


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2016/17  
01NIHMN Fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines and of fluid power 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
The course is composed of two modules, the first of which concerns with the fundamentals of thermal and hydraulic machines, whereas the second one deals with fluidpower fundamentals.
The first module aims at supplying the basic aspects of thermal and hydraulic machines, with specific reference to: constructive aspects, operation principles, thermodynamic and fluidynamic laws, needed for a correct evaluation of performance and offdesign operations of the single machine and of the energy system in which it is integrated. The second module presents and analyzes fluid power components and basic systems, in terms of their symbolic representation, layout, constructive and operational features. For those who will attend the second level degree courses, the acquired notions and skills will constitute also the base for subsequent mastery through the specializing courses. 
Expected learning outcomes
Through the systematic application of the thermofluiddynamics principles to energy systems and their components, the module provides the students with the ability to choose turbomachines, engines, fluidpower systems and engineeringplant solutions in relation to their applications.

Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The basic knowledge achieved in Thermodynamics, Thermokinetics, Applied Mechanics and Fluid Mechanics is required, with the awareness of concepts covered in Physics and 3D modeling.

Contents
Fundamental of thermal and hydraulic machines
• Introduction to fluid machines. Thermodynamics and fluiddynamics applied to fluid machines. Velocity diagrams, Euler work equation. • 1D theory of compressible flows: nozzles and diffusers. Design of a nozzle, offdesign performance. • Steam power plants. Cogenerative steam plants. • 1D analysis of turbine stages. • Axial and radial turbocompressors. • Gas turbine plants. Combined vaporgas turbine plants. • Hydraulic pumps. Fundamental of fluid power • Introduction to fluid power: advantages and drawbacks. • ISO 12191 regulation: nomenclature and symbols. • Operating principles for directional control valves, pressure control valves and flow control valves. • Function blocks. • Flow generating groups. • Hydraulic pumps and motors. • Valves architecture. 
Delivery modes
The course is made up of lectures and applied lectures. The applied lectures consist of exercises meant to further deepen the understanding of the concepts dealt with within the lectures.

Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
References
• M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, "Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics", 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons. • S.L. Dixon, C.A. Hall, "Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery", 6th ed., ButterworthHeinemann, Elsevier. • Lecture Slides • Exercise book (optional): C. Dongiovanni, D. Misul, "Exercises on Thermal and Hydraulic Machines", CLUT Eds, Torino. Required material Mollier diagram for steam ("Diagramma entalpico per il vapor d’acqua"), CLUT Eds. To be procured by the student. Saturation lines tables for steam. Provided by the teacher. 
Assessment and grading criteria
The exam booking on the web portal, within the deadline, is mandatory.
The exam is made up of a written test and of an oral test, which may be either optional or mandatory depending on the score of the written test. Written test (duration: about 4 h) The written test is made up of two parts:  The first part (duration: 45 minutes) is constituted by 15 multiple choice questions (basically 10 questions will deal with the Fundamental of Thermal and Hydraulic Machines related topics, 5 questions with the Fundamental of Fluid Power related topics). This part will mainly deal with the theoretical topics of the course, however some questions may require the solution of quick numerical exercises. Each question with correct answer is assigned 2 points, each question without answer is assigned 0 points, each question with a wrong answer is assigned 0.5 points. The maximum score of the first part is therefore 30/30.  In the second part (duration: 3h), the student is asked to solve 3 exercises (2 exercises related to Fundamental of Thermal and Hydraulic Machines related topics, 1 exercise related to the Fundamental of Fluid Power topics) featuring a difficulty level similar to that of the exercises proposed during the applied lectures. Each exercise sums up to 10 points out of 30/30. The exam is failed if the score of the first part of the written test is lower than 18/30 or if the score of the second part of the written test is lower than 15/30. The final score of the written test is a weighted average of the scores achieved for the two parts (the weights are 0.3 for the first part and 0.7 for the second part). During the written test, the students are only allowed to use a scientific calculator, the steam Mollier chart and the saturation tables. The use of notes, books, notebooks, smart phones, cell phones or any other electronic device is strictly forbidden. Should any candidate use any unauthorized electronic devices (regardless of whether it is switched on or off, online or offline), he/she will be immediately withdrawn from the exam. The paper sheets for the exam will be provided by the teacher. Each sheet has to be returned at the scheduled handin time or at the exam withdrawal. The candidate can withdraw from the written test at any time up to the handin time. In this case, the exam failure will not be registered. Once the written test has been corrected, the exam will be registered with either a positive or negative result. Any candidate who is not satisfied with the written test result can ask to be failed before the oral start. Oral test The oral test can be either optional or mandatory, depending on the outcomes from the written one. The oral test might be dealing with both the Fundamental of Thermal and Hydraulic Machines as well as the Fundamental of Fluid Power related topics. To be admitted to the oral test, the minimum score of the first part of the written test is 18/30, and the minimum score of the second part of the written test is 15/30, otherwise the exam is failed. Provided that the minimum score of the first part of the written test is 18/30, the oral test is mandatory if the score of the second part of the written test is between 15/30 and 18/30. The oral test is optional if the average mark of the written test is between 19/30 and 24/30 (the score of the written test will be registered), or if the average mark of the written test is higher than 24/30, but in this second case a final mark of 24/30 will be registered if the student does not sit for the oral test. In case the student sits for the oral test, the overall mark is the average between the written and the oral test scores. 
