|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2016/17|
Plants and manufacturing systems
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Automotive Engineering - Torino
Plants and Manufacturing Systems A: the course analyzes the production system according to different aspects: management, technology and engineering. The management aspect of the production system concerns the analysis of the production line, based on the queue models. The analytical models or the discrete event simulation software, allow for assessing the performance of the line and for comparing the costs and benefits arising from the adoption of Push or Pull control techniques. The course illustrates the evolution of the production system from its origins in the Fords factory to the latest innovations of the Toyota production system and Lean revolution. The technology of the production systems mainly focuses on numerical control machining. Starting from the definition of numerical control machine, the course describes components, modules and manufacturing cells. The course also describes the computer numerical controlled machine (CNC) and the computer aided programming techniques (CAD/CAM). The description of industrial robots and their integration with the CNC machine allows to design the automated manufacturing cells. The description of the coordinate measuring machines (CMM) for product testing allows to complete the analysis of the manufacturing cells. The technology sector also deals with the non-conventional machining such as EDM, electrochemical machining, chemical milling, machining by ultrasonic, electron beam machining, machining with the laser and the techniques of rapid prototyping. From the engineering point of view, the course promotes the use of software and hardware tools to carry out the design, the manufacturing and the testing of simple objects. Such experience focuses on the management of engineering data along the product lifecycle, and the integration of solutions provided by PLM (Product Lifecycle Management), MES (Manufacturing Execution Systems) and ERP (Enterprise Resources Planning) approaches.
Plants and Manufacturing Systems B: this part of the course aims to discuss the main issues about industrial facilities design and development that future engineers might face during their professional activity. In particular, it provides the fundamental knowledge and abilities to design and size the elements of an industrial plant, with particular attention to the criteria for safety design and management.
Expected learning outcomes
Plants and Manufacturing Systems A: the student acquires the skills needed to supervise a production system and to identify the most suitable technology, resources and configuration for the specific application. The theoretical and experimental activities provide the students with the knowledge he needs to:
select the proper technology for the manufacturing process;
define the appropriate workcycle for the component manufacturing;
develop the proper layout for the hardware resources;
evaluate the performances of the resulting manufacturing system;
analyse the economic impact of the different solutions.
Finally, the student acquires the ability to provide solutions based on an integrated view of the engineering technology and management issues.
Plants and Manufacturing Systems B: this part of the course provides the skills that a plant engineer needs in order to play a cross-functional role in a company, with particular reference to the knowledge of the product to be manufactured and/or the logistics service to be provided, the selection of the equipment best suited to manufacture a product, the best layout of machines and of the different production and/or logistics areas within an industrial facility. After identifying the logistics and production potentiality required to a plant, the characteristics of the buildings able to accommodate the different areas (manufacturing, logistics and support ones) will be defined together with the transportation and storage systems to ensure production and/or service efficiency. Additionally, plant utilities (e.g. electrical system, plumbing systems, compressed air system, service stations), workstation design according to ergonomic principles, and the criteria for the economic evaluation of the investment in building a new industrial plant will be discussed.
Therefore at the end of the course the students should have acquired the following skills:
Identifying the optimal plant layout for a complex manufacturing facility based on the existing technological, logistics, normative, and economics constraints.
Choosing and sizing the optimal warehouse solutions as far as storage and material handling equipment are concerned. Being familiar with the basics of the main warehouse operational activities (e.g. picking, sorting, packaging etc.).
Choosing the optimal solution in terms of material handling equipment.
Being able to apply the main concepts about the management of complex industrial plants and defining the strategies that optimize the associated economic and organizational aspects.
Moreover, students should be able to autonomously assess an industrial plant project and to use an appropriate technical communication language. For this purpose, the following capabilities are required:
Writing professional technical reports.
Taking motivated design decisions under conflicting requirements.
Being able to estimate feasible order of magnitudes of the most important variables in the main reference cases.
Knowledge, skills, and capabilities are acquired through the study of some concrete problems, which are proposed as prominent examples, that is relevant technical applications that are suitable to introduce the range of methods that a plant engineer should master.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Mechanical behavior of materials, Fundamentals of Technical Physics, Applied Mechanics, Mechanical Technology, Computer Aided Design.
Plants and Manufacturing Systems A (6 CFU)
Introduction to production systems: Classification of production processes; Criteria for the selection of the production rates; Criteria for setting the level of automation and integration of processes; Performance and efficiency of manufacturing processes.
Performance analysis of production systems: The evaluation of the operating point of a manufacturing line; The analysis of the performance of a workstation; The queue models from M/M/1/inf to G/G/m/b. The use of batching. Analytical models for the evaluation of manufacturing line performances; Discrete event software for the simulation of manufacturing line.
