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Politecnico di Torino
Academic Year 2017/18
01RUKND
Smart electricity systems
Master of science-level of the Bologna process in Energy And Nuclear Engineering - Torino
Teacher Status SSD Les Ex Lab Tut Years teaching
Chicco Gianfranco ORARIO RICEVIMENTO PO ING-IND/33 60 0 0 0 5
SSD CFU Activities Area context
ING-IND/32
ING-IND/33
2
4
D - A scelta dello studente
D - A scelta dello studente
A scelta dello studente
A scelta dello studente
Subject fundamentals
The course presents a wide view on the emergent aspects in the evolution of the electricity systems, with the on-going transition towards a growing utilization of electricity in many applications. The concept of "smartness" in electricity and energy systems is related to the new ways in which a system can operate and also interoperate with other systems (e.g., transportation) for assuring a socially desirable performance in terms of sustainability (energy efficiency and environmental impacts reduction), economic efficiency and affordability, electricity security and reliability.
The course starts from an overview on the structure and operation of modern and future electrical networks (smart grids), with a special focus on Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage distribution and utilization systems. A conceptual model of the smart grids is presented, in which various aspects (technologies, energy, data, markets, etc.) are analysed, along with their interactions, in a comprehensive way. Some of the most important "smart functions" in the emerging operation of the electricity distribution systems are illustrated, highlighting the concept of interoperability of various systems and actors over the smart grid, e.g., electric vehicles, prosumers, network operators, distributed energy resources (DER), etc.
The impact of the DER introduction in the electrical networks is studied by addressing theoretical aspects and application examples concerning distributed generation, distributed storage and demand response. On the local system side, the course deals with the structures of the power electronic conversion systems, including both the source-side converters and grid-side converters. To better understand the power electronic conversion concepts and their application, an experimental activity is carried out in the laboratory of the Energy Department. Some applications are solved through numerical calculations carried out in the computer laboratory.
Expected learning outcomes
The student who passes the exam will gain skills for interacting with the operators of the electrical system by using the correct terminology and by showing appropriate knowledge to discuss the basic issues concerning smart grid and distributed energy resources. The student will also become aware of the technological evolution in progress and of the impact of this evolution on the present and future smart electricity systems.
The minimum objectives to be reached as learning outcomes include:
- ability to use the correct terminology in addressing the problems concerning smart grid applications;
- ability to interpret the problems concerning the introduction of distributed energy resources in the smart grids.
Prerequisites / Assumed knowledge
The prerequisites include the knowledge of matrix calculations, complex numbers, basic electrotechnics (direct current circuits, single-phase and three-phase alternating current circuits), and the principles of operation of the electrical machines (synchronous machine and transformer).
Contents
PART 1 (20 hours): Smart grid architecture and emerging scenarios
Structures of electrical transmission and distribution systems. Emerging paradigms (smart grid, distributed energy resources, virtual power plants, microgrids, multi-energy systems, prosumers). Smart grid conceptual model. Smart operation of electrical distribution systems. Smart functions and interoperability of different systems. Steady-state model of the electrical networks. Power flow calculations. Technical evolution of the grid infrastructures. Active electrical networks. Demand Side Management. Smart metering concepts. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Notes on the energy markets. Evolution of the tariff structures towards real-time pricing. Use of computational tools for power flow calculations and for the solution of network problems.

PART 2 (20 hours): Distributed energy resources (DER)
Definitions of DER (with distributed generation, distributed storage, and demand response). Indicators of DER penetration. Limits to the DER diffusion (stiffness ratio, hosting capacity). Notes on the technological solutions. Evolution of the regulatory framework and of the standards for smart grids. Grid codes. Examples with the Italian standards CEI 0-16 and CEI 0-21. Operating modes for the grid-connected local generation. General scheme of the system protection with possibility of islanding operation. Measurement of the load curves and characterisation of the users. Options for the participation of the consumers to load management. Demand response programmes and expected benefits. Distributed energy storage. Drivers to storage development. Typical applications in the smart grid area. Electric vehicles (EVs): Vehicle to Grid (V2G) and Grid to Vehicle (G2V). Charging stations and parking lots. Notes on the traffic models. Optimization of the smart grid operation with storage systems and EVs. Impact of electric vehicles on the electrical networks, operation and planning aspects. Scenario studies with local generation in smart distribution systems.

