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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2016/17
01RKTNA
Exploration geophysics
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Petroleum Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Socco Laura ORARIO RICEVIMENTO AC GEO/11 64 16 0 0 5
SSD CFU Activities Area context
GEO/11 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Subject fundamentals
The course provides the competences about the use of geophysical prospecting in hydrocarbon exploration. The course is devoted to students with different backgrounds and it is aimed at supplying the basic knowledge about measuring methods, data processing and interpretation in the context of reservoir discovery, characterization and exploitation. The matter is inherently linked to reservoir modelling, drilling, petroleum geology end geomechanics.
Expected learning outcomes
The aim of the course is to provide the basic knowledge about the signal processing methods used for geophysical data elaboration, the petrophysical properties of rocks, and the physical phenomena which are exploited in geophysical exploration techniques (seismic wave and electromagnetic field propagation in natural heterogeneous materials). The course will deepen the geophysical exploration techniques focusing on seismic reflection method (with regards to technical and technological aspects of land and marine data acquisition, seismic signal processing methods and seismic data interpretation). Non seismic methods (electromagnetic and potential fields) and well logs acquisition, processing and interpretation will also be covered. The students will apply the concepts explicated during theoretical lessons through the development and the implementation of simple modelling and processing tools that will enable them to consolidate their basic knowledge and improve their practical skills.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basic knowledge of math, physics and geology are required.
Contents
Introduction: basic concepts of geophysical methods and applications (0.2 credits);
Signal processing: analog-digital signal; frequency, amplitude, phase; Fourier analysis and synthesis; main features of amplitude and phase spectr; sampling and data loggers; impulse response and convolution integral; digital filters (1.2 credits)
Seismic waves in layered media: seismic wave equations in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic media; seismic wave propagation in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space: body and surface waves; wave fronts and Huygens principle; seismic wave propagation in layered media: seismic ray, Fermat principle and Snell law. Direct, reflected and refracted waves in layered media; the seismogram; seismic wave propagation in real media: attenuation. (0.8 credits).
Seismic exploration: seismic acquisition technologies: sources, sensors, cables, data-loggers for land and marine surveys; seismic reflection: acquisition, logistic, multifold data and coverage, 2D and 3D; seismic reflection data processing: editing, filtering, static corrections, CMP sorting, deconvolution, velocity analysis, NMO correction, stacking, migration. (1.4 credits)
Petrophysics: physical properties of rocks: porosity, density, elastic moduli, permeability, effects of temperature and pressure gradients, effects of fluids; analytical and empirical relationships between physical properties and measured geophysical parameters. (0.8 credits)
Seismic interpretation: geological and structural interpretation, convolutional model and seismic resolution; amplitude interpretation: AVO and AVA basic principles, cross-plots and applications; seismic attributes: evolution, classification and applications; 4D seismic and reservoir monitoring. (1 credit)
Inversion: forward and inverse problems in geophysics; linear inverse problems, weakly non-linear problems and strongly non-linear problems; information content of data; deterministic solution techniques: least squares, damping and regularization, data and model resolution matrices; stochastic solution techniques: Monte Carlo method, simulated annealing, neural networks and genetic algorithms; application to seismic tomography and acoustic impedance estimate. (0.4 credits)
Non seismic methods: electrical resistivity of rocks, natural electromagnetic and magnetic fields; the magnetotelluric method, the frequency domain methods (CSEM), the time domain methods (TDEM); technologies, data processing and applications; Gravitational filed, gravity measurements, processing and applications (1 credit)
Well Logs: basic concepts: exploration and production logs, resolution and horizontal investigation depth; technology, data acquisition and response for radioactivity logs, resistivity logs, sonic logs, other logs; principles of log interpretation. (1.2 credits)
Delivery modes
The main topics of the course will be also dealt through practical exercises to be carried on in classroom or computer lab. The computer lab practical exercises will be aimed at the implementation of simple modelling and processing tools to be used for simulation and simplified applications.
Some of the theoretical lessons will be held with the collaboration of highly qualified technical staff from oil companies, who will give lectures on applications to real cases.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Books of reference (available at Department library):
W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldart e R.E.Sheriff: Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press
M.B. Dobrin, C.H. Savit: Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw-Hill
O. Ylmaz: Seismic data processing, SEG.
M. Bacon, R. Simm, and T. Redshaw: 3D seismic interpretation. Cambridge University Press.

Material available on the web (portale della didattica): lesson slides, external lecture slides, limited portions of reference books; scientific papers (tutorial and basic papers) as further readings, collection of exercises; homework assignments.
Assessment and grading criteria
Three homeworks will be assigned during the course ' each correct homework consigned before deadline (4 weeks) will give 1 additional point (total additional points 3).
Written exam (mandatory): 10 questions (1.5 point each) + 2 exercises (5.5 points each) ' maximum total score 26.
Oral exam (optional and only after passing the written exam): additional points from -3 to +4.
Course material is allowed during written exam, calculating machine is required.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2016/17
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