The numerical control machine: Definitions and structure of NC machine; Structures and guides, devices for automatic tool and workpiece changes, actuators, transducers; Types of government units, computer numerical control (CNC), direct control by computer (DNC), the adaptive control. Computer Aided Design and Computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) integration for cutting path programming.
Industrial robots: Structures and characteristics, Robots, units of government and assisted programming, integration with the external environment, robotic cells. Computer Aided Production Engineering (CAPE) and Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) software tools.
Measuring machines with numerical control: Quality control, Structures and characteristics of measuring machine; Software for CMMs. Computer Aided Quality (CAQ) software suites.
The non-conventional machining: EDM, electrochemical machining, chemical milling, machining by ultrasonic, electron beam machining, laser machining, rapid prototyping.
Plants and Manufacturing Systems B (4 CFU)
- Basic principles and definitions. Basics on manufacturing processes, facility lifecycle, market analysis and demand planning, basics on the product design process (3h)
- Plant Layout Design. Motivations for layout design, types of layout, process and material flow analysis, conventional layout design, computer-aided layout design (3h)
- Ergonomics and Workstation Design. Basic ergonomics principles. Workstation design criteria (1h)
- Plant Support Functions. Auxiliary services (aisles, receiving and shipping areas, other production support facilities), employee facilities, office layout, outdoor areas (1.5 h)
- Material Handling Equipment. Main design principles, unit loads, moving and lifting equipment (carts and trucks, conveyors, cranes, robots, automated guided vehicles, automatic electrified rail systems, skid conveyors) (4.5 h)
- Warehousing. Warehouse layout, storage and warehousing principles, material handling equipment for warehouses.
- Picking and Packaging Operations (4.5 h)
- Industrial Buildings. Main structural characteristics, relevant building components (foundations, structures, roof and walls, floor, industrial doors) (1.5 h)
- Building Utilities: electrical system, plumbing system, compressed air system, service station (1.5 h)
- Economics Fundamentals. Cost classifications, Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Break-Even Analysis, Cash Flow Analysis (cash flow generation, interest, discounting, and cash flow ratios - NPV, IRR, etc.) (1.5 h)
- Inventory Management: principles, inventory management models, basics of Material Requirement Planning (MRP) (2 h)
Plants and Manufacturing Systems A: the course consists of lectures, exercises, laboratories and project work. The lectures (about 40 percent of the course) introduce the general concepts related to different subject, and provide tools and techniques to solve the related issues. The exercises and the laboratories (about 40 percent of the course) apply the general concepts to specific didactic case studies and require the development of a proper specific solution. Finally, the project work (about 20 percent of the course) consists of dealing with an industrial case study.
Plants and Manufacturing Systems B: the teaching activities are structured according to a number of lectures, where the course topics are discussed, as well as a project work. Moreover, numerical problems about the main issues addressed in the course will be developed in class. In particular, the project work is aimed at performing a feasibility study and preliminary design of a new manufacturing plant, with particular reference to the automotive industry. This allows to foster those skills and capabilities that ensure the highly cross-functional role required to plant engineers in modern logistics - production contexts. The project is performed by students organized in groups during the entire term. Each group will be weekly guided and supported by the teacher also by means of the analysis of specific catalogues and reference legislation.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Plants and Manufacturing Systems A:
Hopp W.J., Spearman M.L., Factory physics, McGrawHill
Kalpakjian S., Manufacturing processes for Engineering Materials. Addison Wesley
McMahom C., Browne J., CAD/CAM from Principles to Practice. Addison Wesley
Plants and Manufacturing Systems B:
M.P. Stephens, F. E. Meyers, Manufacturing Facilities Design & Material Handling, Pearson, 2009
Lecture notes provided by the teacher
Assessment and grading criteria
The final mark will be the average value of the written exam grade, the oral exam grade, and the project work grade. The written exam will consist in numerical problems appropriately structured in order to check the preparation level of students, especially in terms of the acquired knowledge. The written exam is assessed up to a maximum of 30 points out of 30. The oral exam will test the theoretical skills acquired during the course to ensure students have mastered not only the practical skills but also the supporting theoretical background about industrial plants design and development. The oral exam is assessed up to a maximum of 30 points out of 30. The acquired industrial plant capabilities are furtherly assessed through a synthetic evaluation of the project work outcomes, which considers all the engineering, managerial, organizational, and regulatory aspects characterizing the definition of the project during its entire development. The project work is assessed up to a maximum of 30 points out of 30.
The course mark will be given by the final marks in both Part A and Part B according to the following formula:
Course Mark = 60% Average Grades Part A + 40% Average Grades Part B
Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2016/17