Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Politecnico di Torino
Anno Accademico 2017/18
Excavation engineering and mining plants
Corso di Laurea Magistrale in Petroleum And Mining Engineering (Ingegneria Del Petrolio E Mineraria) - Torino
Docente Qualifica Settore Lez Es Lab Tut Anni incarico
SSD CFU Attivita' formative Ambiti disciplinari
ING-IND/28 10 B - Caratterizzanti Ingegneria per l'ambiente e il territorio
The course aims to provide the fundamentals on excavation techniques and process plants, the criteria for the selection of equipment and methods for carrying out the works, the rules for setting the organization and performing such work in a technically correct and safe way. Part of the course is devoted to processing, with the aim of making the excavation/production cycle clear in all its phases. The contents of the course are continuously updated, depending on the requirements of different operating conditions, and therefore they canít be crystallized into a "static" reality. Many examples are presented, with the intention of stimulating topics of research and personal reflection. The course also aims to provide students with the technical international language.
Risultati di apprendimento attesi
The acquisition of technical skills to perform excavation works in different contexts (open pit, underground, underwater construction sites) is expected, aimed to critically examine the choice of the equipment and the best methods to perform a given work, respecting the constraints and minimizing the environmental pressures. The topics treated have the aim to stimulate research for the best solution among those potentially detectable, based on the criticism of the context. It therefore intends to encourage the independence and the learning ability, stimulating the discussion: the right answers are sometimes more than one, and the discussion is fundamental. Students will be then invited to write technical reports on the cases presented during the lectures, to take a reasoned decision, to estimate the orders of magnitude of the numerical values that the engineer has to manage in the main reference cases, to understand the international terminology.
Prerequisiti / Conoscenze pregresse
Chemistry, Physics, Materialsí science and technology, Applied Geology and Geomechanics
General principles and definitions; mechanical properties and materials behaviour; specific gravity; abrasivity, hardness; geometry of the stope; organization of the work phases.
PART I: Rock excavation by D&B. Chemical and physical data of explosives; explosive reactions; properties of explosives; classification and selection of explosives. Initiation systems: safety fuse; blasting caps; electric blasting caps (instantaneous, long-delay detonators, short-delay detonators); detonating cord; relais; non electric detonators and trunk line delays; NPED and electronic detonators. Blast-holes: definition; mechanics of blasting. Blasts: definition; blasting pattern; powder factor, specific drilling, detonators consumption and related costs; firing line and blasting circuit calculations.
Open pit blasts. Bench blasts; single row or multi-row blasts; trench blasts. Contour blasting and unwanted effects.
Dynamic splitting.
Underground blasts. Tunnelling. Chargesí geometry and ignition sequence; type of cuts as a function of the cross-section; muck-pile geometry.
Environmental problems (Vibrations, fly-rocks, dust and air blast).
Drilling equipment and tools. Types of machines; drillability of rocks; open pit and underground drilling equipment.
Mucking and transportation: systems commonly employed for open pit, underground and underwater excavations.
PART II. Mechanical excavation, open pit and underground. General. Equipment, productivity. Description of the most common machines. Hardness and toughness; toolsí material; service life of tools, consumption of tools. Motions of tools. Mechanism of action and types of tools. Theoretical models of the rock-tool interaction. Equipment performance and selection criteria as a function of rock type and purpose of work; prediction of productivity and consumption in terms of specific energy.
Dimension stones: cutting techniques; diamond wire saw; chain saw; water jet and other systems.
PART III. Moving the earth. Cyclical machines: weight, power and productivity; definitions. Hydraulic shovels. Loaders. Backhoes. Dozers. Graders. Scrapers, drag-scrapers, draglines. Continuous machines. Bucket wheel excavators. Excavation and transportation equipment.
Dredges: Cyclical and continuous equipment.
PART IV. Exploratory drilling. Introduction and overview. Core drilling. Diamond core drills; drill rods; core barrels (single, double, Wire Line). Drill units. Wire Line Rods. Flush pumps. Drill bits; reaming shells; casing shoes; casing tubes; flushing water recommendations. Casing tubes for overburden drilling; Percussion/Rotary rods; In-the-hole equipment accessories. Special operations.
Exploratory drilling for mining and/or geotechnical surveys. Sampling: general principles; core barrels (single, double, triple tube). Interpretation of survey results.
PART V: Process plants and separation systems. State-of-the-art processing of raw materials. Separation process principles and capabilities. Jigging machines. Washing and crushing equipment for different sized mining sectors. Magnetic separators. Modular mineral processing equipment. Upgraded solution for mineral processing. Base metal operations and grade control. Key performance indicators (KPI) development to optimize the "mine-to-mill" process.
Organizzazione dell'insegnamento
The course, in addition to lectures (about 64 hours) involves practical exercises (approximately 36 hours), essentially based on examples of calculation and evaluation of the major parameters influencing different types of excavation techniques. Group works are also provided for the analysis and discussion of real cases presented by the teacher. Finally, depending on the number of students, technical visits to excavation sites or process plants (maximum one day) can be organized.
Testi richiesti o raccomandati: letture, dispense, altro materiale didattico
Since the topics explained and discussed are a particular synthesis of many aspects of Geo-Engineering, the material is continually updated and made available to students before the beginning of the course through the didactic portal. The available texts are numerous, and these are explicitly referred to in the material provided, as well as expressly suggested for further details. The constant updating of the topics discussed is also suggested by consulting the most recent International Magazines and/or conference papers provided by the teacher. The slides shown during the lectures are the most complete and comprehensive as possible, to facilitate understanding of the concepts contained in the course.
Tutorials: Proposed texts, technical sheets, synthesis of manuals and so on, are also available through the portal. The exercises are solved entirely on the board by the teacher or, in any case, their trace is suggested in the classroom.
Criteri, regole e procedure per l'esame
Exam, written and oral, at the end of the course. In order to verify the studentsí learning, it consists in different parts: the written part is devoted to theoretical questions and exercises that should be solved without the aid of notes or books; it lasts 2.5 hours. A minimum score of 15 points (30 being the maximum) is required to access the oral exam, which consists of: a review of the written exam; a discussion of the reports drawn up during the practical part (exercises); an oral investigation on specific problems.
Statistiche superamento esami

Programma definitivo per l'A.A.2017/18

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