|Politecnico di Torino|
|Academic Year 2015/16|
Electronics for embedded systems
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Electronic Engineering - Torino
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Computer Engineering - Torino
01NVD; 02MIV; 01NNN; 01NNI
Required course for the Embedded System curriculum, jointly held between Electronics Engineering and Computer Science master degree programs, in the first didactic period of the first academic year.
The course aims to describe and test the major digital and analog blocks on a board and to identify key issues relating to their communication.
In particular, it describes the main micro-architectural structures for the processing, control and storage of data and will make a practical description in the laboratory.
Problems related to communication between blocks on the board (use of interfaces for complex communications systems, communication standards, signal integrity on PCB) are analysed and experimented in the laboratory.
It outlines issues and will explore the use of different complex programmable and embedded systems on boards based on microprocessor or microcontrollers, FPGAs and current peripheral devices.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of various types of amplifier stages and their applications; analysis and circuit design capabilities, with selection of components to evaluate the effects of various design choices.
Knowledge of various types of A/D and D/A converters, their characteristics and associated circuits; ability to choose analog integrated components and design of the required circuits for their use and interfacing.
Knowledge of the characteristics of different types of voltage regulators, switching and dissipative, and criteria for selection of active and passive components; ability to design low power regulators.
Knowledge of existing memory types: type, access methods, physical model, interfaces, hierarchy; ability to choose based on cost / area / performance.
Knowledge of the architecture of high performance PLDs and FPGAs: internal architecture, design flow, optimizations for power consumption, size, speed.
Capacity to design digital operational units, to describe them in VHDL language, to simulate the behaviour and to implement them according to specifications (synthesis on programmable device, high-level programming on microprocessors, ...).
Knowledge of the structure of the main peripherals used: digital I/O, buffering strategies, timing systems, synchronous and asynchronous communication systems; ability to choose appropriate methodologies for implementation and interfacing.
Capacity to define the necessary blocks in an embedded system starting from a specifications and to define the design constraints (microprocessor/microcontroller, memories, programmable devices, power systems, conversion systems, peripherals, bus) and their interfacing.
Knowledge of issues relating to physical layer interconnection: technologies, transmission lines, crosstalk, electromagnetic compatibility.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Principles of digital electronics, corresponding to basics digital and analog courses in the bachelor degree program. In particular, combinational and sequential circuits and basics analog stages, complex processing architectures at the system level, the VHDL hardware description language, the programming model for microprocessors, DSPs and microcontrollers.
Embedded systems (0,5 CFU)
o a) Definition, classification and examples
o b) Design metrics (costs, performance, time to market)
o c) Anatomy of an embedded system and summary of course topics
Operational amplifier with feedback reminders (0,5 CFU)
o Amplifiers and filters
A/D and D/A conversion (1,5 CFU)
o Reminders on A/D and D/A conversion systems, sampling, aliasing, quantization, errors, ENOB
o D/A converters (classification, parameters, linear and non-linear errors)
o D/A converter circuits
o A/D converters (classification, static and dynamic parameters, linear and non-linear errors)
o Circuiti per convertitori AD (Flash, SAR, pipeline, tracking, misti)
o Signal conditioning, anti-aliasing filter design
o Advanced converters
Power electronics (1,5 CFU)
o Basic design principles of a voltage regulator
o Linear regulators (drop-out, ripple, currents)
o Linear and PWM driving of loads
o Switching regulators (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost)
o Voltage references
Memories (1 CFU)
o ROM, OTPROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash
o Static and dynamic RAMs
o Timing diagrams
o Memory composition and microprocessor interfacing
o Memory hierarchies and caches
Programmable logic (1,5 CFU)
o Programmable devices PAL, PLA, CPLD
o Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
o Technologies for FPGA
o Design flow
o FPGA resources (memories, multipliers, PLL, clock)
o IP selection, use and applications
Input/Output (1,5 CFU)
o Reminders on serial and parallel protocols, delays, skew
o Synchronous transmission and clock data recovery
o Examples: UART, SPI, CAN, USB
o Interconnection and signal integrity problems
Processor peripherals (2 CFU)
o General introduction to embedded processors and their peripherals
o Internal structure, address decoders, configuration registers
o Microprocessor interfacing: polling, interrupt, DMA
o Communication bus: AMBA