PART 3 (20 hours): Power electronics for smart grid connection
Structures of power electronic conversion systems for distributed generation: grid-side converters and source-side converters. Examples of distributed energy sources (micro-turbines, micro-hydro, wind generators, photovoltaic panels and fuel cells). Grid-side converters: topologies (single-phase and three-phase inverters, output filters); operation in parallel with the grid as current-controlled voltage sources and the corresponding control schemes; island operation or in parallel with a micro-grid as voltage-controlled voltage source with droop control. International standards for the connection with the grid of power converters for distributed generation (IEEE 519, UL1741, IEC 61000-3-12, VDE 0126-1-1). Source side converters: AC/DC converters for electrical generators used by wind turbines and micro-turbines; DC/DC power converters for photovoltaic panels and fuel cells along with control schemes.
Delivery modes
The contents of the course are presented during the lectures, with possible numerical examples. The course includes activity held in the computer laboratory, as well as experimental activity, in particular:
- 12 hours in the computer laboratory, with use of computational tools for the analysis of electrical systems with DER.
- 3 hours of experimental activity: assessment of the performance of a 15 kVA front-end three-phase converter da 15 kVA with LCL filter on the grid side, DC-supplied from a battery emulator.
Texts, readings, handouts and other learning resources
The material (slides and handouts) used during the lectures and course activities will be available on the web portal.
There is no commercial book covering the contents of this course.
Reference books:
Nick Jenkins, Ron Allan, Peter Crossley, Daniel Kirschen, Goran Strbac, 'Embedded generation', IET (ISBN 978-0-85296-774-4), 2000.
Remus Teodorescu, Marco Liserre, Pedro Rodriguez, "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems", Wiley 2011, ISBN: 978-0-470-05751-3.
D.N. Gaonkar (ed.), Distributed Generation, Intech (ISBN 978-953-307-046-9), 2010. Freely available at the web address http://sciyo.com/books/show/title/distributed-generation.
Assessment and grading criteria
In the two calls of the winter exam session the exam consists of a written test. In the other sessions, the exam is oral, and the exam dates are agreed with the Commission during the scheduled exam periods.
In the written test, the students have to respond a number of questions referring to the entire course programme, provided in a written way, with possible inclusion of numerical exercises. The written test has duration of 2 hours. The time limit for completing the test is indicated on the blackboard at the beginning of the period. To access the exam room, each student must exhibit a valid document with photo. During the test the Commission identifies the location of the students. During the test the students may exit from the room only if they withdraw from the test of deliver the final writing. In case of withdrawal the text of the exam has to be given back with the indication of the studentís name and surname on the first page and with the writing "WITHDRAWN". When the writing is delivered, the text with the indication of the studentís name and surname must be included in the delivered material. During the written exam, the students may use only clean paper, pen and pocket calculator. Personal computers, laptops, tablets, or equipment for taking photos are not allowed. The course material, clothes and the personal belongings must not remain on the work plan, nor under the desk, and must be located in a position in which the contents relevant to the exam cannot be reached. Contacting other persons of material is not admitted. If a student is found with any material not allowed in accessible location, or contacting other persons, his/her test is immediately annulled and the student will have to leave the room. Any question concerning the test must be addressed to a member of the exam Commission. In case the question is of general interest, a member of the exam Commission will inform all the students participating in the exam. The results of the exam will be communicated through the web portal. The students will have the possibility of viewing the corrected test during the period of the current exam session.
The oral colloquium includes one question for each part of the course. The final score refers to the knowledge and ability level reached on the different topics of the course programme.
The exam is passed if all the minimum objectives indicated in the section "Expected learning outcomes" are reached. Failure in reaching one or more of the minimum objectives determines the non-passed exam evaluation.

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18
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