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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2012/13
01OELLZ, 01OELET, 01OELFG, 01OELFJ, 01OELJM, 01OELLI, 01OELLN, 01OELLS, 01OELLX, 01OELMA, 01OELMB, 01OELMC, 01OELMH, 01OELMK, 01OELMN, 01OELMO, 01OELMQ
Photovoltaic and wind systems for electricity production
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Aerospace Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Biomedical Engineering - Torino
1st degree and Bachelor-level of the Bologna process in Mechanical Engineering - Mondovi'
Espandi...
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Spertino Filippo ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 ING-IND/33 48 12 0 0 10
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/33 6 D - A scelta dello studente A scelta dello studente
Subject fundamentals
The course deals with the production of electrical energy from photovoltaic and wind sources, through grid-connected electrical installations. The aspects considered refer to the characterisation of the energy sources, the conversion into electrical energy and the related applications.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge of the principles of operation of photovoltaic and wind systems. Ability of evaluating the productivity of electrical energy from photovoltaic and wind sources. Ability to design simple photovoltaic installations.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basic knowledge of Electrotechnics and Mechanics.
Contents
PROGRAMME OF THE COURSE CONCERNING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
Spectral characterization of solar energy; beam, diffuse, "albedo" and global irradiation.
Structure of photovoltaic devices: energy bands in semiconductors; "p" and "n" types of doping; junction and electric field; photocurrent as electron - hole pairs; losses in the conversion.
Relative spectral response and efficiency of the major technologies: silicon mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline and amorphous, cadmium telluride and copper-indium diselenide.
Operation principle and equivalent circuit of the solar cell with three or five parameters. Current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) characteristics.
Standard powers of commercial PV modules. Statistics of plant diffusion in the world.
System schemes and costs of the installed power and of produced energy.
Assessment of PV energy production: Italian feed-in tariff as incentive for technology deployment; conventional calculation of PV energy; sources of losses in productivity; a new procedure for energy evaluation; automatic data acquisition system; proper measuring circuits; experimental results on some operating PV plants; economic analysis by Net-Present-Value method.
Focus on problems in applications: cell connection in series/parallel; mismatch of current-voltage characteristics and shading effect; hot spots and breakdown; bypass and blocking diodes.
Design of a grid connected PV system: optimal sizing between PV modules and inverter; protections against overcurrents/overvoltages and direct/indirect contacts.
Advantages and drawbacks of photovoltaics.
PROGRAMME OF THE COURSE CONCERNING WIND SYSTEMS
Characterization of the wind: speed and direction; power density; surface roughness; statistic distributions.
Structure of a wind turbine: blades, hub, gearbox, electric generator, tower.
Operating Principle of a wind turbine: lift and drag in a blade; pitch and yaw regulations; pitch-adjustment toward stall/feather.
Equivalent circuits of induction and synchronous machines; power curve vs. wind speed.
A solution for variable speed wind turbines: the doubly-fed induction generator.
Wind farms: interference among turbines. Environmental impact of wind turbines: acoustic noise.
Power size, diffusion of wind installations in the world.
Schemes, cost of installation and energy.
Advantages and drawbacks.
Delivery modes
Practical exercises:
Software for the irradiation assessment with different values of receiving-surface tilt and azimuth; calculation of the PV modules performance from websites of manufacturers; selection of PV modules and inverters and their optimal interface.
Calculation of energy production by wind measurements and power-curve from manufacturer websites. Calculation of wind park effect and acoustic noise.
Laboratories:
Measurements of I-V curve for various PV modules; measurements of efficiency and power quality in a grid connected PV system.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Lecture notes and files uploaded on the web portal ("Portale della Didattica") at Politecnico di Torino.
Assessment and grading criteria
Written exam with theoretical questions and numerical exercises; possibility of oral exam for the students with mark higher than 25/30 in the written exam.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2011/12
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