


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2017/18  
01NFNMW Advanced process control/Environmental safety technique 

Master of sciencelevel of the Bologna process in Chemical And Sustainable Processes Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
This is a course of the 2 year (1st Academic term) of the Master Degree in Chemical Engineering.
The first part of the course is focused on the design of process control systems, with particular emphasis on nonlinear and multivariable systems. The typical control loops of single equipment and full plants are investigated, as well as the process diagrams used to describe them (PFD and P&ID). The second part of the course is devoted to the risk based design of a process and, in particular, of process control and safety systems. 
Expected learning outcomes
The goal of the course is to provide the student with the knowledge of the following issues:
 methodologies that can be used to identify a process that has to be controlled and its critical behaviour from the safety point of view;  characteristics of nonlinear systems and of the issues associated to the control of these processes;  methods that can be used to control a multivariable system using either a decentralized control system or a Model Predictive Control system,  control loops of the equipment used in industrial processes,  problems related to plantwide control,  rules that have to be followed when designing PFD and P&ID. With respect to the skills that the student has to gain, the followings can be listed:  determination of the parameters of a linear process using inline process identification;  study of the dynamics of nonlinear systems and design of simple control loops;  design a decentralized multivariable controller;  risk assessment techniques (to identify the hazards, assess the probability of occurrence of undesired events, estimate their criticalities and possible critical behavior from the safety point of view);  design the control system of equipment and full processes. With respect to the autonomy of judgment and the technical communication, at the end of the course the student has to be able to do the followings:  propose a control scheme for a process;  optimize the control and protection scheme on the base of risk assessment.  draw PFD and P&ID to describe the control system of equipment and processes. 
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The course can be followed if the student has the basic knowledge of:
 Laplace transform,  dynamics of linear systems and transfer function,  stability analysis of a linear system (root locus, Bode and Nyquist diagrams),  design of a PID controller,  numerical methods used to solve nonlinear equations and differential equations. A basic knowledge of process plants’ components and major equipment is required. 
Contents
 Identification of linear processes by means of step and impulse response (0.2 credits).
 Nonlinear systems: dynamics and stability. Control systems for nonlinear processes (0.5 credits).  Multivariable linear processes: interactions and pairing, design of decentralized controllers (1.5 credits).  PFD and P&ID: rules and examples (0.2 credits).  Control of equipment (heat exchangers, condensers, absorption columns, distillation columns, chemical reactors, dryers, crystallizer) (1.6 credits).  Industrial controllers (relé, PID. PLC, SCADA, DCS) (0.2 credits).  Plantwide control systems (0.4 credits).  Model Predictive Control: problem formulation, discretetime process model, steadystate and dynamic optimization (0.4 credits)  Technological risk. Definition. Assessment. Tolerability criteria (0,5 credits).  Definition and use of reliability and availability for single components and systems. The definition of technological risk (1 credits).  Methodologies for hazard identification in process plants. HazOp, FMEA, Dot Chart for batch processes (1.3 credits).  Fault trees and Event Trees. Quantification of Reliability Availability and risk for risk based design. Reliability data (1.2 credits).  Advanced techniques: Monte Carlo, Petri net and Integrated Dynamic Decision Analysis (1 credit). 
Delivery modes
Lectures are integrated with numerical exercise where students are asked to solve simple problems connected with the subject of the lesson: the students are requested to solve simple exercises about process identification, design of singleinputsingleoutput and of multivariable controllers and reliability assessment.
In the final part of the course, the class is divided into groups of three/maximum four students, and each group designs the control system of a simple process, and prepares a short report, containing the PFD and the P&ID; the design of the protection system will complete the report. The main exercises to be carried on during the lectures of the module of Environmental Safety Technique will not participate to the grade, but if not carried on the will not give access to the exam. 
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
As the subject of this course covers various aspects of control theory, it is not possible to find a textbook covering the various contents of the lessons. The slides used by the professor during the lessons, as well as course handouts are given to the students at the beginning of the course.

Assessment and grading criteria
The assessment will be carried out in different ways for the module of Advanced Control and for that of Environmental Safety Technique. In case the grading of each module is >=18, the final grade will be the mean value of the scored obtained in each module.
For the Advanced Control module the assessment will be carried out in the following way:  a written examination, whose goal is to check the knowledge and the skills gained by the students. Thus, the students will be requested to solve some simple exercises about process identification, design of control systems, both for singeinput singleoutput systems and for multivariable processes, for linear and nonlinear processes. The written exam lasts 2 hours, and use of textbooks, handouts, etc. is not allowed;  a written report about the design of the control system of a simple process: it will allow to evaluate if the student is able to design the control system of pieces of equipment and full processes, as well as to draw process diagrams as the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and the Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). Such report will allow also to evaluate the technical communication. The final score will be obtained from that of the written report (15%) and that of the written exam (85%). The student has also the possibility to sit for an oral exam, focused on the discussion of the control system proposed by the student in the work group, and on the other topics of the course. In this case the score will be obtained from that of the oral exam (1/3) and that of the written exam + report (2/3). With respect to the module of Environmental Safety Technique, the grading will be obtained in the following way:  a written examination, with the goal of checking the knowledge and the skills gained by the students. The students will be requested to solve some simple exercises about hazard identification, logic trees solutions and at least one theoretical aspect discussed during the lessons. The written exam lasts 2 hours, and use of textbooks, handouts, etc. is allowed;  a written report about the design of the protection system of a simple process: it will allow to evaluate if the student is able to design the protection system of pieces of equipment and full processes, as well as to draw process diagrams as the Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and the Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). Such report will allow also to evaluate the technical communication. The final score will be obtained from that of the written report (15%) and that of the written exam (85%). The student has also the possibility to sit for an oral exam, focused on theoretical aspects discussed during the course. In this case the score will be obtained from that of the oral exam (1/3) and that of the written exam + report (2/3). 
