Politecnico di Torino
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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2014/15
01NIALO
Combustion engines and their application to vehicle
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Mittica Antonio ORARIO RICEVIMENTO PO ING-IND/08 71 23 6 0 8
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/08 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria meccanica
Subject fundamentals
The module aims at providing the students of Automotive Engineering with specific knowledge of light and heavy duty automotive internal combustion engines. As a first step, an overview of the basic concepts developed within the module "Thermal Machines" will be carried out. Furthermore, the design aspects of internal combustion engines and their apparatus and how they operate will be considered. The last step of the course is relative to the specific knowledge of the application of the internal combustion engine to the vehicle.
Expected learning outcomes
Familiarity with engine architecture as well as operating and control features in the configurations used for light and heavy duty. Ability to carry out predictive calculations of engine performance and to work on preliminary designs for the main engine components. Ability to identify the parameters that influence the trade-off between performance, fuel consumption and engine emission.
Familiarity with engine cooling systems, the general layout of the engine compartment, the evaluation of fuel consumption and vehicle performance and their dependence on engine, gearbox and vehicle parameters, the main control strategies implemented in the engine management system in order to optimize the function of the engine and the vehicle.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The knowledge acquired through the courses of Thermal Machines is required, along with the basic notions of Thermodynamics and Thermokinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics.
Contents
Reference to notions covered in previous modules
Engine types and their operation. Notes on the actual thermal cycle in four-stroke and two-stroke engines and on the differences it presents compared to those of air and fuel-air cycles; notes on performance and mean effective pressure as a function of air/fuel ratio and angular speed. Notes on wear- (piston shaft, bearings, distribution) and auxiliary-induced organic losses.
Engine architecture
- Engine architecture general details: a comparison of the different engine types; layout; design considerations for the engine block and cylinder head.
- Crankshaft: number and positioning of the cylinders; description of the crank-and-connecting-rod mechanism as well as of its kinematics and dynamics; analysis of the forces and moments in the engine; regularization of engine torque; in-line engine with evenly spaced cranks and balance of the resultant force and moment; analysis of inertia forces; longitudinal positioning of the cranks in the various categories of in-line engines; balances of the forces and residual moments.
- Intake and exhaust systems in four-stroke engines: valve types, valve-operating systems; induction manifold design; two-stroke cycle scavenging flows and port arrangements; supercharging with specific reference to turbo-charging. Fuel metering systems in spark-ignition engines: carburetor and fuel injection systems (single-point and multi-point injection). Fuel metering systems in compression-ignition engines: distributor and in-line pumps, description of electronic control unit injector and of common rail systems.
- Lubrication and cooling: lubrication and cooling systems and their requirements.
Engine operation
- Inlet processes in four-stroke and two-stroke engines; dependence of the volumetric efficiency on the valve area, lift and timing; scavenging parameters and models for two-stroke engines. Fuel metering systems requirements and functional aspects in spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Control parameters.
- Combustion in spark-ignition engines: general details on fuels and on flame propagation combustion, cyclic variations in combustion, partial burning and misfiring; gasoline features; abnormal combustion: surface ignition and knock; effects on engine performance and fuel consumption.
- Combustion in compression-ignition engines: main combustion features; notes on diesel oil; direct- and indirect-injection systems; notes on fuels, fuel spray formation, ignition delay; engine performance and fuel consumption.
- Pollutant formation and control: classification of the pollutant species; notes on the testing cycles and emission limits. Pollutant formation in spark-ignition engines: influence of engine design and operating conditions on emissions; exhaust gas treatment: notes on reduction methods with specific reference to exhaust gas recycle (EGR), to thermal reactors and to catalytic converter. Compression-ignition engines: pollutant formation, influence of design parameters and operating conditions on emissions; reduction methods with particular reference to EGR and to soot abatement (catalytic converter and particulate traps).
Application of the Engine to vehicle
- Base dynamics equation for the evaluation of vehicle performance.
- Engine cooling system: purpose and overview of the system; heat transfer equations description and performance of the components: radiator, thermostat, pump, reservoir and cap, oil and air heat exchangers; design of the systems and experimental tests; advanced cooling systems.
- Engine installation in the vehicle: positioning of the engine inside the engine compartment; intake and exhaust line inside the engine compartment; vehicle front end design criteria for the installation of the coolant and lubricating oil radiators and intercooler; engine suspension architecture and design to reduce NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) problems.
- Engine-vehicle matching: review of longitudinal vehicle dynamics base equation; evaluation of total running resistance of the vehicle by analytical equations and by the experimental coastdown method; performance index of the vehicle; analytical model for the fuel consumption prediction starting from the engine steady-state maps; engine vehicle matching criteria to comply with the vehicle design targets with special concern to the consumption-performance trade-off.
- Application of engine management system to the vehicle: purpose and overview of the engine management system; description of the sensors and actuators that interface with the ECU (electronic control unit); main strategies and algorithms of the engine control management; torque-based systems.
APPLIED LECTURES PROGRAMME
Numerical and graphic exercises based on the topics covered during the lectures are carried out.
Delivery modes
Disassembly and re-assembly of an internal combustion four-stroke engine. Experimental tests on the dynamometric rig.
Laboratory at Fiat climatic halls: description of the experimental tests performed on the vehicles to evaluated ATB indices. Laboratories at dynamic test rig of the Politecnico di Torino and of Fiat Research Centre: influence of vehicle parameters and electronic control unit on vehicle and engine performance and on emissions.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Notes, diagrams and charts are available to students at the end of the lecture. When available, Powerpoint slides in pdf format through the course web page. For further reference and reading students may consult the followings:
- C. R. Ferguson, A.T. Kirkpatrick, "Internal Combustion Engines", John Wiley & Sons, 2001
- G. Ferrari: "Motori a combustione interna", Il Capitello, Torino, 2001.
- T.K. Garrett, K. Newton, W. Steeds: "The Motor Vehicle", Thirteenth Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.
- Hermann Hiereth, Peter Prenninger: "Charging the Internal Combustion Engine, Powertrain", Springer-Wien New York, 2003.
- J.B. Heywood: "Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals", McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1988.
- G. Lechner, H Naunheimer, "Automotive Transmissions Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Applications", Springer, 1999.
- E.F. Obert: "Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution", Harper & Row, Publishers, N.Y., 1973.
- R. Stone, "Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines", MacMillan Press Ltd, 3rd edition, 1999.
- C.F. Taylor: "The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice", Vol.1 and 2, the M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985.
- Robert Bosch GmbH: "Automotive Electrics and Automotive Electronics", 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2007.
- Robert Bosch GmbH: "Diesel-Engine Management" 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2005.
- Robert Bosch GmbH: "Gasoline-Engine Management" 3th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam is performed in written form. For the Combustion Engine (CE) part the examination is based on the lectures as well as on the assessment of the applied lectures carried out during the course. It consists of 3 open questions (2 relative to the lectures and 1 related to the applied lectures, 2 hours). For the part relative to the Application to Vehicle, the examination consists of 2 open questions (45 min 1hour), based on the lectures as well as on the applied lectures carried out during the course.
To take part to the exam it is necessary to book through the web site of the course. It is also necessary to submit the CE applied lecture reports for correction at least 1 week before the exam. Once the applied works are handed in, they will be corrected and will be evaluated for the final score. It is not possible to send a second version of the applied works.
The final mark is weighted on the credits of each part (6.5 credits for the Combustion Engine part and 3.5 for the Application to Vehicle part).

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2014/15
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