


Politecnico di Torino  
Academic Year 2017/18  
01QXWLM, 01QXWOA Electronic systems, technologies and measurements 

1st degree and Bachelorlevel of the Bologna process in Computer Engineering  Torino 





Subject fundamentals
The course provides a basic knowledge of the characteristic aspects of electronic systems, presenting the main tools for analyzing their behavior, the implementation choices and the fabrication technologies. In particular, the course addresses the study of some basic modules for Analog Electronics (amplifier stages realized with feedback operational amplifiers and interfacing stages and introduces the operation principles of semiconductor devices (diodes and transistors).
In support to experimental activities, the course provides an introduction to measurement uncertainties and error propagation and to the use of fundamental instrumentation tools in an electronic lab. Finally, the course also includes basic concepts of Electronic Measures, with reference to measurement methods and instrumentation. 
Expected learning outcomes
 Knowledge of the most common instruments present in a laboratory and ability to evaluate the instrument uncertainty.
 Knowledge of the structure of a complex electronic system: building blocks and interfaces  Knowledge the elementary amplifier topologies, feedback amplifiers using operational amplifiers.  Knowledge of the operation principles and models of the most important semiconductor devices; basics of their fabrication technology.  Ability to analyze analog (opamp based) amplifier circuits: evaluate transfer function and network functions in DC and frequency domain  Ability to evaluate the bias point and smallsignal circuit of active devices.  Ability to carry out elementary electrical characterizations of simple circuits 
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basics of: mathematical analysis (differential and integral calculus); complex arithmetic; theory of linear electrical networks: time domain and frequency domain analysis; physics (basic electromagnetics, dimensional analysis).

Contents
Measurements and Instrumentations (20 h)
 Basics of Safety behavior in Lab  Measurement uncertainty and propagation; instrumental and reading uncertainty  Use of the main lab instrumentation: oscilloscope; tester and digital multimeter; waveform generator. Realization of an automatic measurement bench Electronic measurements (20 h) Direct and indirect measurements. Estimation of uncertainty of measurement according to the deterministic model. Introduction to the statistic model. Comparison and zero methods, voltamperometric method, bridge methods. Basics on the Analog / Digital Conversion Process (AD) and the AD Convertors most commonly used in measuring instruments. Instrumentation: numeric multimeters, alternating voltmeters, digital memory oscilloscopes: basic architecture, operating modes, potentialities and limits. Instruments for measuring frequency and time intervals. Programmable measuring systems; IEEE488 interface Electronic Systems (20 h)  Functional block decomposition of complex systems; frequency and time domain representation of signals, analog and digital signals; sensors.  Noise as source of error; advantages brought by the use of digital signals.  Review on circuit theory: Bode plot and dynamic behavior of circuits in time and frequency domain.  Amplifier topologies and main parameters.  Operational amplifiers and negative feedback: inverting and noninverting stages, with reactive elements and several inputs; cascaded stages.  Summing and differential amplifier modules. Real operational amplifiers (8 h)  Open loop amplification, input differential resistance, output resistance.  Input currents and input offset voltage.  Transcharacteristics and limitations (linearity, safe operating area).  Frequency response. Threshold comparators: circuits and applications (7 hours)  Comparators with hysteresis.  Square and triangular wave generators. Semiconductor devices (25h)  basics of physics of semicondcutors  pn junction: static and dynamic behavior; smallsignal model.  MOS transistors  basics of semiconductor tecnology 
Delivery modes
Six experimental lab sessions (3 hour each) are proposed to practice with electronic laboratory instrumentation and electrical characterization of preassembled analog circuits. The goal of the labs is to test what is presented in the lectures, highlighting the limits of the models. The organization will be such as to favor team working and allow the studets to practice with the preparation of a technical report.
Hand calculation exercises will be proposed and solved during classroom lectures. 
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Electronic systems and devices:
 Sedra , Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 6th Ed. Oxford University Press.  Donald A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices  Basic Principles, Third Edition, 2003 McGrawHill.  Teacher notes and examples of worked problems available on the course website. Measurements:  Beginner’s Guide to Measurement in Electronic and Electrical Engineering (freely available at: http://www.npl.co.uk/upload/pdf/beginnersguidetomeasurementinelectronicandelectricalengineering.pdf, last checked Sept. 14th 2017)  The measurement Instrumentation and sensor handbook (freely available at http://www.kelm.ftn.uns.ac.rs/literatura/si/pdf/Measurement%20Instrumentation%20Sensors.pdf , last checked Sept. 14th 2017)  JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of Measurement Data – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (freely available at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html, last checked Sept. 14th 2017)  Teacher Slides, available on the Polito Student Portal 
Assessment and grading criteria
The final exam consists of a written test including: 812 multiple choice questions (10 points weight); 34 numerical exercises (20 points weight) that will be on the main topics of the course (Electronics and Measures) in proportion to number of credits (6 and 4, respectively). During the exam books, notes, slides, and laptop/notebook are not allowed. Students may use a pocket calculator. The time available for the written exam is 2 hours. The examination may be supplemented, at the discretion of the teacher or at the request of students who have at least 24/30 in the written test, a 15 minutes oral exam on all lecture topics and labs. The final mark is given by the sum of the score of the written exam and the oral evaluation which can provide a score between 10 and +10 points. Students have the option to prepare two lab reports (one related to the electronics lab, one related to the measurement labs) which will be evaluated by the teachers with a score between 0 and 1.5 points each. The evaluation of laboratory reports – if delivered will be added to the mark obtained by the written and oral exam (i.e. a maximum of 3 points added to the mark obtained by written and oral exam). If the total mark exceeds 32 points, the exam rating will be 30 cum laude.

