the points is higher than 30.5, the final mark will be 30 cum laude. At the end of the exam, the solution will be made available on POLITO website to allow student auto-evaluation. Exams with a mark higher than 18 will be validated. Students can ask not to evaluate their exams within the first 24h from solution publication. NO oral exams are foreseen. Students that find significant discrepancies between the expected evaluation and the obtained final mark will have the possibility to view their exam on a specific date that will be communicated on POLITO website.

Mechanical Bioengineering
Written test with six open questions lasting two hours. The final evaluation takes into account the participation to the laboratories and the quality of report done about them.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18

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