Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2017/18
Exploration geophysics
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Petroleum And Mining Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Socco Laura ORARIO RICEVIMENTO O2 GEO/11 64 16 0 18 6
SSD CFU Activities Area context
GEO/11 8 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
Subject fundamentals
The course provides the competences about the use of geophysical prospecting in hydrocarbon exploration. The course is devoted to students with different backgrounds and it is aimed at supplying the basic knowledge about measuring methods, data processing and interpretation in the context of reservoir discovery, characterization and exploitation. The matter is inherently linked to reservoir modelling, drilling, petroleum geology end geomechanics.
Expected learning outcomes
The aim of the course is to provide the basic knowledge about the signal processing methods used for geophysical data elaboration, the petrophysical properties of rocks, and the physical phenomena which are exploited in geophysical exploration techniques (seismic wave and electromagnetic field propagation in natural heterogeneous materials). The course will deepen the geophysical exploration techniques focusing on seismic reflection method (with regards to technical and technological aspects of land and marine data acquisition, seismic signal processing methods and seismic data interpretation). Non seismic methods (electromagnetic and potential fields) and well logs acquisition, processing and interpretation will also be covered. The students will apply the concepts explicated during theoretical lessons through the development and the implementation of simple modelling and processing tools that will enable them to consolidate their basic knowledge and improve their practical skills.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
Basic knowledge of math, physics and geology are required.
Introduction: basic concepts of geophysical methods and applications (0.2 credits);
Signal processing: analog-digital signal; frequency, amplitude, phase; Fourier analysis and synthesis; main features of amplitude and phase spectr; sampling and data loggers; impulse response and convolution integral; digital filters (1.2 credits)
Seismic waves in layered media: seismic wave equations in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic media; seismic wave propagation in homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space: body and surface waves; wave fronts and Huygens principle; seismic wave propagation in layered media: seismic ray, Fermat principle and Snell law. Direct, reflected and refracted waves in layered media; the seismogram; seismic wave propagation in real media: attenuation. (1 credits).
Seismic exploration: seismic acquisition technologies: sources, sensors, cables, data-loggers for land and marine surveys; seismic reflection: acquisition, logistic, multifold data and coverage, 2D and 3D; seismic reflection data processing: editing, filtering, static corrections, CMP sorting, deconvolution, velocity analysis, NMO correction, stacking, migration. (1.4 credits)
Seismic interpretation: geological and structural interpretation, convolutional model and seismic resolution; amplitude interpretation: AVO and AVA basic principles, cross-plots and applications; seismic attributes: evolution, classification and applications; 4D seismic and reservoir monitoring. (1.4 credit)
Petrophysics: physical properties of rocks: porosity, density, elastic moduli, permeability, effects of temperature and pressure gradients, effects of fluids; analytical and empirical relationships between physical properties and measured geophysical parameters. (0.8 credits)
Inversion: forward and inverse problems in geophysics; linear inverse problems, weakly non-linear problems and strongly non-linear problems; information content of data; deterministic solution techniques: least squares, damping and regularization, data and model resolution matrices; stochastic solution techniques: Monte Carlo method, simulated annealing, neural networks and genetic algorithms; application to seismic tomography and acoustic impedance estimate. (0.6 credits)
Well Logs: basic concepts: exploration and production logs, resolution and horizontal investigation depth; technology, data acquisition and response for radioactivity logs, resistivity logs, sonic logs, other logs; principles of log interpretation. (1.4 credits)
Delivery modes
The main topics of the course will be also dealt through practical exercises to be carried on in classroom or computer lab. The computer lab practical exercises will be aimed at the execution of assignments aimed at implementing simple modelling and processing tools to be used for simulation and simplified applications.
Some of the practical lectures will be held with the collaboration of highly qualified technical staff from oil and gas companies, who will provide real data for exercises and lab.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
Books of reference (available at Department library):
W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldart e R.E.Sheriff: Applied Geophysics, Cambridge University Press
M.B. Dobrin, C.H. Savit: Geophysical Prospecting, McGraw-Hill
O. Ylmaz: Seismic data processing, SEG.
M. Bacon, R. Simm, and T. Redshaw: 3D seismic interpretation. Cambridge University Press.

Material available on the web (portale della didattica): lecture slides, limited portions of reference books; scientific papers (tutorial and basic papers) as further readings, collection of exercises; homework assignments.
Assessment and grading criteria
Two homeworks will be assigned during the course each correct homework consigned before deadline (3 weeks) will give 1.5 additional point (total additional points 3). Homework are not mandatory but to be accepted at least one out of two lab class should be attended.
The written exam contains opens questions about theoretical and technological topics (15 points) and a comprehensive exercise that, starting from a simplified geological model of a trap and on assumptions made by the students, is aimed at evaluating the comprehension of petrophysics and seismic data modelling (11 points). The maximum mark of the written exam is 26/30. The exam is closed book but an equation sheet is provided. The minimum mark required to attend oral exam is 14/30.
The oral exam depends on the mark obtained on the written exam. If the mark on the written exam is higher or equal to 18/30, the oral exam will only concern the discussion of a journal paper chosen by the students in a list of paper provided. If the written exam mark is from 14/30 to 18/30 the oral exam will be based on a first part of questions and exercises and, if passed, on the discussion of a paper. The oral exam mark goes from -2 to +4. Oral exam points are added to the written exam.
The two individual assignments provide a maximum of 3 points and assignment points are added to the written exam mark. The points of the assignments cannot be used to reach the mark of 18/30.
No mobile phone or pad are allowed during the exam. Pocket calculator is required.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18

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