Politecnico di Torino
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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2012/13
01NZPMA
Biomedical instrumentation
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Biomedical Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Knaflitz Marco ORARIO RICEVIMENTO PO ING-INF/06 80 0 0 0 9
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-INF/06 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria biomedica
Subject fundamentals
This course aims at presenting the basic knowledge relative to: a) the european regulations that apply to medical devices; b) the main issues of electrical safety within hospitals; c) methodologies and problems relative to the detection of biopotentials, and d) the working principles and management methods of the most important and common pieces of medical electrical equipment.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will be able to evaluate the risk taken by patients and operators when using electrical medical equipment and to identify the protection and prevention measures that allow for risk reduction. Moreover, for each specific typology of medical electrical equipment considered, students will know the working principles, the degree of technological evolution, associated risks, and appropriate prevention and protection measures. Students will be able to face the design of the instruments presented within the course at a block-diagram level, considering functional and safety issues. Finally, students will know the basics of the European regulations on medical devices as well as general, collateral, and particular requirements of the instruments presented.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Students must be familiar with the arguments presented in the courses of physics, electric circuits, electronics, and physiology with elements of human anatomy.
Contents
- European regulations on medical devices: Medical Device Directive 93/42, 47/2007, general requirements for medical electrical equipment (IEC 601 -1), collateral and particular requirements.
- Electrical safety in healthcare facilities: classes and types of medical electrical equipment (I, II, III, B, BF, CF); direct and indirect macroshock, thermal-magnetic circuit breaker, differential circuit breaker, protective earth plant; microshock, equipotential node, CF electrical equipment.
- Biopotential detection: front-end characteristics, line interference (finite CMRR, electrode unbalance, capacitive couplings), desired values of input impedance and CMRR. Typical biopotential amplifier chain.
- Electrocardiographic signal: short outline of cardiac electrophysiology, ECG cycle and its components, limb leads, augmented leads, thoracic leads. Typical artifacts. ECG amplifier chain. Dynamic ECG (Holter): technical issues and clinical utility.
- Electroencephalographic signal: signal generation and characteristics, subdivision in frequency bands. Clinical relevance of EEG signal. Different montages: the 10-20 system, montages for high resolution EEG. Typical artifacts in electroencephalography: examples of signals affected by different artifacts. EEG amplifier chain. Short outline of signal interpretation. Frequency domain analysis.
- Somatosensory, auditory, and visual evoked potentials: eliciting and detection methods. Averaging technique.
- Surgical lamps: different typologies of surgical lamps, different structures, associated risks. Particular requirements. Maintenance and preventive tests.
- Electrosurgery units: working principles, evolution of the output stage and risks associated to the use of ESUs, patient monitor and electrode monitor. Analysis of the features of a modern electro-surgical unit. ESUs in minimally invasive surgery: specific problems and solutions. Particular requirements and specific guidelines. Maintenance and preventive tests.
- Cardioverter defibrillator: working principles, design of the discharge circuit, monitoring of the energy delivered. Particular requirements and specific guidelines. Maintenance and preventive tests.
- Infusion pumps: working principles, different typologies of infusion pumps. Particular requirements. Maintenance and preventive tests.
- Systems for hemodialysis: working principles and specific issues. Main risks for patients and operators. Block diagram of a typical unit. Alarm and safety systems. Particular requirements. Maintenance and preventive tests.
Delivery modes
The course consists of frontal lectures and exercise sessions. Lectures are approximately two thirds of the course and exercise sessions approximately one third.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Handouts and other resources will be available. Part of the teaching program may be found in Bioingegneria elettronica e sicurezza, Prof. Marco Knaflitz, edita da Levrotto & Bella.
Assessment and grading criteria
The final exam is written and comprises two different parts: a first part consisting of 15 closed response questions and a second part consisting of 3 exercises. The first part lasts 15 minutes and corresponds up to 9 points that are obtained by multiplying by 9/15 the score obtained as follows: each right answer increases the score by 1 point, each wrong answer decreases the score by 0,25 points, each question without an answer does not modify the score. The second part lasts 60 minutes and corresponds up to 24 points, up to 8 pointsfor each exercise. Students are required to be over the threshold of 6/15 points relative to the first part and 12/24 points relative to the second part. The final score is obtained by summing the results of the first and the second part. It is then possible to reach 33 points. If the final score is higher than 30.5 the exam is passed with Laude.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18
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